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英文商务信函的礼貌策略研究


山东师范大学 硕士学位论文 英文商务信函的礼貌策略研究 姓名:魏珺 申请学位级别:硕士 专业:英语语言文学 指导教师:王庆新 20060426

山东师范大学硕士学位论文

中文摘要

礼貌现象作为确保人类顺畅成功交际的基本手段之一,引起了语用学、社会 语言学、心理学以及认知语言学的广泛关注。自上世纪七十年代以来,语言

学家

纷纷提出各种理论,将礼貌作为一种语言现象进行鳃释。其中,利奇的礼貌原则
及布朗和列文森的面子保全论影响最大。英文商务信函是商务交流的一种重要方 式,不仅具有传递信息的功能,还担负着建立、加强业务联系的重任,因此,对 礼貌具有较高要求。 纵观国内商务信函写作的教学与学习情况,大多侧重于商务信函的信息功能 而非人际功能,即注重语言本身而不是把它看作一种交际手段。然而,大多数时 候,礼貌是写信人选择表达方式时所考虑的首要因素。本文试图从礼貌的角度出 发,解释各种写作技巧如何体现礼貌策略并确保沟通顺畅,从而为商务信函中表 达方式的合理选择提供理论依据。 本文首先回顾了关于礼貌的四种主要观点,特别是以利奇为代表的会话准则 观及以布朗和列文森为代表的面子保全观,二者构成了本文的主要理论框架。然 后,本文根据信函的言外行为及其对收信人面子的影响将商务信函分为日常商务

信函、好消息商务信函、坏消息商务信函以及说服性商务信函,并分别从词语和
表达、句子以及篇章结构三个层次对不同类型商务信函中礼貌的实现以及礼貌如 何促进商务交流进行了描述性的分析。其中,日常商务信函主要实施合作类言外 行为,对收信人面子几乎没有影响,本文未做讨论。 通过分析可以发现,好消息商务信函主要实施和谐类言外行为,本质上是礼 貌的。然而,不恰当的表达方式可能会降低其礼貌程度,甚至弄巧成拙。坏消息 商务信函主要实施冲突类言外行为,会危及收信人面子,因此对礼貌具有较高要 求。说服性商务信函主要实旋竞争类言外行为,对收信人的负面面子有一定威胁,

因而在表达上应更具技巧性,以便于写信人在礼貌的基础上说服收信人。根据信 函本质礼貌与否,不同的礼貌策略被应用于不同类型的商务信函中,以使信函所
传达的信息更易被收信人接受:好消息商务信函常常采用积极的礼貌策略和篇章 上的直接结构来突出好消息对收信入面子的维护;坏消息商务信函则往往采取消

山东师范大学硕士学位论文

极的礼貌策略和间接的篇章结构来减缓坏消息对收信人面子的威胁;说服性商务 信函通过其特有的AICA结构来避免劝说过于唐突,并采用积极和消极的礼貌策 略来提高劝说的效率。

分析还表明,“同情准则”的细则之一——“尽量减少双方的反感”在商务 信函中具有特别重要的意义。这一细则直接与商务信函建立、维护商业形象,增
进业务关系的功能相呼应,并对收信人具有重要的心理影响。违反这一细则会引

起收信人的极大反感,给收信人留下长期的坏印象,对双方的业务关系造成极大
伤害。 此外,礼貌策略的使用具有一定差异性。某些礼貌策略可以应用于不同类型

的商务信函中,其他礼貌策略则只能应用于某一种类型的商务信函中;有些礼貌 策略常常同时出现而有些礼貌策略则极少同时出现,甚至具有截然相反的表达效
果。在今后的研究中,应该对这一差异给予更多关注。

本文研究表明,利奇的礼貌原则以及布朗和列文森的礼貌策略在各种类型的 商务信函中都有不同程度的体现。同时,这些原则和策略也指导和制约着商务信
函中语言的使用,为商务信函表达方式的合理选择提供了理论依据。对商务信函

