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֪֮Ϊ֪֮,֪Ϊ֪


֪֮Ϊ֪֮ ֪Ϊ֪

С

ӶΣС ʡ һԻʼ ʱȥ˽ʱԶҲ һճԶ ʱҲ һԻճ ǣۣ ΪԶСߴ һԻճ (cng) ̽˲ΪȶԶ ӲܾҲ

СЦԻ(sh) Ϊ(r)֪(zh )
ǧǣһʧ

1ԻɣŮ֪֮ ֪֮Ϊ֪֪֮Ϊ֪֪Ҳ

ٻ壺̵
Ůͨ꣨r㣻

Ϊ:ж,൱ڡǡ
ǣָʾʣ⡱

֪ ; ֪ ; ͨ ǡ,ǻ,ǡ

ο ˵ɣ ֪ʶ֪ ֪֪Dz ֪̬Ȳ ģ

Ƕȣ֪--Ӧ̡ʵ

Ļ֪ʶ֪ʶӦ ѧϰ̿ѧϰܵض ա
˵֪ʶٷḻв⡣ ôӦʵǵ̬ȡֻ ѧ֪ʶ ÷֤ϹIJװ

֤
ij ʹ˴ģˡϹ ʿŴѧʡƷ¶û ٵΪʿ൱ڡ ϷƣΪģ˵ͨ á֮ʳs ˵ ٸĴǼһ һһ֮ʿӡ

װ ʱڣʦü κ󽫲棬κ˾ ܲͳɽ ɱð˾ܲ ֮ӲͷƤŻ깥 ȫ񽫹뽪ά л˾ܲܶ顣

װij иѧʶdzȴϲװ һΣȥ˼Ƕͣ˶һ ǡʶⶫ֪ôԣ һֻһ ææð˿ٳԡ Լ֪˵˭ ֪Ҳdzѣ ʣô˵ϼҲǣ ˺ػش𣺡ȻǼ ǰɽɽֵĶأ

ԻԻ֮Σ֮Ρ ߣĩ֮Ҳӣ

ص㣺
֮ΣŴеʽΪ ô족ô ĩָûа취ܣûа취 ӣĩʣ൱ڡˡ

ο
˵˵ô죬ô졯 ˣҶҲ֪ôˡ Ҳûа취

Ƕȣʱ----ڶ

⣬ͣ߶ô죬 ô족˵ڶԽ Ŭֻ˼ˣ ѧ֪ʶ

ɽһ
˼·ƾɽһʼʢ ʫʱĵüͷһᣬ Ϊʲôﻨˣɽϵһſ ʼʢأΪ˽⿪ţԼ˼ Сɽʵؿһ µɽϣզůϮ ɪɪìéٿԭɽϵ¶ ɽҪͺܶ࣬˻ñɽ ѽƾ˼ʵȡ֤ľ񣬳 ԺдˡϪ̸

ִԭѧĵ¬ɪ˼ ΪƳ硣һҹżȻһλѧ ͷʵ飬ʣڸ ʲô?ѧش𣺡ʵ顣 ?ʵ顣¬ɪüͷ ׷ʣ?Ҳʵ顣¬ɪ Ϊ𣺡һ쵽 ʵ飬ʲôʱ˼? ڷܵѧȴ⵽𣬿ίʵ ϴʦڴ澭ܶʱ ûڷ·мֵæµ֮У ȴԸóʱ˼˼ά ڵˮƽIJǻһ

