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名词性从句完美讲义


名词性从句完美讲义
第一节 相关概念

一、定义:在复合句中相当于一个名词,做主语、宾语、表语、同位语的从句。 二、引导词:
1. 连词: that , if, whether, as if 2. 连接代词: who , what, which, whose, whom以及whoever, whatever, whichever等 3. 连接副词: when, where, why, how,whenever, wherever,however等

三、各类名词性从句的特征:
主语从句 表语从句 宾语从句 同位语从句 练习:辨别下列名词性从句的类别。 1.How the book will sell depends on its author. 2.John said that he was leaving for London on Wednesday. 3.The fact is that he has not been seen recently. 4.The fact that he has not been seen recently disturbs everyone in his office. 5.He will talk to us about what he saw in U.S. 6.It is impossible that I go and attend the meeting.

第二节

主语从句

1. 定义:在复合句中作句子主语的从句叫做主语从句。 2. 连接词: 引导主语从句的连接词有三类: 连词 that、whether; 疑问代词 who, what, which,whom, whose, whatever, whoever, whomever, whichever; 疑问副词 when, where, how, why,however, whenever, wherever 等 ⑴ 连词 that(无词意), whether(是否), 在从句中不充当句子成分,只起连接作用; whether 能引导主语从句, 而 if 不能。That you don’t like him has nothing to do with me. Whether John will do this experiment remains a question. a. That the wounded soldier is still alive is a wonder.→It is a wonder that the wounded soldier is still alive. 常见的句型有: ①It is/was +形容词+that 从句 It’s unlikely that… 不可能 It’s strange that…奇怪的是?? ②It is/was +名词+that 从句 It’s a pity that… 遗憾的是?? It’s a fact that …事实是?? ③It +不及物动词+that 从句 It seems that… 似乎?? It happened that…碰巧?? It appears that…看来?? It turns out that…结果?? ④It is/was +过去分词+that 从句 It’s not known that… ??不得而知 It’s said that… 据说?? ⑤其他 It doesn’t matter +that /wh-Clause… 是无关紧要的 It makes no difference +that /wh-Clause…毫无区别??
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⑵ 疑问代词 who, what, which, 在从句中既作连接词又充当主语、宾语、表语、定语等。 What surprised me most was that such a little girl could play the violin so well. Whose dictionary has not been found is still unknown. Whoever wants this book may take it. ⑶ 疑问副词 when, where, how, why,whenever, however, wherever 等在从句中充当时间状语、地点状语、方式 状语、原因状语 如:When they will start hasn’t been decided yet. Where the heroine went is not mentioned at the end of the story.

第三节

表语从句

1. 定义:用作表语的从句叫做表语从句。 2. 引导表语从句的连接词种类: (1) 连词 that,whether(无 if) that 在引导表语从句时无词义,而 whether 有词义,意为、 “是否” 。 这时主句的主语常常是些抽象名词,如 question(问题),trouble(麻烦),problem(问题),result(结果),chance(可 能性),suggestion(建议),idea(想法),reason(理由)等。表语从句对主句主语进行说明、解释,使主语的内容具 体化。 The trouble is (that) she has lost his money. 麻烦的事是他丢了钱。 The question is whether we need more ice cream.问题是我们是否还需要一些冰淇淋。 我们不能理解越来越少的学生对他的课不感兴趣。 (2) 连接代词 who, whom, whose, what, which, whoever, whatever, whichever 连接副词 where, when, how, why, wherever, whenever, however。 如:The problem is who we can get to replace her. 问题是我们能找到谁去替换她呢。 The question is how he did it. 问题是他是如何做此事的。 (3)由连词 because,as if/as though 等引导的表语从句。 It looked as if it was going to snow.看起来好像要下雪了。 That's because we never thought of it.这是因为我们从未想过此事。

