状语从句主要用来修饰主句或主句的谓语。一般可分为九大类，分别表示时间、地点、 原因、目的、结果、条件、让步、比较和方式。 一、时间状语从句 1、when, while, as 引导时间状语从句 1).when(at or during the time tha
t) 只表示一般的时间关系，它既可指时间的一点(a point of time)，也可指一段时间(a period of time)。用 when 时，从句的动作可与主句的动作同时 发生，也可先于主句的动作，因此 when 用得最多。 When the clock struck twelve, all the lights went out. Don't forget to return this book for me, when you go to the library. 2).while(during the time that) 只能指一段时间，而不能指一点时间。用 while 时，从句 的动作或者与主句的动作同时发生， 或者主句的动作是在从句的动作的进展过程中发生的。 因此， 从句中的谓语必须是表示延续性动作或状态的动词。 这是 while 与 when 的主要差别。 Strike while the iron is hot. Please don't talk so loud while people are working. 3). as (at the same moment that) 往往可与 when 通用，但它着重指从句与主句的动作相 伴随发生，可译成："一面……一面"，表示"随着……"时，as 用得较多。 Kate read the book as she went along. We took notes as we listened to the lecture. As it became more common for women to work outside the house, men began to share the housework. 随着妇女就业普遍了，男职工分担了家务劳动。 注意： 1).在用 when 和 while 连接的从句中，常省略与主句相同的主语和相应的 be，而在 as 连接的从句中一般则不省略。 Wood gives much smoke while (it is) burning. He fell asleep while (he was) studying his grammar book. While in London, he studied music. When (they are) heated, metals expand. 2).when 和 while 还可作并列连词用： A. when 做连词引导并列句,译为“这时”，表示同时，前面有逗号，不能用 while 代替。 所构成的并列句句型有： was/were about to do … when was/were on one's way… when was/were on the point of doing…when 刚好做某事?这时 was/were doing… when 正好做某事?这时 had done… when 刚好做完某事?这时 Joan was holidaying with her family in a wildlife park when she was bitten on the leg by a lion. I was about to go to bed when the telephone rang. B. while 做连词引导并列句,译为“而”表示对比。 I like singing while she likes dancing. 2. as soon as “一……就……” 引导时间状语从句,类似意思的连词还有九个，分三组：
the moment immediately No sooner ...than… the minute directly Hardly...when… the instant instantly Scarcely ... when... ? 第一组：the+名词 the moment/ the minute/ the instant ? 第二组：ly 形式 immediately/ directly/ instantly ? 第三组 倒装句/ No sooner…than…/Hardly…when…/ Scarcely…when… The moment she comes, I'll call you. She left here immediately the clock struck 12. Hardly had he got off the bus when he heard a loud noise. 提醒同学们 Hardly ..... when ...../ No sooner...... than......./ Scarcely.....when...主句 用过去完成时，从句用一般过去时。 3. before/after 引导时间状语从句, 此处重点注意 before 的用法： 1)“还没等”谓语不用否定式。 Before they got to the bus stop, the bus had gone。 2）当 before 引导的从句位于主句之后，译成“…才/就”， It was evening before we reached the little town of Winchester. 到了晚上我们才到达 Winchester 小镇。 3） “趁着还没?” Let’s leave here before it is dark. 固定句型： It will (not) be some time before …do… It was (not) some time before…did… It won’t be long before…do… It wasn’t long before…did… 4. until/till （till 不用于句首及强调句） ，引导时间状语从句 1)...not...until/till... 直到…才，主句谓语是终止性动词用否定式。 He didn’t go to bed until he had finished his work. 2)...until/till..直到...为止，主句谓语是延续性动词用肯定式。 We were told that we should follow the main road until we reached the central railway station. 3) It is not until…that.…强调句式 It was not until midnight that he went back home after the experiment. 4)Not until 放在句首时，主句倒装。 Not until he came close to me did I recognize him. 5.since 引导时间状语从句，主句要用完成时 1)主句（现在完成时）...ever since....状从（过去时）译为”自从…” Mr Li has been here ever since he came back. 2)It is (has been) +段时间. since...状从（过去时） It was +段时间....since....状从（过去完成时） since 后用的动词不同，动作的起算时间不同： since＋终止性动词的过去式，从该动作发生时算起 since+延续性动词的过去式，从该动作结束时算起或译成否定意思。 It is five years since they married. It is over ten years since he worked here. 6. 引导时间状语从句的还有：
