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介词by的用法


by 小结
1.用于被动语态的句子中,表示动作的执行者,意为“被;由”。 He was praised by the teacher.他受到了老师的表扬。 The book was written by Lu Xun.这本书是鲁迅写的。 2.表示方式、方法、手段等,后常接无冠词的名词或动名词,意为“通过;靠;用”。 Don't judge a person by appearances. 勿以貌取人。 He made a living by teaching.他以教书为生。 3.表示时间,意为“到……时(为止”或“不迟于……”。 He ought to be here by now.他现在应该在这儿了。 By the time he was ten, he had learnt about 1,000 English words.到十岁时,他已学了约一 千个英语单词。 4.表示(增减)程度,尺寸数量等,意为“至……的程度”。 the bullet missed me by two inches.那子弹以两英寸之差未击中我。 the rope needs to be longer by two feet.这绳子需要再长两英尺。 5.表示交通路线或工具,后接名词不用冠词,意为“乘;坐”。 go by bus / plane / train 乘汽车(飞机、火车)去 travel by land / sea / air 陆上(海上、空中)旅行 6.表示位置,意为“在近旁;在……旁边”。 There is a pumping station by the river.河边有个抽水站。

下面结合高考试卷和其它一些例句做一下归纳: 一、by+地点名词。表方位,意为:“在…旁边”。如:by the lake/river/tree/window/door 等。 She searched the top of the hill and stopped to rest on a big rock by the side of the path.(NMET90)她搜索了山顶,然后停下来在路边的一块大石头上休息。 After supper she would sit down by the fire,sometimes for as long as an hour,thinking of her young and happy days.(2003 上海· 春)晚饭后,她常坐在火旁,有时长达一个小时地回忆她 那青春、快乐的年代。 注:有时可表:“从…旁经过”,多与动词 go/walk/pass 等连用。 As we boys were rushing towards the playground,Jim slipped by the table.(NMET92 完形) 当我 们这些男生冲向操场时,吉姆从桌旁溜过。 二、by+时间名词。意为:“到…时(已发生某事) ,此时谓语多用完成时;最晚、不迟于…, 在…之前”。如:by now/then/this time/next Friday/the end of/three o`clock 等。 By the end of last year,another new gymnasium had been completed.(2003 上海· 春)到去年年 底,又有一座新体育馆峻工了。 The train leaves at 6:00 pm.So I have to be at the station by 5:40 pm at the latest.(NMET97)火 车下午六点开,所以最晚我得五点四十赶到车站。 三、by+名词。可用来表方法、方式、手段等。 1、by+the+可数的时间、长度、重量等名词。意为:“按…计算,按…买(卖)”。如:by the pound/ton/yard/meter/dozen/bale/day/month 等。 Cleaning women in big cities usually get paid by the hour.(NMET98)城市里的女清洁工通常 按小时获得报酬。 In the market,tobacco is sold by the bale,eggs by the dozen and salt by the pound.在市场里,烟 叶按捆卖,鸡蛋按打卖,盐按磅卖。 2、by+表示时间、长度、重量等总称的不可数名词(名词前不加冠词) 。意为:“按…计算, 按…买(卖)”。如:by time/volume/length/weight/height/depth/width/area 等。 As we all know,the freight of the luggage is charged by weight.众所周知,行李的运费是按重 量计算的。 3、by+交通工具、交通方式名词(名词前不加冠词,不变复数) 。意为:“通过…,由…, 乘…”。如 by train/rail/tube/taxi/bus/truck/bike/boat/plane;by land/road/sea/water/air 等。 (on foot)