第四节

宾语从句

1. 定义:用作宾语的从句叫宾语从句。 2. 引导宾语从句的关联词有三类: (1) 从属连词 that。如: He told us that he felt ill. 他对我们说他感到不舒服。 Everybody could see what happened and that Tom was frightened. 大家都会看出所发生的事情并知道 Tom 非常害怕。 (and 连接两个宾语从句,that 宾语从句放在 and 的后面时,that 不能省略。) I know nothing about him except that he is from the south. 对他我一无所知,只知道他是南方人。(that 引导的宾语从句作介词宾语时,that 不能省略。) We decided, in view of his special circumstances, that we would admit him for a probationary period. 鉴于他的特殊情况,我们决定应允他一段试用期。(主句谓语动词与 that 从句之间有插入语,that 不可省 略。) (2) 从属连词 if/whether。如: I doubt whether he will succeed. 我怀疑他是否会成功。
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I don’t know if you can help me. 我不知道你能否帮助我。 if 和 whether 引导的宾语从句可以互换使用,但 whether 常和 or not 连用,if 一般不 与 or not 连用。如:I wonder whether it is true or not. 我不知它是真是假。 用 if 引导宾语从句如果会引起歧义,应避免使用 if 而用 whether。试比较: Please let me know if you want to go. Please let me know whether you want to go. (3) 连接代词 who, whom, whose, what, which, whoever, whatever, whichever 连接副词 where, when, how, why。 Who or what he was, Martin never learned. 他是什么人?他是干什么的?马丁根本不知道。 I wonder what he’s writing to me about. 我不知道他要给我写信说什么事。 4. 宾语从句包括动词宾语从句,介词宾语从句及形容词宾语从句。 (1)介词宾语从句 如:He was deeply displeased by what had occurred that day.他对那天发生的事感到很不快。 (2)动词宾语从句 注意:a. 在 demand, order, desire, request, command insist, suggest, advise,等表愿望,命令等时,用虚拟语气。 宾语从句常用“should+ 动词原形”。 如: a) I insist that she (should) do her work alone. b. 动词+间接宾语+宾语从句。 动词如: advise, ask, inform, promise, question, remind, show, teach, tell, warn 等, 宾语从句前可以有一个间接宾语, 这个宾语有时可以省略,有的不能省略。 He has informed me when they are to discuss my proposal.他已经通知我们将什么时候讨论我的建议。(me 不可省 略) (3)形容词或过去分词后接宾语从句 I am not certain whether I have met him before.我不能肯定从前是否见过他。 注意:that 引导的从句在下列形容词后面作宾语,that 可以省略。anxious, aware, certain, confident, convinced, determined, glad, proud, surprised, worried, sorry, thankful, ashamed, disappointed, annoyed, pleased, hurt, satisfied, content, proud 等。

第五节

同位语从句

1. 定义:用作同位语的从句叫做同位语从句。 2. 用法: ① 同位语从句的先行词多为 fact, news, idea, thought, question, reply, report, remark 等,关联词多用从 属连词 that。如: They were all very much worried over the fact that you were sick. 对你生病这件事,他们都很焦虑。 注:同位语从句偶尔由从属连词 whether 引导。如: I have no idea whether he’ll come or not. 我不知道他是否来。 ② 连接代词 who, which, what 和连接副词 where, when, why, how 亦可引导同位语从句。 The question who should do the work requires consideration. 谁该干这项工作,这个问题需要考虑。 高考趋势与重点

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名词性从句在历年地高考中几乎都有所涉及,并且每年地命题各有变化。近年来地高考试题更侧重于在 一定地语言环境下考查熟练使用英语语序和关联词地能力。因此,在平时地备考复习中我们除了牢固掌握基础 知识外,还要多注意一定语境下基础知识地运用。 一、 It 在名词性从句中得用法:

1. It is time that…(虚拟语气) w.w.w.k.s.5.u.c.o.m 2. It is the first time that…(现在完成时) 3. It is necessary (important) that…should do…(虚拟语气) 4. It is likely(possible, obvious, clear, natural, certain,…) that… 5. It is a pity(a fact, good news, no wonder, an honour, a shame, common sense, a common practice…) that… 6. It turned out that…; It happened that…; It occurred to sb. that…; 7. It is said(reported, believed, estimated, announced, expected…) that…; 8. It is suggested(required, ordered) that…(虚拟语气)… 二、 What 与 that 在名词性从句中用法比较:w.w.w.k.s.5.u.c.o.m

