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高三英语阅读理解猜词技巧[课件][1]


高考英语阅读解题 方法指导---

一、猜词技巧

设问特点: 1、从原文中找单词,短语或句子设问。 2、所问词或句与该词该句常见意思不同,无 法望文生义,只有在具体的上下文中才可判断 准确。 3、所考单词有的是生词,有的是旧词新意。 4、正确选项的特征是放在原文不仅单句合理 ,全文也合理。 5、错误选项或是字面意思,或是故意胡说。

/>。

1.对考纲外生词的猜测
The underlined word "cultivated" ( paragraph 1 ) roughly means ______.

2.对考纲内熟词新义的猜测
The underlined word “hit” (paragraph 1 ) roughly means

3.对代词的猜测
The underlined part “it” (in Para. 4) refers to______.

4.对句义的猜测
When I got back out into the street, the world seemed brand-new to me. He was something out of an ancient legend

词义理解题常见的题型有: 1. The word ―…‖ refers to / probably means/ could best be replaced by _____.

2. What do you think the expression ―…‖ stands for?
3. The underlined sentence ―…‖ means ______.

How do you deal with the unfamiliar words or phrases while reading?
?Ignore them and continue reading ?Look them up in the dictionary ?Guess the meaning

How to guess the missing words?
1.He would ______ the gold from his grandma. steal the gold Harvey is a thief: he would ______ 2.. Unlike his brother, Hobart is quite ______.
Unlike his brother, who is truly a handsome

from his grandma and not feel guilty.

plain/homely ordinary-looking person, Hobart is quite ____________.

Skills for guessing unknown words:
1. The lion has its “territory” , which is an area that an animal ,usually the male, claims(声称)as its own. “territory” means ___________ an area( that---own) 定语从句或其后的句子其实是一种定义或解释 动物地盘 2. He is a resolute man. Once he makes up his mind to do something, he won’t give it up halfway. The underlined word means____. A.strong B. determined C. kind D. clever

技巧归纳1:
definition or explanation Use __________________________ 定义或解释猜测词义 利用__________________________ mean, refer to, be called, be known as ,can be defined as, in other words, that is , that is to say,

namely,be called,be identified as,to put it differently 括号,引号,破折号,定语从 句…..etc.

Pruning is important because it encourages the growth of tender shoots(嫩芽), or young leaves of trees.
The word ―pruning‖ means______ A. Regular cutting of the plants B. Frequent watering C. Regular use of chemicals D. Growing the plants high in the mountain

技巧归纳 2 : common sense or experience Using________________________________ 普通常识和经验 根据________________________________

1. In fact, only about 80 ocelots, an endangered wild cat, exist in the U.S. today. “ocelot” means an _________________ endangered wild cat 2.The period of adolescence, the period between childhood and adulthood ,may be long or short. A 少儿期 B 幼儿期 C 青春期 D 成人期 技巧归纳3: 利用____________________ 同义/同位语 similarity/appositive from___________________

The largest player – Shanghai Bashi Tourism Car Center offers a wide variety of choices, such as deluxe sedans, minivans, station wagons, coaches. Santana sedans are the big favorite of the tourists. … The underlined words used in the text refer to ____. A. cars in the B. for carinstance rental firms Signal words :making for example , , C. cars for rent D. car makers such as ,like,as,etc.
举例 from examples 技巧归纳4: 利用_____________

Signal words: 2. Unlike her gregarious sister, as, Jane is a shy like, the person who does not like to go to parties or same as , make new friends. 爱交际的 unlike, but, 技巧归纳5: however, on 比较或对比 利用________________ the contrary, comparison or contrast while,instead From_________________ …ect. 雪花,雪片