礼貌策略的分析与研究有助于商务信函写作能力及教学水平的提高。

关键词:礼貌; 中图分类号:H31

礼貌策略;

商务信函;交际

山东师范大学硕士学位论文

Abstract

Politeness,as interaction,has

one

of me basic needs that

ensure

smooth a11d success如l human scholars fbm t11e fields of

been

enjoying酽eat popuIarity
aIld been

with

pragm“cs,sociolinguistics,psych0109y
early 1970s,dozens of meories 1inguistic have

cogllitive linguistics.Ever since the proposed to explain politeness
as a

phenomenon,锄ong

which the P01iteness

Principle

of Leech and t11e Face
on

Theory of Bro、vIl&LeVinson set the main行at】∽of the stlldy business correspondence is nmctions
as one

politeness.EngliSh

of me basic ways of business cOmmunication,which
to exchange

not only a

use如l

Incalls

i血rnlation but


also

an

impo吨mt

t00l to build and enhance business relations,mus requires

hi曲degree

ofp01iteness.

When、Ⅳc
、vriting in

look imo the teaclling a11d learning process ofbusiness correSpondence concentration is paid to t11e

China,we may find t11at most of the nmction of time,it


inf0锄ational
most of t11e

busjness letter jnStead of t11e interpersonal one.Howe、,cr, for the consideration Of

is polileness

ha姗0nious

business

relations that matters t11e choice of eXpression.This thesis埘es to explain how all kinds

of蚵ting

techniques

are

employed to embody various politeness s仃ategies
so as

丘om也e pragmatic point of view

to find outⅡle

theoretical fouIldation for t11e

proper choice ofexpressiOn in English business cofrespondence. This mesis is maillly based P01iteness
on

the Face Theory of Brown&LevinsOn aIld廿le

PrincipIe

of Leech.n emphasizes t11e imporcance of p01iteness to EngIish
an

bllSiness correspondence.First,it has politeness and centers the
on

overview of the four

major

views

on

the ConVersational一Maxim view represented by Leech a11d

Face—SavingⅥew

rcpresented by

Brown&Levinson.These帆o

theories

fb衄t11e

main theoretical

fr锄ework
On

of t11is thesis.Then,according to me

i110cutionary

劬ctions

and the eHbct

the reader’s face,it groups business correspondence imo

tlle following four

categories:routine business lener,good—news business letter,

bad—news business 1e仕er a工1d persuasive business letter At last,a descriptive analysis

山东师范大学颂士学位论文

is carried out at di任brent levels of tlle structures of business

letters,n锄ely'at
so as

me

word a11d expression 1evel,砒the sentence levcl,a王1d at the discourse 1eVel

to see

how politeness is presented and how it facilitates t11e business commu血cation iⅡ

di胁ent types

of 1etters.Among me four types of business correspondence,routine

business let七er mainly performs collaborative illocutions and is neu仃a1 to me reader’s face,thus is not aIlalyzed in this thesis. The analysis shOws that 900d—news business letter perfbnns mainly conViVial illocutions and attends
to

the reader’s face,so

is essemially

polite.However’
or even

inappmpriate eXpressions may decrease the favorable e髓ct ofthe good news tum it into


bad one.Bad—news business letter


perfoms

coIlflictive i110cutions aIld

threatens the reader’s face,thus has

higher requircmem of politeness in expression.

Persuasive business let七er perfornls mainly competitive i110cutions a11d t11reatens tlle reader’s negative face,thus needs


more diplomatic way of exprcssion in order to

persuade the reader to do something at the writer’s wiIl on也e baSis of polite】Ⅱess. According to t11eir

n栅e of politeness,di丘brent p01iteness s昀tegies
politeness s订ategies and

are

employed in

di仃erent types of business 1e仕ers in order to make the messages conVeyed more

acc印table:Positive
are

direct印proach

in discourse

struct眦

often used to s订engmen me face.builmng eff色ct of good.news business letter;