That Tom fell off his chair by accident got the classmates laughing. What Tom learned in university helps him a lot in his job. 注:that 在从句中不作任何成分,what 在从句中必须担当主语或宾语。 We have reached what is called XinJie kou. 三、 宾语从句

1. 一个动词后跟多个宾语从句时,第二个开始的连词 that 不能省略。 He said (that) he didn’t attend the party and that he didn’t want to. 2. 否定转移 I don’t think he is fit for the job, is he? I never thought that he would come for the dinner party. 3. 有些不可直接跟宾语从句的动词。 I hate it when…; I dislike it when…; I’d appreciate it if… I will see to it that… 4. 与定语从句的转换 Jerry told us _______ he had seen abroad. A. what B. all that C. all what D. all

注:本题四个答案都正确。答案 C 可以看作 all 是前面的 us 的同位语。 四、 主语从句
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a. 主语从句于定语从句的转换 What is needed has been bought. All that is needed has been bought. w.w.w.k.s.5.u.c.o.m b. 几个特殊句型之间的转换 It is known to all that China has joined the WTO. As is known to all, China has joined the WTO. What is known to all is that China has joined the WTO. 五、 表语从句

a. 表语从句中的虚拟语气 My suggestion is that we should carry out the plan as soon as possible. b. 几个表语从句的切换 The reason why I came late is that my car broke down on the half way. He came late. That’s because his car broke down. His car broke down on the half way. That’s why he came late. 六、 同位语从句