1. The snow was falling. Big flakes drifted(飘) with the wind like feathers.

(1)Overwork may cause diseases. over(过分的、过量的)+work=overwork―工 作过度”。 (2)There was a dissatisfied look in the manager's eyes. dis ―不” + satisfied―满意的=dissatisfied ―不 满意的”。
技巧归纳6: 构词法(前缀、后缀、复合、派生等) 利用__________________ Word formation From__________________________

prefix

构词法 Word formation

派生 Derivation

suffix

合成 Compounding 转化 Conversion

表否定 un-, non-, in-, dis-

表相反 un-, de-, dis-, counter错误失当 mis-, mal-, pseudo-

prefix

表向背 pro-, anti-

表程度 arch-, super-, ultra- , over-, under-, mini-, semi- , 表时间 pre, fore-, post表方位 sub-, inter-, trans-

decontrol 解除控制

transplant 移植

counterattack 反击

-able

(能…的)

-less

(无,不) (身份;资格;权力;性

-wards ( 向)

-ship

suffix waterproof streetscape innermost speechless

质)
-some ( 易于…的) -hood -ish -proof

(状态;性质;时期) (如…的;有点儿…的)
(防…的;不能穿透的) (最…的)

-scape (景) -most

派生 Derivation
?

He is said to be ―undersized’’ with ―short legs’’ and a ―round stomach‖. (08广东卷)

小尺寸的;较矮小的;
?

Tales of the supernatural are common in all parts of Britain. (08广东卷)

超自然的
?

They caught the emotional landscape from heartbreak to joy, but share the 风景 undeniable longing for recovery and hope. (2010深一模)

不可否认的

合成 Compounding
?

He was something out of an ancient legend, … his very strange, dusty felt hat, his funny accent from who-knows-where (06广东卷)

谁都不知是什么地方

转化 Conversion
?

Great cultural changes led to more open communication and a more democratic process that encourages everyone to have a say. (08广东卷) v.—n.发言,发表意见 ? She rested herself against a post close to the tracks.(09广东卷) n.—v. 倚靠

1. Is he intelligent or stupid?

clever

2.Most women in Ghana--- the educated and illiterate, the urban and rural, the young and old--work to earn an income in addition to maintaining their roles as housewives and mothers. Their reputation for economic independence, self-reliance, and hard work is well known and well deserved.

The underlined word ―illiterate‖ in the passage means ____.
A. Repeated B. reiterated. C uneducated D. sick

技巧归纳7: 同义词或反义词的关系猜词。 利用___________________________ Synonym or Antonym. From__________________________

1. I feel that since you are my superior (上司), it would be presumptuous of me to tell you what to do .‖
The word ―presumptuous‖ is closest in meaning to ― B ‖ . Signal words: A.full of respect because, so, so that B.rude and too confident C. lackingtherefore in experience hence, D.too shy and quiet As a result, as 原因与结果关系猜词 since, for, thus 技巧归纳 8: 利用 ______________________ from Cause and Result From _______________________

The official asked the man what his occupation was. The man told him that he worked as an an engineer. engineer. worked as A. work C. name B. study D. interest

技巧归纳9: context or related information Use_____________________________ 上下文的语境 利用_____________________________

利用上下文
熟词新义
找信息词 生活常识 指代关系

1. When men and women lived by hunting 50,000 years ago, how could they even begin to picture modern life? imagine 2. The mayor made an address to the citizens at the meeting yesterday. speech

( 福建卷) Rainforests like the Amazon are important for mopping up CO2 from the atmosphere and helping to slow global warming. Currently the trees in the Amazon take in around 500 million tons of CO2 each year, equal to the total amount of CO2 giving off in the UK each year. ? 64.The phrase ― mopping up‖ in the paragraph means______. A. cleaning up B. taking in C. wiping out D. giving out
?

When I first became a reporter I knew a man who gave up a very well paid respectable job at the Daily Telegraph to go and edit a small weekly newspaper. At the time I was astonished by what appeared to me to be his completely abnormal (反常的) mental state. How could anyone turn his back on Fleet Street in central London for a small local area? ? The underlined phrase ―turn his back on‖ most probably mean _____. A. leave for B. return to C. give up D. rely on
?