Negative politeness strategies a11d employed
to

indirect印proach
force

in djscourse

s咖ctIlre

are

usually 1etter;

mitigate

the

fhce-tllreaten血g

of bad-ne、Ⅳs

business

Persuasive business letter
to avoid

uses a

sDecial discourse strIlctl】re called廿1e AICA smlcture

abrup协ess and

to eIlllance

e伍ciency

in persuasion.Besides,botll positiVe
to faciljfate the

s仃ategies锄d
persuasion. Also,

negative stmtegies

are

adopted in persuasive 1etterS

the

analysis

reveals

that

t11e

sub-ma)(im

of
an

Leech’s

Sympa姆
ofa

Maxim一“MiniInizing

antipattly between

sPf,a11d

D肪P,’plays

ultra importallt role

in En91ish business coⅡespondence.It coincides with the image_building business 1etter to me utmost and has


f妇ction

direct

e艉ct
to

on

t11e emotion of the readeL

Ⅵ01alion

of this sub-maXim may put more,during



deadly mreat

me fmure business

rel撕oIls.
are

What’s
ji

the prOcess of analysis

we find that mere

some

山东师范大学硕士学位论文

di任brences in tlle employment of politeness stmtegies.Some p01iteness strategies be used in di行crcnt types ofbusiness le仳ers while ot}lers
caIl

can

be adopted only in some

kind of 1etteL So埘lc politeness strategies oftcn work togemer while others seldom

印pear

at tlle same

time

or

eVen

have totally opposite e丘’ects in expression.T}lis more anemion in the future stl】dv of

phenomenon

of廿1e

di丘色rences deserves

poIiteness in EngIish business correspondence. The a11alysis of恤is血esis shows that both the Politencss Principle of Leech and the politeness strategies of Brown&Levinson
are

embodied to some extem in

di虢rent

types of business correspondence.At the same time,Ⅱlese maxims and
use

strategies conduct and constmin the

of langllage aIld pmvide the theoretical

suppons fbr the proper choice of expression in Er培lish business correspondence.The study ofpoliteness stmtegies business corresDondence.

helps improve

me wdting a11d teaching ability ofEnglish

Key

Words:

p01iteness;

politeness

s仃ategies;

business

coITespondence

communication Category Number: H3 1

山东师范大学硕士学位论文

Abbreviations

FTA

Face Threatening Act

CP

Cooperative Principle

山东师范大学硕:L学位论文

Figures and rI'ables

Figures

Fig 1

Possible strafegies fbr doing F 7I’As

14

Thbles

T抽1e



Presentation ofp01iteness in good—news busiⅡess correspondence….…..68 Presentation ofpoliteness in bad-news business correspondence........…69 Presentation ofpoliteness in persuasiVe business

TabIe 2 Table 3

correspondence………69

独创





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山东师范大学硕士学位论文

Chapter 1 Introduction

1.1 Politeness and EngUsh Business Correspondence

Politeness,as



uniVersal phenomenon existing in any language community and
an

peⅡneating in every aspect of

indiVidual’s eVeryday life,has aroused great interests

ofmany linguists.Ever since the early 1970s,dozens oftheories have been proposed
to explain p01iteness
as a

linguistic

phenomenon.But

surprisingly,、vhen coming to eXplicit a11d definite aIlsweL

the simple question

of(‘What

is PoliteⅡess?”,也ere is

no

Held describes this linguistic

phenomenon

as

a“definitionally fuzZy a11d empirically

di伍cult area(1992:131).HoWever,in spite of a11 the

arg啪ents

and disaFeements,

aIl thc dcfin“ions of politeness to some extent and f而m di行音rcm angles present the
essence

ofpoliteness,锄ong

which me f01lowing Views is used

are

the most iⅢluential and

ones:

Lal(ofr argues

that politeness

for“rea珩Hning

strengthening

relationships’’(1973:298).According

to her,“P01iteness is a system of interpersonal

relations designed to facilitate interaction by minimizing the potential for conflict and con疳ontation i1111erent in a¨human interchallge”,Leech dennes p01itcness任om t11e perspective side aIld proposes吐lat it is used t0 create a11d maintain

h砌onjous
as

intemctions(1983).Fraser a11d Nolan(1981)describe politeness
of verbal behavioL Brown and

aS a

set ofconstraints

Levinson(1987)considcr

p01“eness

fomls

of

behavior that allow commuIlication to take partners.They define politeness
as“a

place

be“veen potentially aggressiVe

redressive action takcn to coumer-balance the

dismptive

e船ct

offace—t11reatening acts”.
caIl see

From all the above—memioned definitions given by dominant 1inguists we that Iinguists question
are

trying to aIlswer me seem血gly simple while essemially complicated is

of“what

p01iteness”.Thou曲up

till now there has not been



unifom

answer to it.aU tlle above-mentioned definitions do contribute to some extent to

eXpl血ing

tlle

essence

of

p01iteness.From these definitions、Ⅳe may draw



conclusion mat politeness is not only

an呻ortant means

of conveying infornlation,

山东师范大学硕士学位论文

but also
ensure

an

important way to aVoid connict,tone down potemial


aggression aIld
to show

smooth imemction.Simply speakin舀p01iteness is

set of

pattems

me

consideration for others a11d to achieve Business correspondence,as


h砌ony in conunullication.
a11 serves as an

basic mealls of business communication,plays

irreplaceable role in every aspect ofⅡle economic activities.It way to exchallge relationships.

e腑ctive
business
as

infomation.n

helps build a11d maimain correspondence by mail

h舢onious
also
serves a

Traditional business

the

legitimate wrmen comract血lly recognized by me collns a11d part of pennanent activities

company’s

record.Wimout

business coITespondence,most of也e routine busincss

c趾not

proceed success如11y

AdvaIlces血science a11d teclln0109y have gradually eliminated me distaIlce of time and space and gready contributed to easier and more

frequem business

interaction.With
Intemet

tlle globalization of me、vorld economy,the popularity of me
use

a11d廿1e晰despread

of new technologies in telecommunication,English

business correSpondence gets its rebirch and extends its realm of打aflsmission.It does
Ⅱot only

refer to the订aditional 1ctters a11y more,but also includes emails
essence

aIld

facsimiles.The fornl oftraIlsmission varies.but the As


remains.

kind of goal-oriented writing,business correspondence aims to achieVe

particlllar communicative goals in business letter is written infortllation in for t11ree purposes:to

transaction.Basically

spe出dng,a business

iⅢ’0肌,i.e.to

convey

1a唱e amount of

order to complete the day-to—day

oper“ons

of the buSiness;to

in】日uence,i.e.to innuence the reader’s attitude and prompt to react faVorably,1ike

prom嘶ng’a
give
a a

prodllct;and to entenain,wllich means to show goodwill toⅡ1e reader,

good impression aIld maill诅in丘iendly relationship between the both parties Of
one

business.Among the three basic pulposes,the mird

is mainly realized

throu曲

showing politeness. A busmess 1etI盯stands

not、0nly

for the writer,but also for t11e image of the

whole compally.Besides delivering the literal business infbnllation,business letters also convey implicit interpersonal

infb肌ation between 1ines.A well-written
good谢U
to

business

letter埘th


good mal:Lners shows sincerity,consideration and

the business

山东师范大学硕士学位论文

paftner,which builds a11d enhances the

hamonious

business rclation,thus f犯mtatcs business lctter wj山bad of respect,

the business commuIlication,however,a manners may impress血e business partner Ⅵ抽ich does hanll to the

poorly州tten
as

insincere,姗gaIlt and lack

r印port and

at

last damages the business relation.

