In 1939 two brothers, Mac and Dick McDonald, started a drive-in restaurant in San Bernadino, California. They carefully c
hose a busy corner for their location. They had run their own businesses for years,first a theater,then a barbecue（烤肉）restaurant, then another drive-in. But in their new operation, they offered a new, shortened menu:French fries, hamburgers, and sodas. To this small selection they added one new idea: quick service, no waiters or waitresses, and no tips.
Their hamburgers sold for fifteen cents. Cheese was another four cents. Their French fries and hamburgers had a remarkable uniformity（一致性）,for the brothers had developed a strict routine （程序）for the preparation of their food, and they insisted on their cooks' sticking to their routine .Their new drive-in became surprisingly popular, particularly for lunch. People drove up by the hundreds during the busy noontime. The self-service restaurant was so popular that the brothers had allowed ten copies of their restaurant to be opened. They were content with this modest success until they met Ray Kroc.
Kroc was a salesman who met the McDonald brothers in 1954,when he was selling milkshake-mixing machines. He quickly saw the special attraction of the brothers' fast-food restaurants and bought the right to franchise（特许经营）other copies of their restaurants. The agreement struck included the right to duplicate（复制）the menu, the equipment, even their red and white buildings with the golden arches（拱门）.
Today McDonald's is really a household name. In 1976,McDonald's had over $ l billion in total sales. Its first twenty-two years in one of the most surprising success stories in modern American business history.
1．This passage mainly talks about .
A．the development of fast food services
B．how McDonald's became a billion-dollar business
C．the business careers of Mac and Dick McDonald
D．Ray Kroc's business talent
2．Mac and Dick managed all of the following businesses except .
A．a drive-in B．a theater C．a cinema D．a barbecue restaurant
3．We may infer from this passage that .
A．Mac and Dick McDonald never became wealthy for they sold their idea to Kroc.
B．the place the McDonalds chose was the only source of the great popularity of their drive-in
C．forty years ago there were lots of fast-food restaurants
D．Ray Kroc was a good businessman
4．The passage suggests that .
A．creativity is an important element of business success
B．Ray Kroc was the close partner of the McDonald brothers
C．Mac and Dick McDonald became broken after they sold their ideas to Ray Kroc
D．California is the best place to go into business
Maggie was very glad that James was not a frequent visitor to the house. In the children's opinion, they had something that they couldn't explain or understand about him and that excited their imagination. He stirred Maggie's anger, however, so that she often said to her husband, "It's a mercy that brother of yours doesn't come oftener."
In fact James came once a year, unexpectedly, around eight o'clock in the evening, and he stayed for six hours of close discussion with his brother. His arrival was a signal to the children that their bedtime would be delayed. Not that he ever spoke to them or played with them. He took no notice of them, as if he was unable to see children, at least until the time came for him to go. Indeed, after his first greeting and a careless kiss, James took no notice of Maggie either, except to add, "You'll be getting on with the supper, Maggie." Such was his regard for her.
Maggie paid him back in her own way. She kept the children up, the four of them, to keep her company, she said, but of course they sang and made a noise and broke the endless sound of James' voice. Very late, they dropped off to sleep in their chairs. Then, when James was about to go, Maggie woke them up and so more or less forced him to part with four shillings before he left. That gave her some satisfaction, for James, though rich, was unwilling to give or share what he had. He always went home by the last train, just after two o'clock.
Maggie's children secretly stared at their uncle. They could not forget that he had, in their mother's words, "lost two wives and taken a third." They wondered about those two unfortunate,lost ladies. They asked each other what their fate（命运）had been, and if neither could ever be found again. James never brought his third wife with him nor ever mentioned her. The children decided that he must be so frightened of losing her that he never allowed her outside the door.
5．Maggie never prepared anything special for James because .
A．he was a man difficult to please
B．she never knew when he was coming
C．she was too busy looking after her children
D．he never stayed long enough for a meal
6．What do we know about James' behaviour?
A．He was a kind man, with love for the family.
B．He was unselfish, especially towards his brother.
C．He was anxious to please the family, especially the children.
D．He was rude to his sister-in-law
7．Maggie felt pleased when .
A．she paid James the money that she owed him
B．James gave some money to the children
C．she had to wake James up to catch his train
D．James thanked her for the nice supper
8．The children did not realize that two of James' wives .
A．were dead B．suffered from loss of memory
C．had run away from him D．might reappear one day
Humans are social animals. They live in groups all over the world. As these groups of people live apart from other groups, over the years and centuries they develop their own habits and ideas, which from different cultures. One important particular side of every culture is how its people deal with time.
Time is not very important in nonindustrial societies.The Nuer people of East Africa,for example,do not even have a word TIME that is in agreement with the abstract thing we call time.The daily lives of the people of such nonindustrial societies are likely to be patterned around their physical needs and natural events rather than around a time schedule（时间表）based on the clock.They cook and eat when they are hungry and sleep when the sun goes down.They plant crops during the growing seasons and harvest them when the crops are ripe.They measure time not by a clock or calendar（日历）,but by saying that an event takes place before or after some other event Frequently such a society measures days in terms of "sleeps"or longer periods in terms of "moons."Some cultures,such as the Eskimos of Greenland measure seasons according to the migration of certain animals.
Some cultures which do not have a written language or keep written records havce developed interesting ways of "telling time".For example,when several Australian aborigines want to plan an event for a future time,one of them places a stone on a cliff or in a tree.Each day the angle of the sun changes slightly.In a few days,the rays of the sun strike the stone in a certain way.When this happens,the people see that the agreed-upon time has arrived and the event can take place.