(2009年全国卷I) If your child is unwilling to discuss something, don’t insist he tell you what’s on his mind. The more you insist, the more likely that he’ll clam up. 69. What does the phrase ―clam up‖ in Paragraph 2 probably mean? A. become excited B. show respect C. refuse to talk D. seek help

As a woman, I feel unsafe here. I spend a bomb on taxis because I will not take public transport after 10 p. m. I used to use it, but now I’m afraid. (04广东卷) ? 58. The underlined part ―it‖ refers to______. A. a taxi B. the money C. a bomb D. public transport
?

this ,that, it, them, one等代词指代内容一般 是在此词的前面,理解上下文特别是上句的意 识和本句的意思是解题的关键.

猜词技巧 Tips for guessing the meaning of words 1.利用定义或解释 2.利用普通常识和经验 3.利用同义/同位语 4.利用举例 5.利用比较或对比 6.利用构词法(前缀、后缀、复合、派生等) 7.利用同义词或反义词 8.利用原因与结果关系猜词 9.利用上下文的语境

More practice. Finish Exx.1 to 10 , then discuss the answers with your group.

1. A good teacher works in quite a different way. His audience take an active part in his play: they ask and answer questions, they obey orders, and if they don’t understand something, they say so. The word “audience” in the paragraph means ____. 常识 teacher-----students A.students B. people who watch a play C. people who act on the stage D. people who listen to something

﹡ ﹡ 2. When some kind of pain killer(止痛药) was
brought out recently, researchers found that the colours turned the customers off because they made the product look weak and ineffective(无效的). The underlined part “the colours turned the customers off” means that the colours_______ 因果关系 D A. Attracted the customers strongly because B. Had weak effects on the customers C. Tricked the customers into shopping D. Caused the customers to lose interest



3.

Collins decided that she must go, although the hazards of the trip were many, for example, the unbearable heat , the possibility of getting lost , the presence of wild animals and poisonous snakes .

“hazard” means ___________________ C
A. pleasure, B. problem, C. danger, D. attraction

举例for example

﹡﹡﹡ 4. In a culture which values only the winner

and pays no attention to the ordinary players, they strongly blame competition. Among the most vocal are youngsters who have suffered under competitive pressures from their parents or society

C The underlined phrase “the most vocal” means______
A. Those who try their best to win
B. Those who value competition most highly

C. Those who are against competition most strongly
D. Those who rely on others most for success 上下文语境

context or related information

5. Without examinations, employers will look for employees from the highly respected schools and from families known to them-a form of favoritism will replace equality. The word “favoritism" is used to describe the phenomenon that ________. A. bright children also need certificates to get satisfying jobs B. children from well-respected schools tend to have good jobs 破折号(定义或同位语) C. poor children with certificates are favored in job markets D. children attending ordinary schools achieve great success
﹡﹡﹡



6.
Grown-ups also have a sense of object permanence. That is to say, if we put a box in a room and lock the door, the box will still be there when we come back.

1. 定义 definition “Object permanence” means that when out of sight, that is to say an object ______ A 也就是说 A. Still exists B. keeps its shape 2.构词法 permanent — C. Still stays solid D. is beyond reach permanence

7. A child's birthday party doesn't have to be a hassle; instead, it can be a basket of fun, according to Beth Anaclerio, an Evaston mother of two, ages 4 and 18 比较comparison months. (instead — 相反 , 反而 ) What does the underlined word "hassle― probably mean? A. a party designed by specialists B. a plan requiring careful thought C. a situation causing difficulty or trouble D. a demand made by guests
﹡﹡

8. William Shakespeare said. “The web of our life is of a mingled yarn(纱线),good and ill together.”

The underlined word “mingled” B . most probably means A.simple B.mixed C.sad D.happy
definition or explanation 定义或解释猜测词义

﹡9. The house looked quite normal outside, but inside it was very exotic with fascinating objects on display. As he began putting them into his bag, a god came into the room. It stopped when it saw Buster, then wagged its tail madly and went over to him, licking his outstretched hand. ―Good boy,‖ Buster whispered. ―What a great guard dog you are -- trying to lick me to death.‖
Which of the definitions is closest in meaning to the word ―exotic‖ ? 对比contrast A Messy and untidy. normal—but---unusual B. Rich and expensive. C. Comfortable and calming D. Unusual and foreign.

