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猪解剖步骤


猪的肠道疾病--尸体解剖检查步骤
Enteric Diseases of Swine --Postmortem Techniques Kent J. Schwartz, DVM MS
? 1999 Pharmacia & Upjohn Company

尸体解剖技术Postmortem Techniques
准备工作Pr

eparing for the Examination

? 死猪是容易得到的, 剖检死猪也可得到有 用的资料Dead pigs are most
available and may yield useful information, however

病死猪
A pig that died because of disease

? 慢性病猪的原发病原 可能会被继发病原所 掩盖Primary causes of disease
may be overshadowed by secondary agents in pigs that have chronic disease

2

尸体剖检技术

Postmortem Techniques

准备工作Preparing for the Examination

? 理想的是屠宰急性病 猪,以检查主要病原
It is desirable to euthanize acutely affected pigs to detect primary pathogens

刚刚屠宰的病猪
Freshly euthanized pig

? 通常剖检多个尸体, 以确定主要病变是一 致的Usually multiple carcasses are
opened until it is clear that the predominant lesions are consistently present in all pigs

3

尸体剖检技术

Postmortem Techniques

准备工作Preparing for the Examination

? 将猪腹面朝上Place the pig
lying on its back,

? 然后从两侧腋下切至 颌骨Incise from axilla to between
jawbones on both sides

尸体剖检步骤
Begin postmortem procedure

4

尸体剖检步骤

Postmortem Techniques

准备工作Preparing for the Examination

? 从两侧腹股沟切至 会阴Incise from inguinal
region to perineum on both sides,

? 在髋臼处分离两侧 股骨Free femur from the
acetabulum on both sides.

分离髋关节 Spreading the hip joints

5

尸体剖检工作

Postmortem Techniques

准备工作Preparing for the Examination

? 将猪腹部朝上With
the pig lying on its back,

? 分开四肢All four limbs
are detached and the carcass will not roll over

分开四肢 All limbs are detached

6

尸体剖检工作

Postmortem Techniques

准备工作Preparing for the Examination

? 抓住颌骨下 方皮肤Make a
handle from the skin under the chin, and

? 从胸骨下穿 过肋软骨关 节切开Incise
抓住皮肤 Creating a “handle” below breastbone through costochondral junctions

7

尸体剖检技术

Postmortem Techniques

准备工作Preparing for the Examination

? 小心打开胸腔Open the
thoracic cavity carefully

? 观察心、肺周围粘 连及体液渗出情况
Observe for signs of adhesions and excess fluid around the heart and lungs

C

打开胸腔(C) Opening the thoracic cavity(C)

8

尸体剖检技术

Postmortem Techniques

准备工作Preparing for the Examination

? 继续切至尾部 ,打开胸腔
Continue the incision caudally, opening the abdominal cavity

打开胸腔 Opening the abdominal cavity

9

尸体剖检技术

Postmortem Techniques

准备工作Preparing for the Examination

? 从腹中线切 开头两条肋 骨Cut between the first
two ribs, on the mid-line

分离头两条肋骨 Separating the first two ribs

10

尸体剖检技术

Postmortem Techniques

准备工作Preparing for the Examination

? 用手将胸腔扩张开
Manually spread the chest cavity open

? 检查浆膜表面粘连和 体液渗出情况Inspect the
serosal surfaces for evidence of adhesions or excess fluids

打开胸腔 Opening the chest cavity

11

尸体剖检技术

Postmortem Techniques

呼吸道的检查Examination of the Respiratory Tract

? 在呼吸道或部分呼 吸道被切除前,检 查扁桃体The tonsils can be
T
examined before the respiratory tract is removed, or as part of the intact tract

? 观察扁桃体及气管 炎症Look for inflammation of
the tonsils and trachea 扁桃体(T)的检查 Examination of the tonsils(T)

12

尸体剖检技术

Postmortem Techniques

呼吸道的检查Examination of the Respiratory Tract

? 从“干净”的器 官开始Begin with the
“clean” organs first

? 将整个呼吸道及 舌、扁桃体一起 切开Remove the entire
respiratory tract intact, with tongue and tonsils attached 切下全部的呼吸道 The respiratory tract is removed intact

13

尸体剖检技术
肺 Lungs 心脏 Heart

Postmortem Techniques

心和肺的检查Examination of the Heart and Lungs

? 打开心房,检查瓣 膜Open heart chambers, examine
the valves

? 按压肺脏,以检查 硬度和密度Palpate the
lung for firmness and consistency

? 沿气管切开肺脏, 检查肺部实质Slice
into the lung, across airways, looking for areas of consolidation 心和肺的检查 Examination of the heart and lungs

14

尸体剖检技术

Postmortem Techniques

腹腔器官的检查Examination of the Abdominal Organs

肾 Kidney

? 检查切开并取出肾 脏和膀胱Examine, cut, and
remove the kidneys and urinary bladder

? 观察出血或脓肿
Look for signs of hemorrhage or abscesses

肾脏的检查 Examination of the kidney

15

尸体剖检步骤

Postmortem Techniques

腹腔器官的检查Examination of the Abdominal Organs

脾 Spleen

? 检查脾脏,如果要 采集病料,切除脾 脏Examine spleen, cut and
remove if specimens are to be collected

? 观察脾表面肿大或 出血情况Look for signs of
enlargement or hemorrhage on the surface 脾脏的检查 Examination of the spleen

16

尸体剖检技术
胆囊 Gall bladder

Postmortem Techniques

腹腔器官的检查Examination of the Abdominal Organs

? 检查肝脏,如果要 采集病料,切除肝 脏Examine the liver, cut and
remove if specimens are to be collected

肝脏 Liver

? 观察肝脏表面肿大 或出血情况Look for
signs of enlargement or hemorrhage on the surfaces of this important organ