In contrast（成对比）,exactly correct measurement of time is very important in modem,industrialized societies.This is because industrialized societies require the helpful efforts of many pople in order to work.For a factory to work efficiently （well,quickly and without waste），for example,all of the workers must work at the same time.Therefore,they must know what time to start work in the morning and what time they may go home in the afternoon.Passengers must know the exact time that an airplane will arrive or depart.Students and teachers need to know when a class starts and ends.Stores must open on time in order to serve their customers.Complicated（复杂的）societies need clocks and calendars.Thus,we can see that if each person worked according to his or her own schedule, a complicated society could hardly work at all.
9．By saying"Humans are social animals",the author means .
A．they live all over the world
B．they are different from other animals
C．they live in one place, district or country, considered as a whole
D．they are divided into many groups
10．Time is not very important in nonindustrial societies. This is because people in those societies
A．don't have the word TIME in their languages
B．don't get used to using clocks and other timepieces
C．don't measure time in their daily-lives around an exact time schedule
D．don't need to plan their daily lives around an exact time schedule
11．The Australian aborigines' way of "telling time" is based on .
A．the change of the sun rays
B．the movement of the earth in relation to the sun
C．the position of the stone
D．the position of the tree or the cliff
12．Which of the following might be the best title for this passage?
A．Time and Culture B．The Measurment of Time
C．Time Schedule and Daily Life D．Clock, Calendar and Society
COURSE: History 101"Introduction to American History"
INSTRUCTOR: Dr, Jane Klammer
OFFICE: 305 Marshall Hall
OFFICE HOURS: 11:15~12:30 M W F（Monday Wednesday Friday）
CLASS: 363 Marshall Hall 3:35~5:00T Th （Tuesday Thursday）
10:10~11:00M W F Other times by appointment
TEXTBOOK: Green,Robert P,The American Tradition:A History of the United States,Charles E.Merrill publishing Co.Columbus,Ohio 1984 which is available （可得到的）at the College Bookstore.
mid-term exam: October 10 20% of the final grade
final exam: December 10 40% of the final grade
term paper due: December 15 40% of the final grade
Attendance（出席）is not required,but you are responsible for all the information given in the class lectures.In the lectures I will talk about the chapters in the textbook and other material that I choose to supplement（补充）the course.The exams will cover all this information.Therefore,I advise you to come to the class as much as possible.If you have to miss a class,be sure to get the class notes from another student.
Your homework assignments are listed on the next page.You are supposed to read the chapter about which I will be lecturing before you come to class.This is to make sure that you understand as much as possible while taking notes in my lectures.Be prepared when you come to class.If there are any changes in the assigned homework reading,I will announce in class.
The term paper is 40% of your final grade.It should not exceed（超前）fifteen pages.（Anyone thinking of majoring in history may write twenty-five pages.）Before the mid-term exam you will choose the topic for your paper.
Have a good term!
13．If a student wants to know what the homework assignments are, .
A．Pro.Klammer announces them in class
B．the student reads the list on the next page
C．Prof. Klammer gives a list every week
D．the student goes to the professor's office
14．If a student cannot see Prof. Klammer during her office hours, he .
A．sees her after class B．calls her at home
C．makes an appointment with her D．asks another student
15．According to the passage,which of the following is true?
A．The textbook is written by Dr.Jane Klammer.
B．If you have to miss a class,be sure to say sorry to Prof.Klammer.
C．The students can buy"Introduction to American History"at the College Bookstore.
D．Prof.Klammer advises her students to take notes in her class.
16．If a freshman thinks that he might major in history, what is the maximum length of his paper can be?
A．Fifteen pages. B．Twenty-five pages.
C．Ten pages. D．No maximum.
HOW TO QUIT（GIVE UP）SMOKING
When thinking about quitting......
List all the reasons why you want to quit.Every night before going to bed,repeat one of the reasons 10 times.
Decide positively that you want to quit.Try to avoid negative（消极的）thoughts about how difficult it might be.Develop strong personal reasons in addition to your health and obligations（责任）to others.For example,think of al the time you waste taking cigarette breaks,rushing out to buy a pack,hunting a light,etc.Set a date for quitting-perhaps a special day like your birthday, a holiday.If you smoke heavily at work,quit during your vacation.Make the date sacred seriously, and don't let anything change it.Begin to condition.yourself physically;start a modest（适度的）exercise;drink more water;get plenty of rest.
Immediately after quitting......
The first few days after you quit,spend as much free time as possible in places where smoking is prohibited （forbidden）,e.g.libraries,museums,theatres,departments stores,etc.
Drink large quantities of water and fruit juice.Try to avoid wine,coffee,and other drinks which remind you of cigartte smoking.
Strike up a conversation with someone instead of a match for a cigarette.
If you miss the sensation（感觉）of having a cigarette in your hand,play with smething else-a pencil,a pen,a ruler.
If you miss having something in your mouth,try toothpicks or a fake（彷制的）cigarette.
17．Which of the following statements is best supported by the author?
A．Whenever you feel like a cigarette,try to forget it by starting a conversation with someone.
B．Try to be an ice-breaker before asking for a light.
C．If you miss the sensation of having a cigarette in your mouth,play with a pen.
D．Every night before going to bed, repeat the reasons 10 times.
18．From the passage,we know smokers .
A．spend a lot of time breaking the habit of smoking
B．have to stop to smoke from time to time
C．had better quit smoking during their holiday
D．start a modest exercise
19．The author suggested .
A．all kinds of drinks be avoided immediately after quitting
B．drinking water and fruit juice immediately after quitting
C．trying low-tar（低焦油）cigarettes immediately after quitting
D．spending as much free time as possible in public places
20．If the article is in a newspaper,which section it is in?
A．Sports. B．News. C．Health D．Culture.
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