﹡﹡﹡ 10. Lions are opportunists. They prefer to eat without having to do too much work. When resting in the shade, they are also watching the sky to see what is flying by, and even in the heat of the day they will suddenly start up and run a mile across the plains to find out what is going on. If another animal has made a kill, they will drive it off and take the kill for themselves. By describing lions as ―opportunists‖, the author means to say that lions ____. A. are cruel animals 构词法及下文解释 B. are clever animals opportunity---ist C. Like to take advantage of(利用) other animals D. Like to take every chance to eat

?Practice in the passage

11. He had been getting better but during the night his condition deteriorated.
12.The animal with the longevity is the giant land tortoise which can live several hundreds years. 长寿
13. They are vertebrates, that is, animals have backbones. 脊椎动物 文中“vertebrates”的意思是____________ Get worse

14. She did not hear what you said because she was completely engrossed in her reading. concentrate/focus her attention on 15. But sometimes,no rain falls for a long,long time. Then there is a dry period,or drought. A long period of shortage of rainfall

16. Do you have any strong opinion on coeducational or single-sex schools?
co(共同的)---education---al 男女同校教育的

17. Those new comers were not used to the life in the suburbs which was so different from that inside the city.
country

Ex2: … “The Dave you saw on TV was the real Dave,” says friend Pat Williams, “He wasn’t a great actor or a great speaker. He was just Joe Everybody.” 74. “He was just Joe Everybody.” ( in the last paragraph) means _____. A. Dave was famous B. Dave was ordinary C. Dave was showy D. Dave was shy

Ex3: And if you've gathered your friends around you to rebuild a happy family atmosphere(气氛), you may fear that saying no will bring back the kind of conflict you grew up with----or destroy the nice atmosphere you now enjoy The underlined word "conflict" means _____. A.dependent life B. fierce fight C. bad manners D. painful feeling

Ex.4: Provide incentive. Tell your children the importance of saving. ―For every dollar he or she agrees to save and invest rather than spend, you agree to add another dollar to the pot,‖ says Cathy Pareto, expert in money planning. The underlined word ―incentive‖ in this paragraph means ______.

A Honor
C. excitement

B. praise
D. encouragement

?

? ? ?

?
?

Here is The Pines ,whose cook has developed a special way of mixing foreign food such as caribou ,wild boar ,and reindeer with surprising sauces . (2004年福建卷) According to the passage ,The Pines is a . A.place in which you can see many mobile homes B.mountain where you can get a good view of the valley C.town which happens to be near the Banff National Park D.restaurant where you can ask for some special kinds of food

Ex.5: Those new comers were not used to the life in the suburbs which was so different from that inside the city.
the city

A. town C. country

B. capital D. house

practice
co---education---al 男女同校教育的 2.Marry Cassatt gave up her social position and all thought of a husband and a family ,which in those times was unthinkable for a young lady. un--think--able 不可思议的 3.Finally , renewable energy sources are used even though they are often expensive to develop. re---new----able 可更新的,可再生的
1. Do you have any strong opinion on coeducational or single-sex schools?

Practice 1. Mark Twain was not the author’s real name; it was a pseudonym. a pen name. 2. But sometimes,no rain falls for a long,long time. Then there is a dry period,or drought.

A long period of shortage of rainfall

The house stood at the end of a quiet neat street. The little dwelling,however,looked neglected and cheerless.