T0 agreat extent,howto sayis asimportant aswhatto say alldmostofthctime, how to say is

mainly

decided for me consideration of p01iteness.writers of busincss

letters choose the way of expression care如1Iy and employ various teclllliques to achieve politeness
to

the

utmost

in

order

to

facilitate

successful

busirless

commullication and reaIize the ultimate go“ofgaining pr06t. In t11e following chapters ofthis thesis,tlle authortries to aIlalyze how politeness is presented
to

enhance

business

commuIlication

and

achieVe
on

panicular

communicative goals tllrough Various politeness

strate西es

basing

the Pomeness

Principle ofLeech and the Face’nleory ofBrown&LeVinson.

1.2 The Sjgnjficance of the Thesis

Business correspondence plays business cOmmllllication that it is

so

important of the



roIe i11 the whole process of tlle skills mat all businesspersons

one

esse埘al

need to masteL However,when we Iook into the teaching and leaHling process of business correspondence writing in China,we may find mat most oftlle concenn丑tion is paid to山e

info蛐ational

function ramer t11an me interpersonal fullction of the
on

letters,thatis to say,both the teachers and t11e students focus instead of treating it
as a

the lallguage itself
are

means of

communication.Modelletters
explanations of why
are

proVided for t11e

students
some

to imitate、vithout

fu】汕er

toⅥite

in t11is way EVen

of

the

model

letters

themselves

inappropriate

for

the

success如l

coIllmunication. n is fbr this
reason

t}lat

me釉or writes this thesis.In this thesis,the aumor
as

chooses English business c0Ⅱ口spondence politcness s订ategies

t11e lajlguage maCerials a【ld analyzes me choice of eXpression in me business

which dominate tlle

correspondence缸om the

commuIlic“ve

poim of view in the hope of finding out

why



山东师范大学硕士学位论文

and how politeness stmtegies

are

applied to achieve p01iteness a11d facilitate the

success血I business transactions.In this way,the t11esis provides me theoreticaI
fbundalion a11d furmer explallation forthe proper choice of expressions in En91ish business correspondence,which

helps

to improve the writing and teaclling ability of

English business correspondence by making clear not only how to

wite

but also why

towmethisway.

1.3 Research

Method

and Data ResOurces

In mis mesis,the author chooses EngIish business correspondence

as

the target

data and adopts the descriptiVe approach to analyZe how pol“eness is acllieved in English business correspondence mrough various politeness sn.ategies and how it faciIitates the successfhl business communication.The analysis centers
on

the va血ous

州iting

tecllniques and skills used in

prese州ng

politeness at di圩hent levels of the
sentence

s协Jctures ofbusiness 1etters,namely,at the word and expression 1evel,at the
1evel.and atⅡ1e discourse level. AU the

ex锄ples

and sample 1etlers

are

mainly selected矗_om books

on

business

comml】11ications written by both natiVe speakers and the Chinese authors.nlese
books

include:B淞f胛eJ5肝打以g占邪f甜by

Jalle

Watson;B螂j玎P嬲肝衙馏尬拓ovP瑚
cai

by Hawley

Roddick;捕劝印P鲥B“J加8船腑frf肾西se"砌,砌Po∥硎d m折cP扔
Bruce

P一(如m聊“船fc口,io玎by

Hird;E嚼妇矗B“s加已船三e“P坩by
Hu Yingkung a11d coIporations
are are so

Ling;and

CD砟栅鼍印,盘∥B“sf胛P船脚fff馏by com删mication
selected
sollrces

on.A1so,letters in real For the sdke of

from local

included.

co曲dentiality,the

oftllese letters

nO“dentified.

1.4 Layout of the Thesis

The、Ⅳh01e thesis consists offive pans.

Chapter 1 is me immduction,in Which the definitions of politeness given by
prominem linguists
are

aIld

me

s培nificallce

of

politeness

in

En91ish

business

correspondence

introduced.Research metllod,data

resources

a11d the layout ofthjs



山东师范大学硕士学位论文

thesis

are

also included in this pan. 2 reViews the p01iteness meories of recent years.Four

Ch印ter
politeness

major

Views

on

arc

irl仃oduced in tllis pan,among which t}le more popular ConVersational-
are

Ma)(im View and山e Face—Saving View
and Brown&Levinson’s theoretical fbulldation Face Theory the

centered on,Leech’s Politeness PriIlciple paid special attention a11alysis of
as

are

mey lay me in business

for

follo埘ng

politeness

correspondence. Chapter 3 has


general survey of En91ish business correspondence,including its

classifications according to

di疏rent

criteria,aIld analyzes t11e face threats in di丘brem

types of business letters.At last,it discusses the tendency of the current business co玎espondence a11d its requirement
on

p01iteness.