It takes a long time to go there by train;it`s quicker by road.(或 by bus)(NMET93)乘火车去那 儿要花很长时间,公路比较快。 “I usually go there by train”.“Why not try going by boat(或 water)for a change?”(NMET92)“我 常乘火车去那儿。”“为何不尝试一下坐船呢?” 4、by+抽象名词或具有抽象意义的普通名词(名词前不加冠词,不变复数) 。意为:“靠…, 通过…,由…所致”。如: by skill/determination/practice/diligence/inference/chance/accident; by mail/letter/radio/fax/telephone/telegraph/hand/machine 等。 Although he had been searching in the wrong area most of the time,he found it by logic,not by luck.(NMET2002 阅读)虽然他曾大部分时间一直在错误的地方寻找,但他还是靠逻辑推 理而非运气,找到了它。 I made a coat with my own hands.It was made by hand,not by machine. 我用双手织了一件外 套。它是用手工织的,而不是机器织的。 5、by+ 地点或工具等具体名词。表路线、途径,意为:“通过(某物、某地) ,取道…”。 如:by a stone bridge/the back door/the freeway/country roads 等。 The man entered the room by the back door.那人通过后门进入了房间。 6、by+动词—ing.意为:“通过…,靠…,凭…”。如: by waiting/practing/begging/working/imitating 等。 He gained his wealth by printing works of famous writers.(NMET95)他通过印刷著名作家的 作品而获得了巨大的财富。 Our bodies are strengthened by taking exercise. Similarly,our minds are developed by learning.(2000 上海)身体是靠锻炼强壮的,同样,大脑是靠学习开发的。 四、by+数量词。 1、表升降、增减的程度。如:by one-fifth/20 percent/£3/two feet 等。 With production up by 60%,the company has had another excellent year.(NMET2000)产量上升 了百分之六十,这家公司今年的业绩极好。 The demand for organic food is increasing by about one third every year.(NMET2002 阅读)对 绿色食品的需求每年在增长大约三分之一。 2、表示距离和面积、体积中的尺寸及乘除法中的运算。如:by 2cm/6 inches/four feet/nine yards/a hair`s breadth 等。

Luckily,the bullet narrowly missed the captain by an inch.(2002 上海)幸运地是,那颗子弹差 一英寸就击中了上尉。 The bed is three meters wide by two meters long,and can fit at least four at one time.(NMET2001 阅读)那张床三米宽,两米长,一次至少可以睡四个人。 五、by+身体部位名词或衣服名词。表示被抓住身体/衣物的某一部分,常与动词 catch/seize/take/hold/grab 等连用。 如: by the hair/hand/arm/nose/horns;by the collar/lape/sleeve 等。 The policeman caught the thief by the arm.警察抓住了小偷的胳膊。 The soldier grabbed the child by the collar.那个士兵揪住了孩子的衣领。 六、by 的常见短语: by means of/by way of/by the way/one by one/step by step/side by side/shoulder by shoulder/by oneself/by birth/by society/take…by surprise/learn…by heart/what do you mean by …/by my watch 等。

by 的用法 作介词讲: 1. 在近处;在旁边 standing by the window 站在窗户旁边 a table by the bed 床边的桌子 2. 经;由;从 to enter by the door 由门进去 3. 经过…旁 He walked by me. 他从我旁边走过。 4.不迟于 By tomorrow he'll be here. 他明天就到这儿。 5.被;由 written by Shakespeare 莎士比亚写的 6.根据;按照 to play by the rules 按规则比赛 7.相差 His horse won by a nose. 他的马以一鼻之差取胜。 8.以…方式 She earned money by writing. 她靠写作挣钱。 We went by air. 我们乘飞机走。

9.表示相(乘)除(以计算面积) a room 15 feet by 20 feet 一间长 20 英尺宽 15 英尺的房间 to divide X by Y 用Y除X 10.逐一;连续 The animals went in 2 by 2. 动物两个两个地走进去。 11.(指动物)由…所生

作副词讲: 1.通过 Please let me by. 请让我过去。 2.附近 Do it when nobody is by. 等附近没人时再做。

with 的用法讲解-最全的 with 用法
1 同, 与, 和, 跟 talk with a friend 与朋友谈话 learn farming with an old peasant 跟老农学习种田 fight [quarrel, argue] with sb. 跟某人打架[争吵, 辩论] [说明表示动作的词, 表示伴随]随着, 和...同时 change with the temperature 随着温度而变化 increase with years 逐年增加 be up with the dawn 黎明即起 W-these words he left the room. 他说完这些话便离开了房间。 3 表示使用的工具, 手段]用 defend the motherland with one's life 用生命保卫祖国 dig with a pick 用镐挖掘 cut meat with a knife 用刀割肉 2 说明名词, 表示事物的附属部分或所具有的性质]具有; 带有; 加上; 包括...在内 tea with sugar 加糖的茶水 a country with a long history 历史悠久的国家 4 表示一致]在...一边, 与...一致; 拥护, 有利于 vote with sb. 投票赞成某人 with 的复合结构作独立主格 表示伴随情况时,既可用分词的独立结构,也可用 with 的复合结构:with +名词(代词)+现在分 词/过去分词/形容词/副词/不定式/介词短语。例如: He stood there, his hand raised. = He stood there, with his hand raise.他举手着站在那儿。 典型例题