(2009年福建卷) For an answer, I checked with Tim Flannery, author of The Weather Makers: How Man Is Changing the Climate and What It Means for Life on Earth. In his book, he had challenged readers to make deep cuts in personal emissions to keep the world from reaching extremely important tipping points, such as the melting(融 化)of the ice sheets in Greenland or West Antarctica. ―To stay below that point, we need to reduce CO2 emissions by 80 percent,‖ he said. ? 73. The underlined words ―tipping points‖ most probably refer to A. freezing points B. burning points C. melting points D. boiling points
?

( 广东卷) ―Unlike vitamin C, leadership skills can’t be easily swallowed down. They must be carefully cultivated.‖ Different from popular belief, most good leaders are made, not born. They learn their skills in their everyday lives. But which do they develop? How do they (and how can you) get others to follow? ? The underlined word roughly means ____. A. encouraged B. compared C. examined D. developed
?

( 广东卷)Each of the guests made a particular fuss over Kelly, the youngest one, admiring her dress, her hair and her smile. They said she was a remarkable girl to be carrying coats upstairs at her age. I thought to myself that we adults usually make a big ―to do‖ over the younger one because because she’s the one who seems more easily hurt. ? The underlined expression ―make a big ―to do‖ over means ____. A. show much concern about B. have a special effect on C. list jobs to be done for D. do good things for
?

?

?

( 2008年四川卷)Please stay on permitted paths. Otherwise you may destroy desert plants. Pack out what you pack in, so you leave no signs of your visit. It is important to keep in mind that you are in a national park where wildlife exists. What does the underlined words ―pack out what you pack in‖ probably mean? ______ A. keep everything out of campgrounds B. take away everything you bring in C. carry all the necessary food D. look after your personal belongings

(2009江西卷)New archaeological discovers suggest that trade between Europe and Asia along the Silk Road probably began in some form many countries earlier than once thought. The findings, coupled with a widening range of scientific and historical research could add a fascinating new page to the epic of the Silk Road. ? 72. The word ―coupled‖ in the first paragraph could best be replaced by . A. produced B. contributed C. doubled D. combined
?

We studied the board critically. Some of us looked with one eye and held up certain colors against the blackboard, rocking the sheets to the right or left while we conjured up our designs. Others twisted their hair around their fingers or chewed their erasers while deep in thought. (2009广东卷) 47. The underlined phrase in paragraph 3 most probably means__________ A. formed an idea for B. made an outline for C. made some space for D. chose some colors for

?

?

(2009年四川卷)Honesty comes in many forms. First there’s self-honesty. Is what or do you appear people see the real article or through smoke and mirrors? I find that if I try to be something I’m not , I feel unsure of myself and take out a part from my PBA(personal bank account ). 49. The underlined part ―appear through smoke and mirrors‖ in the first paragraph means ― ‖. A. to be honest B. to be unreal C. to become clear D. to come from an imagined world

(2009年全国卷II) Having a husband means an extra seven hours of housework each week for women, according to a new study. For men, getting married saves an hour of housework a week. ―It’s a well-known pattern,‖ said lead researcher Frank Stafford at University of Michigan’s Institute for Social Research. ―Men usually work more outside the home, while women take on more of the housework.‖ ? 45. According to the ―well-known pattern‖ in Paragraph 1, a married man___________. A. takes on heavier work B. does more housework C. is the main breadwinner D. is the master of the house
?

(2009年安徽卷)This action affects the environment as a whole.For example,a lot of carbon dioxide in the air comes from burning the rainforests.People obviously have a need for the resources we gain from cutting trees but we will suffer much more than we will benefit. ? There are two main reasons for this.Firstly, when people cut down trees,generally they can only use the land for a year or two.Secondly,… ? 73.What does the word ―this‖ underlined in the third paragraph refer to? A.We will lose much more than we can gain. B.Humans have begun destroying rainforests. C.People have a strong desire for resources. D.Much carbon dioxide comes from burning rainforests.
?


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