ѧҰͶ˵˼ ȷʵ˼˱ øõѧϰ͹˼ѧϰ õķ
ƣѧ˼裨Ի ˼ѧ򵡣

˵ѧ־ʶ˼ ѧ־ᶨʶ뵱ǰ ӡ

3Իģνӣ ο ˵˹ȴ ֪Ĵ

(4)ӹԻ֮Ҳ֮ʳɣ Ҳ˽Լ֮Ҳ˽֮
ص㷭룺 ֮1ṹʣΪġ

ʳͨʴ֮2ʣ
ܸ䣩

ο ӵĹñʴʴ Ƕܿü Ƕ 5Ի С֮Ҳġ

ο
˵С˷˴һ ҪΡ

ǶȣԴ-------֪ܸ


˷ʥͣ޹ؼڹ ܷĹ֤طͬĴ Ҳ˵˹£µǼִ 󣬲Ӹ
пԡģνӡļ ԣǵˡ֪ܸġһԴ Ψһȷ̬ȡ

ӸΪϵɱΪ

Ӹ

ɽӻׯƵ֣ ðν³ĶȥŮ ýƣ ߡ˴ŭɽν νΪʵͬɽʶԡ ʶ˴֮󣬻ɽν ǡýţ ɽţνָɽ׽ã 

˵ܴ֪͸ ԭģܴʱǿΪ ˮԣɽа׶Աա νΪᣬȾ硣 ˵ɱնԣʵΨһ ɱˮԡԻ򸡻ûʮ ֮㡣ҹν졣 ɱԶ죬ʼ֪Ϊ Ը⡣ Ѱ½ƽԭڣӣ 棬޸Ķɣɡ Ի˹Ϧǰ;пɡ˻ ־֮аΪ

ܴʱΪǿʹ ǵһ˵ĺɽ ֻ׶һա˵İճ ܴΪ Ȱ˵ܴȥɱͻʵ ϣ໥ƴɱֻʣһܴ ɱϻºնɱˮʱ ʱûƯ˼ʮԶܴʼͬ һ𲫶ҹصİǶ ΪܴѾˣŶԴ˱ʾء ܴɱˮгˡ˵ ΪԼԴص飬֪ ʵҲԼһˣ ڸĵ⡣

DZ㵽⿤ȥ½½ λˡʱ½ڣֻ ½ƣͰȫ ½ƣ˵ԼҪ Ѿķˣûʲ ôɾ͡½˵ӵ壬 Ϊ糿˵ ȥҲġǰ; ϣġ˵˾־ ֻҪ־ֺαصǺ أܴ͸Ĺ£ ڳΪһҳ

ҹִңںʡ صһũͥСʱرϲľżϷ ΪϷԶ˶顣 һ磬Ĵӿһܵ ȥϷľżϷݵǡչɽ Ŀüɫ裬Цһֱ̫ɽ ػصѧУʱͬѧѷѧؼˡ ڶ죬ĸսУţʦΪʲô Ρߺ֧֧شʦ÷ £ѵ㿴ľ ϳȴƫƫ˼ϽԸһûϢġ ӡڶ죬ʦְȥ˵Ҷ ù飬ȴ͵͵ȥϷȻ㣬 ҲΪáһֻԼܵõ ˵ءʦһʹĸж ᡣģһҪסεĽѵһ صˡ˺һֱϸҪԼ ҡ

6Իܺǵˡ
ο

˵ܹʹ巢 󣬲ǵʹ˹󡣡


˱ ԼȻſԽ󣬷 ԵˣΪװ Ĺߣȡ裬ǾͲľ Ϊ

7Ի ˣԶԹӡ
ص㷭룺

ٹ Լ
ں񣬱࣬٣ Զݴʣ⡣

ο

˵Լ𱸱ˣ ͿԱ˵Թޡ Ƕȣദ桪ϣ˿



ദиìס ôΪ˴Ӧö˿ǣӱ ˵ĽǶȿ⡣һìܣ Ӧöһζָ ˵IJǡԣɼԴˡ DZúг˼ʹϵȱٵ ԭ

ɼԴˣǴҶ֪ һΪ׼򣬵¾ʹ ྶͥˡ һλѧңԾһҿ ѣϵˮ˿ûһ˵ ʹϲԲѵΪһ ﷸҴϣȻڶ޹ij ͬܺ𣿡ŭʱ һֻͻȻҧλѧҸ 漴еϡ ʱˣùѧң ˵ϲԵķʽԴ Сϣѵ㻹ʸȥ˵ϲ