the first time each time by the time the last time every time the next time 其中 by the time 句型有时态的要求。 By the time +状从（过去时） ，主句（过去完成时） By the time +状从（现在时） ，主句（将来完成时） Each time he came to my city, he would call on me. By the time she came back, all the guests had left. By the time the class is over, we will have learned the whole passage. 7. 注意： 1）主句与时间状语从句的时态原则是主将从现 Will you please bring me your book when you come here tomorrow? 二．原因状语从句 1.引导原因状语从句的从属连词主要有 because, as, since ， seeing (that), now (that), considering (that)，in that 等： 1) because 译为 “因为”用来回答 why 的提问，表示直接原因，语气强烈 ，强调 原因状语从句可用在强调句中，着重点在从句， It was because he was ill that he did not go with us. In that he is ill, he feels unable to do it. 2) since 译为 “既然”， “鉴于”， since 的语气比 because 弱。 表示关系上的明显原因， 特别用于对方已经清楚的事情，无须要加以说明的既成事实的理由，全句中心在主句。 Since you have got a chance, you might as well make full use of it. 3) as 译为“由于” 语气最弱，表示附带说明的“双方已知的原因”，说明一般的因果关 系，全句中心在主句（即可于句首，也可于句中） 。 As he didn’t know much English, he and looked up the word “cough” in the dictionary. 4） now that/seeing that/considering that 译为 “既然”用来说明一种新情况， 然后加以推 论，于(句首), that 可省。 Now (that) everyone is ready, let’s have our competition. Seeing (that) it’s raining, we’d better stay indoors. Considering (that) everybody is here, let’s begin our discussion. 注意: 1) for 引导的原因状语， 属于并列句， 而不是状语从句， 只能放在句中连接两个并列句。 通常 for 引导的并列句，前一分句表示推测意思，后句话是补充说明前句的。for 引导的句 子只能放在第二个分句的位置，并且必须用逗号将其与第一个分句隔开。 She must be from America, for she speaks perfect English. He could not have seen me, for I was not there. 2)主从句主语一致，从句可改用分词做状语 Being an honest man, he is trusted by all of us. Not having completed the program, they have to stay there for another two weeks. 这两句因为前后句的主语一致，并表示主动关系，我们可以把从句部分改为现在分词 短语。例 1 为：Being + n 例 2：动词有先后次序，用现在分词的完成时 having done. 3)除以上提到的比较熟悉的引导原因状语从句的从属连词外，when 有时也可引导原因
状语从句(when 表示“既然”) I won’t tell you when you won’t listen. 2 其他表示原因的方式 除了状语从句外，一些介词短语同样可以表示原因，这样的短语有：because of, thanks to, due to, owing to 等。 3.关于 not…because 结构 “not ... because”结构中的 not 一般否定的是 because 引导的整个从句。 The country is not strong because it is large. 国强不在大。 但该结构中的否定词有时也否定主句，这就要根据句子的意思和上下文作出正确或合 乎逻辑的理解。若 not 否定主句，最好在 because 之前用逗号，否则会引起歧义。 I didn’t go，because I was afraid. 我没有去是因为怕。 I didn’t go because I was afraid. 我不是因为怕才去。 不过若 because 之前有 just 修饰，一般认为 not 是否定从句的： You shouldn’t get angry just because some people speak ill of you. 你不要因为有人说你坏话而生气。 4.because 习惯上不与 so 连用 汉语习惯上说“因为…所以…”，但英语习惯上却不能将 so 与 because 连用： 因为下雨，所以我们呆在家里。 正：Because it was raining, we stayed at home. It was raining, so we stayed at home. 误：Because it was raining, so we stayed at home. 5.because 从句与 because of 短语的转换 Because 引导的原因状语从句有时可与 because of 短语转换： 1) He can’t come because he is ill. He can’t come because of his illness. 2) I said nothing about it because his wife was there. I said nothing about it because of his wife’s being there. 三.巩固练习 1. 在下列句子的空格中填入适当的连词(每空一词)： 1）________ Jane was the eldest, she looked after the others. 2) We have lived in this city _____ I moved here in 1990. 3）________ you know it, I won't repeat it. 4）Have you decided what you want to be _____ you grow up? 5）He didn't hear the knock at the door ________ he was listening to the radio. 6）Don’t worry, I’ll phone you _______ ________ ________ I get the news. 7）—Why didn't you come? — ________ my father wouldn't let me. 8）The drunk man didn’t leave the station _____the police came yesterday. 9）He had been a cook _____ he went to college . 10）________ ________ everybody is here, let's begin the discussion. 2. 句型转换(把下列复合句转换为简单句)： 把从句简化为 because of 结构： 1). He lay in bed because he had caught a bad cold.