肝脏的检查 Examination of the liver

17

尸体剖检技术
I L

Postmortem Techniques

腹腔器官的检查Examination of the Abdominal Organs

? 检查回肠和盲肠的外 表面Examine external surfaces of
the ileum and cecum

? 观察肠系膜淋巴结肿 胀情况Look for signs of
enlargement of the mesenteric lymph nodes

C
回肠(I)盲肠(C)和肠 系膜淋巴结(L)的检查 Examination of the ileum(I), cecum (C) and mesenteric lymph nodes(L)

? 切除整个消化道Remove
the entire digestive tract

18

尸体剖检技术

Postmortem Techniques

腹腔器官的检查Examination of the Abdominal Organs

? 检查结肠外表面Examine
the external surfaces of the colon, then open the lumen

? 打开肠腔,观察炎症 情况Open the lumen, look for signs
of inflammation

结肠 Colon

? 观察肠系膜淋巴结肿 大情况Look for signs of
enlargement of the mesenteric lymph nodes

结肠袢的检查 Examination of the spiral colon

19

尸体剖检技术

Postmortem Techniques

腹腔器官的检查Examination of the Abdominal Organs

? 检查胃的外表面Examine
the external surfaces of the stomach

胃 Stomach

? 切开胃,观察炎症和 溃疡Open the stomach, look for
signs of inflammation and ulceration

检查胃壁 Examination of the stomach lining

20

尸体剖检技术

Postmortem Techniques

脑的检查Examination of the Brain

? 在头和第一椎骨之间 切断脊骨,取下头部
Remove the head by severing the spinal cord between the head and first vertebra

V

在第一颈椎处切断脊 髓,取下头部(V) Removing the head by severing the spinal cord at the first vertebrae(V)

21

尸体剖检技术

Postmortem Techniques

脑的检查Examination of the Brain

? 打开颅骨Open the skull ? 如果猪体重<10公斤 ,纵向劈开头骨Split the
head on the midline (lengthwise) in pigs < 10 kg in weight

准备取出脑 Preparing to remove the brain

? 如果>10公斤,用斧子 或切肉刀在眼睛后侧 横向劈开In pigs >10 kg, use a
hatchet or cleaver to chop transversely behind the eyes

22

尸体剖检技术

Postmortem Techniques

脑的检查Examination of the Brain

? 首先,从眼睛后侧 横向切开First, chop
transversely behind the eyes

? 然后,沿脊髓径直 从矢状面切开,暴 露脑Next, chop in sagital
direction from the level of the spinal cord to expose the brain

从矢状面切开 Chopping in a sagital direction

23

尸体剖检技术

Postmortem Techniques

脑的检查Examination of the Brain

? 去除颅骨暴露出脑Pull
back the part of the skull that has been loosened to expose the brain

? 取出部分脑,放入福 尔马林溶液,剩余部 分冷冻,用作组织病 理学和微生物学检查
准备取出脑 The brain is ready to be removed Place part of the brain in formalin solution, chill the remainder for histopathological and microbiological examination

24

尸体剖检技术

Postmortem Techniques

鼻甲骨的检查Examination of the Nasal Turbinates

P

? 检查鼻甲骨,在第二 前臼齿水平横向锯开 口鼻部To examine the
turbinates, saw the snout transversely at the level of the second premolar tooth

找出第二前臼齿(P) Locate the second premolar(P)

25

尸体剖检技术

Postmortem Techniques

鼻甲骨的检查Examination of the Nasal Turbinates

? 鼻甲骨萎缩是萎 缩性鼻炎的症状
The presence of turbinate atrophy is a sign of atrophic rhinitis

T

? 用标准图表来评 定鼻甲骨萎缩的 程度Score the degree of
turbinate atrophy using a standard rating chart

暴露出鼻甲骨(P) Nasal turbinates exposed(T)

26

尸体剖检技术

Postmortem Techniques

鉴别诊断肠炎的简单实验Simple Tests to Differentiate Enteritis ? 粪便的PH值可以反映仔 猪下痢的原因Fecal (cecal) pH
may reveal the cause of diarrhea in piglets

? PH>7.0,说明分泌过多,可 能是由大肠杆菌引起pH>7.0
- indicates hypersecretion, likely caused by E.coli PH试纸可以鉴别诊 断仔猪下痢的原因 pH paper can differentiate the cause of diarrhea in piglets

? PH<7.0,说明吸收障碍,说 明可能是病毒或球虫感染 引起pH<7.0 - indicates
malabsorption, likely caused by viral or coccidia infection

27

尸体剖检技术

Postmortem Techniques

鉴别诊断肠炎的简单试纸Simple Tests to Differentiate Enteritis

? 小肠压印片可以查出未 成熟的球虫Impression smears
from the small intestine may demonstrate immature coccida

? 用粘膜制备压印片,干燥, 然后用Diff-Quick或瑞特 染色Press slide again mucosa, air dry and
stain with Diff-Quick or Wright’s stain

? 检查裂殖子Examine for merozoites
压印片 Preparing an impression smear

28

尸体剖检技术

Postmortem Techniques

鉴别诊断肠炎的简单实验Simple Tests to Differentiate Enteritis ? 刮取病变结肠黏膜Scrape
affected colon mucosa

? 用载波片制备压印片
Make thin smear on slide

? 用维多利亚蓝或结晶紫 染色20分钟Stain with
Victoria Blue or Crystal Violet for 20 minutes 怀疑是猪痢疾时,从结肠 刮取物可以查出是否有螺旋体 Colon scrapings may demonstrate spirochaets in suspected cases of swine dysentery

? 在400倍显微镜下检查 螺旋体Examine at 400X for
spiral-shaped organisms

29

Thank You!!

30


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