The murderer was brought in, with his hands ___ behind his back。 A. being tied B. having tied C. to be tied D. tied 答案 D. with +名词(代词)+分词+介词短语结构。当分词表示伴随状况时,其主语常常用 with 来 引导。由于本句中名词\"手\"与分词\"绑\"是被动关系,因此用过去分词,选 D. 注意: sympathize with sb. 同情某人 be with sb. 赞成某人, 在某人一边 5 [表示随身携带]在...身边 Have you some money with you ? 你(身上)带钱了吗? Take an umbrella with you. 随身带把伞去。 [表示行为方式]以..., 带着 Handle with care! 小心轻放! with accuracy 精确地 with smile 面带微笑地 serve the people with one's whole heart 全心全意地为人民服务 6 [后面加复合宾语, 表示伴随关系] walk with a stick in one's hand 手拿拐棍走路 sleep with the window open 开着窗睡觉 7 [表示原因, 条件, 结果, 让步等关系]由于, 因为; 当(有)...情况下; 如果有; 虽然, 尽管 jump with joy 高兴得跳起来 shake with cold 冷得发抖 She was dying with hunger. 她饿得要死了。 W-all his money, he is unhappy. 尽管他有那么多钱, 他也并不愉快。

对于, 关于, 就...来说 They are friendly with us. 他们对我们很友好。 We are pleased with the house. 我们对这所房屋很满意。 It is day with us while it is night with them. 对于我们此时是白天, 而对于他们则是夜晚。 8 [与副词连用, 构成祈使句] On with your shoes! 穿上鞋! Off with your clothes! 把衣服脱下来! Down with terrorism! 打倒恐怖主义!

英语中 in 短语和 on 短语的区别
1. in time 及时;还早;总有一天;终于 on time 按时;准时 ①A stitch in time save nine. 及时一针省九针。(谚语) ②If you keep on, you will succeed in time. 如果坚持下去,你总有一天会成功的。 ③We were just in time for the bus. 我们正好赶上那班公共汽车。 ④The train came on time. 火车准时进站。 ⑤You are requested to come on time. 请准时出席。 2. in camera 秘密地;私下地 on camera 出现在电视上 ①The case was tried in camera. 此案是秘密审判的。 ②Did you watch the football game on camera? 你看了电视转播的足球赛吗? 3. in the air 在空中;无掩蔽的;不完的 on the air (正在)广播 ①Your mind was on something not so practical—castles in the air. 你脑子里想的都是些 不切合实际的事情——都是空中楼阁。 ②Our plans are still up in the air. 我们的计划还悬而未决。 ③The news is on the air. 正在广播新闻。 ④Their left flank was left in the air. 他们的左翼无掩护。 4. in the way 妨碍 on the way 正在到来;在路上 ①The child tried to get to the door, but the table was in the way. 小孩想到门口去,但桌子 挡住他的去路。 ②She tried to clean the house, but the baby was always in the way. 她想打扫房子,但婴孩 总是妨碍她的工作。 ③Help is on the way. 援助将至。 ④He is on the way to become a good teacher. 他正在成为一个好的老师。 ⑤Let's not stop often on the way. 咱们别老在途中停留。 5. in the field 在田野上;在……领域里;野外的;参加比赛 on the field 在战场上 ①The children are playing in the field. 孩子们正在田野里玩。 ②He had had three successes in the field of literature. 他曾在文学界里获得了三次成功。 ③These are plants found in the field. 这是些野生植物。 ④Are you in the field for the relay race? 你参加接力赛跑吗? ⑤His son lost his life on the field. 他儿子在战场上牺牲了。 6. in hand 在进行中;在手头;在控制中