2). He couldn't walk because his leg was broken. 3). I came back because it was raining. 4). They stayed in because the weather was bad. 5). We didn't get home till after midnight because we had missed the bus. 3.从 A、B、C、D 中选出可以填入空白处的最佳答案。 1). It was quiet ____those big trucks started coming through the town. A. before B. after C. since D. unless 2). It seemed only seconds ________ the boy finished washing his face. A. when B. before C. after D. even if 3). Hardly had he reached the school gate ________ the bell rang. A. while B. when C. as D. as soon as 4). I recognized you ______ I saw you at the airport. A. the moment B. while C. after D. once 5). He was about to go to bed ______ the doorbell rang. A. while B. as C. before D. when 6).________I listen to your advice, I get into trouble. A. Every time B. When C. While D. Until 7). _____ John was watching TV, his wife was cooking. A. As B. As soon as C. While D. Till 8). The children ran away from the orchard(果园) ______ they saw the guard. A. the moment B. after C. before D. as 9). No sooner had I arrived home _____ it began to rain. A. when B. while C. as D. than 10). He was walking in the street _________ he saw his old friend John. A. while B. when C. after D. before 11). I was busy working while he ___________. A. slept B. asleep C. was sleeping D. fell asleep 12). --My sister was very unlucky yesterday. --What happened to her ? -- She _______ while she _____ her bicycle and hurt herself. A. fell; was riding B. fell; were riding C. had fallen; rode D. had fallen; was riding 13). It wasn’t long ________he finished his speech. A. that B. until C. as D. before 14). Scarcely was George Washington in his teens _____ his father died. A. than B. as C. while D. when 15). ___ the day went on, the weather got worse. A. With B. Since C. While D. As
16). He will come to call on you the moment he ____ his painting. A. will finish B. finished C. has finished D. had finished 17). It was not ___ she took off her dark glasses ____ I realized she was a famous film star. A. when; that B. until; that C. until; when D. when; then
18). — Will you help your mother with the housework? — ________.
A. Only if I will B. Only that I may C. Only when I want D. Only if I may 19). ________ had we hurried home ________ it began to pour down. A. No sooner; when B. Hardly; when C. Hardly; that D. As soon as; when 20). Mr. Smith has been ill ________ he came to China from France last year. A. as B. because C. since D. when 四．必会词汇( Unit 6 of S1A )： 1.单词： 1).agriculture 3).natural 5).experimental 7).profitable 9).prove 11).benefit 13).weight 15).experience 17).amazed 19).justice 2.短语： 1）in contrast to 2).in comparison 2).farming 4).mixture 6).involve 8).chemical 10).economic 12).enterprise 14).cancer 16).fortunately 18).high-tech 20).improve
3).be aware of
5).used to do sth
6).make the best of
7).can’t help doing sth
8).out of the question
10).as a matter of fact
1. 1). As / Since 2). since 3). Now that / Since 4). when 5). because / as 6).as soon as 7).Because 8).until 9). before 10). now that / since 2. 1) because of his bad cold 2) because of his broken leg 3) because of the rain 4) because of the bad weather 5) because of our missing the bus 3. 1)—10): A B B A D ACAD B 11)—20): C A D D D C B C B C