һλѧңԾһҿ ѣϵˮ֡˿ûһ˵ ʹϲԲѵΪһ ҴϣȻڶ޹ij˿ͬ ܺ𣿵ŭʱһֻ ͻȻҧλѧҸ漴 еϡʱˣ ùѧң˵ϲ ķʽԴСϣѵ㻹 ʸȥ˵ϲ𣿡

ܳŴ

ʱڵȥý ֳΪŷ磬ƶϣ ѭιȺ÷Ч ϷģԸƧ˵ ҲֻӦ˿ߣڽǰ ֹ˵Ϸ˶˵̫ ˣȴ̹ȻһЦ˵ ԵƢԡϷңDz ıԣ˵˵ҲãҲ ²̨ԣֻòˡʵ Ϊ˵Ŀɹ֮޽ ܳŴ

8Ϊ츸ףԻ ٣޼С򲻴С ²ɡ

ص㷭룺

ʩ⣻
ޣͨ㡱Ҫ ٣̰졣

Ƕȣ ----򲻴

򲻴ᴩű֤˼룬 ŵ໥תпǿ ҪĴҪ޷ﵽĿ ģҪ̰Сɴ¡ɴ˿ ֪κﶼҪѭ﷢չɣѭ 򣬡򲻴
ɾٷ ļԲȶ Ƽ˵

ӡ ϡ ֮֮ߣããȻ飬νԻ ղӣ糤ӡ ֮ӡ £ǰιһũԼ ĺ糤ߣ쵽ȥ ȥˣûһ ͼæѺһÿðθ һЩȥԶ˵糤һأ ܵһȫˡ

9Ի˶ţ֪Ҳ rn С܋yu ֮գ ص㷭룺
䣺ʣô ںУǰãԺУʲ ôߡ

ο˵һ˲ã ǸԵġûr Сû ܋һʲôأ

10ӹ Իʳ֮ӡ ӹԻزѶȥ˹ߺȣ Իȥ ӹԻزѶȥ˹ߺȣ ԻȥʳԹŽŲ ص㷭룺 㣺ݴʻΪʹ÷ʹ ڱزѣϵòȥ һ

ۺȣǰãȺΣȣȥһ

ο ӹҡ ˵Ŭʹʳ㡢 ǿͳߡ ӹ˵ ͬʱ ȥ ˵ ¡ ӹ˵ Уʣ¶ ȥ ˵ ʳԹŽȱ ΣҾҪ

ǶȣΪι----

ΪҴͳ׼֮ һҲĻ㡣 ѧϰȷ涼Ҫ ţŶŵĺ֣
һʵȡñ˵ΣǶ áɾˤ黨ƿ

ˣϷ

11Ի꺮Ȼ֪ɰ֮Ҳ

ο ˵ʱ֪ɰл ڶǰϺʹ󲿷ֲ ȴͺɰأǧǰսʹ ˥΢ӷˡ꺮Ȼ֪ɰ֮ Ҳĸ̾ɰذô 澳бֳϺڵ˰ ԣ˳ɡ÷Ϊ꺮ѡ ǾƷʣҲЩڼ вӡǡ

12ڴԻ˹򣬲ҹ ο ںӱ˵ȥʱ ˮһҹͣǰȥ

ǶȣΪ˴---ϧʱܶ
ΪʱˮϢһȥ ȰҪϧʱ䣬޵ʱͶ뵽 ޵ѧϰ͹ȥ ɾż衱ͷ׶ ̹ɡөӳѩ͵⡱

С᣺ĽѡλӵĶԻֱ
֪Ϊˡιȷ ǺԶʾ 1 ֪ʵǡ֪ܸ
2 ϣ˿ 3мǡ򲻴 4 ι¡ˣŶ 5 Ϊ˴¡ҪйԶ־ Ҫϧʱܶ

Ĭд
֪Ϊ֪ ֪Ҳ 1֪֮Ϊ֪֮ߣߣߣ

2ߣߣߣߣߣνӡ
ǵ 3ܺߣߣߣߡ 4 ߣߣߣߣߣߣߣߣߣԶԹӣ Ӻ 򲻴 С 5٣޼Сߣߣߣߣߣߣߣߣߣ ² ߣߣߣߡ ޶ ֪Ҳ 6ߣߣߣߣߣߣߣߣߣߣߣߡr С ܋ ߣߣߣߣߣߣߣߣߡ ֮գ Ȼ֪ɰ֮ 7 꺮ߣߣߣߣߣߣߣߣߣߣߡ ҹ 8 ˹򣬣ߣߣߣߣߣߣ


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