Chapter 4 is t11e most imponant pan of the thesis.In t11is pa鸡how politeness is presented and how it facili诅tes the business communication in good_news business

le他r,bad,news 埘th
eXamples

busmess letter and persuasive business letter a11d

is锄alyzed
maIlif宅sting

separately

s锄ples.Various、vritmg

teclllliques

di&rent

p01itcness

strategies at the word a工1d expression level,the sentcnce leVel and the
are

discourse level

presented in detail.

The conclusion part reViews the preVious

analysis,s啪s

up让1c main outcomes

aIld points out the signmcallce aIld limitation of血e thesis.

山东师范大学硕士学位论文

Chapter 2 An 0VerView of Politeness

2.1 A General Survey of the Four

MajorⅥews

on

Politeness

Politcnesg,as



social

activ时existing in

any la王19uage

commuIlity,a心acts

great

attention of the 1inguists.Before coIlling to the a11alysis of politeness in En91ish business correspondence,1et
us

first haVe



general survey

on

me main theories of

politeness.Due to the complex and suq)rising lack ofgeneral

na帆of politeness,mere is a仃emendous confusion
regarding the
essence

consensus

ofpoliteness.Linguists

atcempt to explain politeness行om di丘brem angles and at various levels,thus,lead to

a挈eat number of unconnected stlldies.Meier

once

refers to tllis phenomenon

as



“disconcening amount of diVergence aIld lack of

cl撕ty

conceming the meaIling of

politeness(1995a:345).
Inl 990,Fraser reviewed follr approaches accounting for politeness.He groups the fbur approaches
as

f01lows:t11e social.nornl View,the conVersatioIlal-ma)£im View,

the face—saving VieW,a工ld nnally’his own approach,the conversational一comract view. The

soc沁norm view is廿1e
class,Ⅵ,hich deals

traditional view ofpoliteness equated with
primarily with social desirable

fo彻ality

and social

behavior and the

IaIlguage at me level ofset p11rases.According to

Fraser(1990:221),“the

social-no衄

approach has few adherems among cun.ent researchers.” The conVersational?maxim view
are

is maillly

based

on

Grice’s

CooperatiVe
0llr

Principle,mat is,the notion that there

cenain ma)【ims that guide and constrain


communication.Ifthe speaker violates these maxims,it is for

reason,a11d t11e hearer

must then infcr thc meaning from the implicature.Lako圩a11d Leech produce work similar to that Of(hice;Leech proposes Politeness Principle,w11ich is considercd complemem of Grice’s Cooperative
as a

Principle,which

Mc村甜历口卯加m

sgrfD淞

t阳ubte.
The face-saving view refers in panicular to t11e work 0f Bro、Ⅳ11 and LeVison, which
sees

politeness

to

be equated to face—threats and fhe—saving,and indirect



生查塑苎查竺堡主兰垡笙塞
speech acts to be used to create implicatures.

Finally,here comes the conversational-contract view presented by Fraser’which
sees

the conversation

as a

kind of con仃act a11d poIiteness not existing in thc la王lguage

itselfbut detennined by me extent to which the speaker adherent to the coⅡversational
cOntract.

Among all the four views face—saving view

on

politeness,tlle corⅣersational—ma)【im View a11d me

enjoy



hi曲er

Ievel of

popuIari吼in which血e f如e—saving
one

View is

the most innuential a11d most widely

acc印ted

in the presem study ofpoliteness.