on hand 现有;可用 ①The work is in hand and will soon be completed. 工作在进行之中,很快就要完成了。 ②I have enough money in hand. 我手头有足够的钱。 ③We have some new woolen goods on hand. 我们手头现有一些新的羊毛织品。 7. in behalf of 为……之利益 on behalf of 代表;为了 ①He was allowed to sign letters on behalf of the manager. 他被允许代表经理在信件上签 名。 ②My brother could not be here tonight, but I want to thank you on his behalf. 我兄弟今 晚不能来,我代表他谢谢你。 ③He worked hard all his life in behalf of the poor. 他毕生为穷苦人的利益而努力不懈。 ④My teacher spoke in my behalf. 老师替我说情。 8. in the corner 在拐角内 on the corner 在拐角之上 at the corner 在拐角处外 ①The children are play in the corner of the park. 孩子们正在公园的拐角内玩。 ②The shop is on the corner of the street. 商店在街道的拐角处。 ③The old woman is standing at the corner. 那老太太正站在拐角处旁。 9. in the road 在道路上 on the road 在途中;在旅行中 ①There is a cart running away in the road. 有辆马车在道路上飞奔。 ②How long were you on the road? 你路上花了多少时间? 10. in view 望;在看见的地方;被考虑;被期待 on view 展示;陈列着 ①Victory is in view. 胜利在望。 ②We came in view of a pool. 我们看见了一个水池。 ③The lastest winter fashions are now on view in the big shops. 最新的冬装款式现在正在 大商店中陈列着。 11. in the east of 在东部(范围之内) on the east of 在东面(相邻、接壤) to the east of 在东边(在范围之外) ①Shanghai is in the east of China. 上海在中国的东部。 ②Japan is to the east of China. 日本在中国的东面。 ③Korea lies on the east of China. 朝鲜位于中国东面。 ④Guangdong is on the east of Guangxi. 广东与广西东部毗邻。

冠词位置位置讲解
冠词位置 1) 不定冠词位置 不定冠词常位于名词或名词修饰语前。注意: a. 位于 such,what,many,half 等形容词之后。例如: I have never seen such an animal. 我从来没见过这样的动物。 Many a man is fit for the job. 许多人适合这岗位。 b. 当名词前的形容词被副词 as, so, too, how, however, enough 修饰时,不定冠词应放在形容词之后。 例如: It is as pleasant a day as I have ever spent. 我从未这么高兴过。 So short a time 如此短的时间 Too long a distance 距离太远了 c. quite,rather 与单数名词连用,冠词放在其后。但当 rather,quite 前仍有形容词,不定冠词放其前 后均可,如:rather a cold day/a rather cold day。 d. 在 as,though 引导的让步状语从句中,当表语为形容词修饰的名词时,不定冠词放形容词后。例 如:Brave a man though he is,he trembles at the sight of snakes. 他尽管勇敢,可见到蛇还是发抖。 2) 定冠词位置 定冠词通常位于名词或名词修饰语前,但放在 all, both,double,half,twice,three times 等词之 后,名词之前。例如:All the students in the class went out. 班里的所有学生都出去了。

with 与 by 的用法既区别
In the company of; accompanying: 和,陪伴:在…陪伴下;随同: Did you go with her? 你跟她一起去吗? Next to; alongside of: 在…旁边,同…在一起: stood with the rabbi; sat with the family. 与教士站在一起,与家人坐在一块儿 Having as a possession, an attribute, or a characteristic: 带着,带来:作为所有物、属性或特点具有: arrived with bad news; a man with a moustache. 带来坏消息;留络腮胡子的男人 Used as a function word to indicate accompanying detail or condition: 样子,状态:用作功能词表示伴随的细节或状况: just sat there with his mouth open. 只张着嘴坐在那儿 In a manner characterized by: 以…方式: performed with skill; spoke with enthusiasm. 很有技巧地表演;热情地说话 In the performance, use, or operation of: 使用:在…的表现、使用或运行中: had trouble with the car. 汽车出了毛病 In the charge or keeping of: 负责,照料: left the cat with the neighbors. 把猫托邻居照顾 In the opinion or estimation of: 以…的观点或估计: if it's all right with you. 如果你没异议的话

In support of; on the side of: 支持,赞同: I'm with anyone who wants to help the homeless. 我支持任何想帮助流浪汉的人 Of the same opinion or belief as: 和…一致:与…有相同观点或信仰: He is with us on that issue. 在那个议题上他和我们观点一致 In the same group or mixture as; among: 混在一起:在同一组中或同一混和物中;在…中: planted onions with the carrots. 把胡萝和洋葱种在一起 In the membership or employment of: 是…的成员;受…雇佣: plays with a symphony orchestra; is with a publishing company. 在交响乐团内演奏;受雇于一个出版公司 By the means or agency of: 用:通过…的方式或媒介: eat with a fork; made us laugh with his jokes. 用叉子吃饭;以他的笑话引我们发笑 By the presence or use of: 以:通过…的存在或使用: a pillow stuffed with feathers; balloons filled with helium. 用羽毛装满的枕头;装满氦气的气球 In spite of: 尽管: With all her experience, she could not get a job. 尽管很有经验,她还是找不到工作 In the same direction as: 与…同向:

sail with the wind; flow with the river. 顺风起帆;顺河而流 At the same time as: 与…同时: gets up with the birds. 与鸟儿同时起床 In regard to: 关于,对于: We are pleased with her decision. They are disgusted with the status quo. 她这样决定,我们很高兴;他们对现状很厌恶 Used as a function word to indicate a party to an action, a communicative activity, or an informal agreement or settlement: 和…:用作功能词表示某个动作、交流活动或非正式协议或决定的一方: played with the dog; had a talk with the class; lives with an aunt. 与狗玩;和班上的同学谈一谈;与姑母住在一起 In comparison or contrast to: 与…相比;与…对照: a dress identical with the one her sister just bought. 和她姐姐刚买衣服同一款式 Having received: 收到,获得: With her permission, he left. I escaped with just a few bruises. 获得她允许后,他离开了。我逃跑时只受了一些擦伤 And; plus: 和;加上: My books, with my brother's, make a sizable library. We had turkey with all the trimmings. 我的书加上的弟弟的书能够办成一个不小的图书馆了;我们有火鸡和所需的调料 Inclusive of; including: 包括: comes to $29.95 with postage and handling.

包括邮资和手续费总共是 29.95 美元 In opposition to; against: 反对;对抗: wrestling with an opponent. 与对手摔跤 As a result or consequence of: 结果,后果: trembling with fear; sick with the flu. 害怕的发抖;感染了流行性感冒 So as to be touching or joined to: 加入,联合:为了取得联系;把…连起来: coupled the first car with the second; linked arms with their partners. 把第一辆汽车和第二辆配成双;与伙伴手挽手 So as to be free of or separated from: 分离,离开:为脱离,为与…分开: parted with her husband. 与她丈夫分手 In the course of: 在…的过程中: We grow older with the hours. 我们随时光流逝而长大 In proportion to: 与成比例: wines that improve with age. 酒越陈越香 In relationship to: 在…的关系中: at ease with my peers. 与我的同事关系融洽 As well as; in favorable comparison to:

也;较好: She could sing with the best of them. 她可以唱得同他们中最棒的人一起好 According to the experience or practice of: 根据经验,根据实践: With me, it is a question of priorities. 对我来说,这是个优先权的问题 Used as a function word to indicate close association: 用作功能词表示密切联系: With the advent of the rockets, the Space Age began. 随着火箭的出现,太空时代开始了

in with【非正式用语】 In league or association with: 同伙或有联系: He is in with the wrong crowd. 他找错了同伴 by 的用法; 1)表示以一般的方法或方式。如: No one in those days could live by writing poems. (2)表示传达、传递的方式或煤介。如: How did you send the letter, by airmail or by ordinary mail? (3)表示用交通工具、通讯工具后接名词单数,不加冠词。如: He came by train, but his wife came by bus. 注意下面两句的区别: Did you come by train? Did you come in his car / on my bike? “by +抽象名词”构成的词组有:by accident / by chance / by diligence / by effort / by force / by heart / by luck / by mistake / by hard work.

将来完成时用来表示在将来某一时间以前已经完成或一直持续的动作。经常与 before+将 来时间或 by+将来时间连用,也可与 before 或 by the time 引导的现在时的从句连用。 1) 构成 will / be going to do sth. 2) 概念 a. 状态完成:表示某事继续到将来某一时为止一直有的状态。 b. 动作完成:表示将来某一时或另一个将来的动作之前,已经完成的动作或一获得的经 验。 They will have been married for 20 years by then. You will have reached Shanghai by this time tomorrow. 将来完成时的构成 将来完成时的构成是由"shall/will + have +过去分词"构成的。 Before long he will have forgotten all about the matter. 不久他就会全然忘记这件事的。 He is somebody now. He will not have remembered his old classmates. 他现在是一个有身份的人了,他可能不会记得老同学了。 Will you have known Kevin for 10 years next month? 到下个月你认识凯文该有 10 年了吧? 将来完成时的用法 ① 表示在将来某一时间之前已完成的动作,并往往对将来某一时间产生影响。 We shall have learned 12 units by the end of this term. 到这个学期末,我们将学完 12 个单元。 By the time you get home I will have cleaned the house from top to bottom. 你到家之前我将把房子彻底打扫一遍。


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