a. 与定语从句的区别 It is a fact that he has done his best. w.w.w.k.s.5.u.c.o.m It is a fact that you can’t refuse. b. 同位语从句中的虚拟语气 The proposal that he put forward is to be discussed at the meeting. The proposal that we should import more equipment is to be discussed. c. have no idea 后面跟同位语从句 I have no idea where Green Park lies. 第一部分:基础题 1. _______ makes his shop different is that it offers more personal services. A. What B. Who C. Whatever D. Whoever 2. —It’s thirty years since we last met. w.w.w.k.s.5.u.c.o.m —But I still remember the story, believe it or not, _______ we got lost on a rainy night. A. which B. that C. what D. when 3. See the flags on top of the building? That was _______ we did this morning. A. when B. which C. where D. What 4. —Could you do me a favor? —It depends on _______ it is. A. which B. whichever C. what D. whatever
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5. These shoes look very good. I wonder _______. A. how much cost they are B. how much do they cost C. how much they cost D. how much are they cost 6. Doris' success lies in the fact _______ she is co-operative and eager to learn from others. A. which B. that C. when D. why 7. Mary wrote an article on _______ the team had failed to win the game. A. why B. what C. who D. that 8. Do you have any idea _______ is actually going on in the classroom? A. that B. what C. as D. which 9. —Why does she always ask you for help? —There is no one else _______, is there? A. who to turn to B. she can turn to C. for whom to turn D. for her to turn 10. Elephants have their own way to tell the shape of an object and _______ it is rough or smooth. w.w.w.k.s.5.u.c.o.m A. / B. whether C. how D. what 11. Danny left word with my secretary _______ he would call again in the afternoon. A. who B. that C. as D. which 12. Mum is coming. What present _______ for your birthday? A. you expect she has got B. you expect has she got C. do you expect she has got D. do you expect has she got 13. The way he did it was different ________ we were used to. A. in which B. in what C. from what D. from which 14. Great changes have taken place in that school. It is no longer _______ it was 20 years ago, _______ it was so poorly equipped. A. what; when B. that; which C. what; which D. which; that 15. Some researchers believe that there is no doubt ________ a cure for AIDS will be found. A. which B. that C. what D. whether 第二部分:强化题 1. We haven’t settled the question of _______ it is necessary for him to study abroad. A. if B. where C. whether D. that 2. A warm thought suddenly came to me _______I might use the pocket money to buy some flowers for my mother’s birthday. w.w.w.k.s.5.u.c.o.m A. if B. when C. that D. which 3. There is much chance _______ Bill will recover from his injury in time for the race. A. that B. which C. until D. if 4. Please remind me _______ he said he was going. I may be in time to see him off. A. where B. when C. how D. what 5. We saw several natives advancing towards our party, and one of them came up to us. _______ we gave some bells and glasses. A. to which B. to whom C. with whom D. with which 6. With his work completed, the businessman stepped back to his seat, feeling pleased _______ he was a man of action. A. which B. that C. what D. whether 7. _______ team wins on Saturday will go through to the national championships. A. No matter what B. No matter which C. Whatever D. Whichever 8. I just wonder that makes him so excited.
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A. why it does B. what he does C. how it is D. what it is 9. _______ is our belief that improvements in health care will lead to a stronger , more prosperous economy. w.w.w.k.s.5.u.c.o.m A. As B. That C. This D. It 10. Nobody believed his reason for being absent form the class _______ he had to meet his uncle at the airport. A. why B. that C. where D. because 11. The shopkeeper did not want to sell for _______ he thought was not enough. A. where B. how C. what D. which 12. He noticed that the straight part of the dance was different in the afternoon from _______ it had been in the morning. A. that B. where C. what D. which 13. I’d like to work with _______ is honest and easy to get on with. (2006 年山东模拟题) A. who B. whoever C. whomever D. no matter who 14. When you are reading, make a note of _______ you think is of great importance. A. which B. that C. what D. when 15. —Can we get everything ready by the weekend? —It all depends on _______ we can get Mr. Green’s cooperation. A. that B. what C. whether D.
1. A 此题考察 what 引导名词性从句的用法。在此题中 what 引导主语从句,同时在从句中充当主语。 2. B 通过对句子的分析可知,believe it or not 是插入语,在此句中 that 引导的是 the story 的同位语从句。 3. D 通过对句子的分析可知,此题需要选一词来引导表语从句,而从句中的明显缺少宾语,故只能 what 用来充当。 4. C 介词 on 后面宾语从句不完整,同时从句缺少主语,故只能由 what 来充当。 5. C wonder 后面的从句是疑问句应用陈述语序。即:特殊疑问词+主语+谓语动词。 6. B 此句主句完整,从句也完整,故用 that 引导构成与 the fact 的同位语从句。 7. A why 在它引导的从句中充当原因状语,从句在主句里充当介词 on 的宾语。 8. B what 在它引导的从句中充当主语,同时整个从句可看成是 idea 的同位语从句,来说明 idea 的具体内容。 9. B 本题考查定语从句以及固定短语 turn to 的用法,关系代词因为在后面定语从句中做宾语因此省略掉,turn to sb 求助于某人。 10. B 本题根据意思以及后面与 or 的搭配关系可判断该处是“是否”,whether 引导宾语从句。B 本题考查名词性从句 中的同位语从句,根据下文可知 Danny 留下的口信的内容,that 引导名词性从句。 11. C 本题考查双重疑问句,疑问词+do you think/believe/expect+句子的其他成分(句子用称述句语序) 。 12. C 本题考查固定短语 be different from 同时也考查名词性从句中的宾语从句, 介词 from 后是宾语从句, 但从句中 be used to 后面少宾语,且根据上文是我们过去习惯的方法,这用 what 符合语意。 13. A 本题考查的是名词性从句中的表语从句,后面表语从句不完整,it was 后面还缺少表语,根据意思是“20 年前 的 样子”,后面一个句子是对 20 年前的补充说明,是一个非限制性定语从句,20 年前学校设备条件不好,when 在定语从句 中作时间状语。 14. B 本题考查名词性从句的同位语,doubt 后的同位语根据意思没有怀疑故选择 that 引导,that 在从句中不充当成 分。 强化题 1. C whether 引导的从句构成与名词 the question 的同位语。(原答案似乎有误) 2. C 主句完整,同时从句也不缺成分。根据句意可看出 that 引导的从句构成与 a warm thought 的同位语。 3. A that 引导同位语从句,具体说明 chance(可能性)的内容。 4. B 句意:请提醒我他说他将什么时候走。 5. B 因先行词是 natives,故淘汰 A 和 D。又因 give sth. to sb.固定短语,所以选 B。介词 to 可放在关系代词 whom 的前面。 w.w.w.k.s.5.u.c.o.m 6. B pleased 后面缺少宾语从句,he was a man of action 句意完整,故用 that 引导。 7. D No matter what/which 只能引导让步状语从句,排除 A 和 B。C 和 D 的区别在于一个无范围,一个有范围。 8. D wonder 后面的宾语从句本是 what makes him so excited: 。但 what 需要被强调,故用强调句型。 9. D 本题考查 it 作形式主语, 后面的 that 引导真正的主句从句. 10. B 本题考查同位语从句, reason 后面 有 for 引导的短语, 接着后面是 that 引导的句子来说明理由的内容. 11. C 本题考查名词性从句的宾语从句 , 介词 for 后接宾语从句但宾语从句中缺少主语, he thought 是插入语. 连词 what 引导宾语从句且在从句中充当主语,which 的意思不符合. 12. C 本 题 考 查 固定 短 语 be different 7