The following part of this thesis wilI mainIy discuss seVeral poI“eness thcories related to

mese研o

views,including Lako圩,s p01iteness View,Leech’s

P01i储less

Princi ple,a|1d Brown&Levinson’s face the a11alysis
on

Theo%which co嘶ibute En鲥sh

to

the行锄ework of

politencss and its presen切tion in

business correspondence.

2.2 The

CoⅡversatioⅡal—MaximⅥew of

PoIiteness

2.2.1 Grice’s CooperatiVe Principle

The conversational-maxim view of p01iteness is maitlIy based COoperative Principle,so let principle.
us

on

H.P Grice’s

first have



brief rcView of(埘ce’s cooperatiVe

According to Grice,speaking to omers,like any other social actiVities,can 011ly take place when the people inv01ved,speaker and certain convcmions govem their actions and their

hear%mutually
use

rccognize mat

of lallguage,and also their
are

ime印retations Of the actions and
So,in exists

the埘eraIlces
a11d

of the person thcy

speaking

w岫.

his‰ous paper‘‘Logic


Conversation’’(1975),(黼ce

suggests that mere

set of ma)【ims and

sub-ma)【ims that guide a11d

conmain

me conversation of

rational people.He has fonnulated his well一known“Coopera上iVe Principle”,whjch interlocutors in cOnversation are∞币ected to observe:

Make

your conversational

contribution such
pulpose
or

aS

is required,at the stage at

wllich it occu巧,by the

acc印ted

direction of the talk exch卸ge in



山东师范大学硕士学位论文

which you

are

engaged.

(1975:45)
This

principle

is

associated耐t}l

four constimem maxims,labeled
one or

as

quality,

q咖ti吼relation
proViding


a11d

ma皿er,each

of which consists of

more sub—ma)【ims.

Accordillg to it,panicipams should speal(“sincerely,relevamly and

cle础y,while
essence,

sumcient information”(1975:102).111e

CooperatiVe Principle is,in

sort of tacit agreement between participants to work togetller to create a cohercnt

and emcient f0110ws:

1a119uage interchange.The maxims of Cooperative Principle

are

as

(1)Quality:Try to make

yollr coⅡ订ibution one that is true,i.e.

a.Do not say what you belieVe is false. b.Do not say t11ings for which you lack adequate evidence.

(2)Quallmy:Give a,Make

the right amount

ofinfomation.
as

your contribution as血formative

is required for the currendy

purposes ofme exchange. b.Do not make your contribution more

info珊atiVe than

is required.

(3)I沁1ation:Be (4)MaIlner:Be

releVant. perspicuous.

a.Avoid锄biguity
b.Avoid

obscur时.

c.Bebrie£ d.Be orderly‘ According to the cooperative

Principle,if each

interlocutor has s啊ctly 0beyed

the above four ma)【ims,tlle interaction would have been most rational and efficient,as each speaker speal【s out what he
or

she wants to say a11d the hearer understallds“

wimout any i11ation;besides,the 1anguage is most 109ical and rational.HoweVer,血e

maXims

are

onen violated in real

conversation,thus,an implicature t11at

can

be

inferred through comext generated. COOperative Principle

c趾not

explain

why

people

should

Observe

tlle
to

conversa廿onal maXims and why mey deliberately break up


mem.A1so,it黼ls

山东师范大学硕士学位论文

explain the deIiberate strategies people take in commllllication,which p01itcness

o&n

accoullts f0L Therefore,it paves the way for the developInem of politeness theories.