from 同时也考查名词性从句中的宾语从句,介词 from 后是宾语从句,但从句中 it had been 后面少表语,所以 what 符合语 意。 13. B 本题考查名词性从句中的介词宾语 从句, 根据下文意思以及在宾语从句中作主语, D 不能引导名词性从句, who 表达的意思不对 14. C 本题考查名词性从句介词宾语, 宾 语从句中 you think 是插入语, 故句中缺少主语,which 意思不对,故选 what 15. C 本题考查介词宾语从句, 根据上下 文意思 该处应该是”我们是否能得到 Green 先生的.

2012 高考英语单选题分类汇编 名词性从句
【2012 安徽】27. The limits of a person’s intelligence, generally speaking, are fixed at birth, but ________he reaches these limits will depend on his environment. A. where B. whether C. that D. why 【答案】B 【2012 重庆】34. Evidence has been found through years of study______ children’s early sleeping problems are likely to continue when they grow up. A. why B. how C. whether D. that 【答案】D 【2012 全国】24. It is by no means clear the president can do to end the strike. A. how B. which C. that D. what 【答案】D 【2012 北京】24. Jerry did not regret giving the comment but felt ______ he could have expressed it differently. A. why B. how C. that D. whether 【答案】C 【2012 福建】35. We promise _____ attends the party a chance to have a photo taken with the movie star. A. who B. whom C. whoever D. whomever 【答案】C 【2012 陕西】20. As many as five courses are provided, and you are free to choose _____ suits you best. A. whatever B. whichever C. whenever D. wherever 【答案】B

【2012 山东】25. It doesn’t matter _____ you pay by cash or credit card in this store. A. how 【答案】
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B. whether

C. what

D. why

【2012 湖南】26. Everyone in the village is very friendly. It doesn’t matter ___ you have lived there for a short or a long time. A. why 【答案】C B. how C. whether D. when

【2012 天津】9. It doesn’t matter ____ you turn right or left at the crossing—both roads lead to the park. A. whether 【答案】A B. how C. if D. when

【2012 江西】25. It suddenly occurred to him ___ he had left his keys in the office. A. whether 【答案】D B. where C. which D. that

【2012 辽宁】34. The newcomer went to the library the other day and searched for _____ he could find about Mark Twain. A. wherever 【答案】C B. however C. whatever D. whichever

【2012 四川】17. Scientists study ____ human brains work to make computers. A. when 【答案】B B. how C. that D. whether

【2012 浙江】4. I made a promise to myself ____ this year, my first year in high school, would be different. A. whether 【答案】C 【2012 江苏】27. The notice came around two in the afternoon _____ the meeting would be postponed. A. when 【答案】B
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B. what

C. that

D. how

B. that

C. whether

D. how


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