Obviously,only being cooperative

is姗行om enou曲in

real

conversation.To

maintain the friendship between the speakers and mal(e the communication continue smoothIy’maxims of the Cooperative Principle ofpoH把ness.So,besides Cooperatjve
are

sometimes sacrinced

to

me need

P渤ciple,Grice also
one.

proposes other ma,(ims,of

which抛pD胁P

is the most conspicuous

2.2.2 Lakoff’s view

on

Politeness

Lakofr is the nrst and study

one

to explain politeness wim Grice’s COnversational Principle

politeness f如m
sees

me conVersational—maxim
as

point of

view.Generally ref毫盯iIlg幻盱”

sp。aking,Lal(ofr connict

pomeness

the avoidance of
states:

o舵nce.When

beMeen

clari够and p01iteness,she

PoIiteness usually supersedes:it is considered more important in conversation to avoid since in most



o彘nce

t11an to achieve clarity.This makes actuaI

sense,

info珊a1

conversations,

communication

of

曲ponalltideas
relations.

is secondary to merely

re缅衄ing

and s仃en鲁hetling

(1973:297—298) Lakoff(1973)suggests
a.Be clear b.Be polite According to two mles ofPragmatic Competence:

Lako圩(1 973),politeness

is developed in societies in order to

reduce衔ction in personal imeraction.She argues that if the
conveyed is noticeable,the speaker will lay s仃ess
0n

infb肌ation


being

me clarity in

conversation;if

not,the spedker will consider more of the social status of the hearer and some other

factors inVolVed in me conversation,thus sacri6ce clarity
conversation most of tbe time when t11ere is


to the politeness of the
on

coⅡniction.Based

mis view.

Lako坝1973)proposes

t11ree sub-maXims of politencss矗om me perspective of the



山东师范大学硕士学位论文

speaker: a.Don’t impose Used when b.GiVe

fbmal/impersonal politeness

in required

options

Used、Ⅳhen infonnal politeness is required

c.MakeHfeel good
Used when imimate p01iteness is requjred She later refonnulates the n11es ofpoliteness
as

follows

a.FoⅡnality:Ke印aloof
b.Def毫rence:Give options

c.C锄araderie:Show

syrnpamy

2.2.3 Leech’s Politeness Principle

P01iteness Prir【ciple proposed by Leech is anotller innuential tlleory ofpoliteness Leech agrees in

p妇iple with血e Gricean fr眦ework

of cooperatiVe

Principle,but

he suggests that it should be pr01ifbmted.As is memioned Principle a11d Conversational

before,(埘ce’CooperatiVe

Implic栅e

fhil to make



pe疵ct

explanation of why
are

pe叩1e

deliberately vi01ate也e conversational maxims since they


supposed to

obsenre them and why mey choose tO express memselVes in

round—about way

instead of bemg stmight to the poim.Leech holds that most of the timeⅡ1e act is motivated by me desire of paying attention to politeness.In his Opinion,politcness is
not
seen

to have any山ing to

do witll“pmgmatic progress”,but
as

ratllcr谢m“me

attainmem of social goals’’(watts,1 992:7)such
the speaker and hearer at the of Grice’s Cooperative its maxims
as aIl

achieving the maximum benefit for

mininl啪cost,me

ultimate goal of comit)r.On me basis 11is own Politeness Principle and

Pmciple,Leech fo衄ulates

adaptation and expansion ofGrice’s Cooperative Principle in 1983 in
an

his“Principles of Pragmatics”,w11ich constitutes politeness. Leech argues that c00perative

innuential theory conceming

Principle

is not the only principle that guides a11d

10

山东师范大学硕士学位论文

cOnsⅡains human interaction.Cooperative Principle regulates what we say contributes to some

so

t11at it
to

ass岫edⅢocutionary

goals while P01iteness Principle
us

helps

maimain t11e行iendly relation between the interlocutors,which enables mat
our

to

aSs吼e

interlocutors

are

cooperative m me first place,Politcness Princlple“rescucs” heIping explain why people deliberately


Cooperative

Principle

by

Violate

the

conversatio眦l maxims

a11d choose t0 eXpress themselves in
caIl

round—about way.

Leech’PoIiteness Principle

be

stated(1983)as

fbIlows:
are

Other tlling beillg equal,minimize the expression of beliefs mat

u11fhorabIe m“imize
Like

to the hearer

and at the

s砌e
are

time(but

1ess

importaIlt)

the exprcssion ofbeliefs that

faVorable

to the heareL


Lako噩Leech also adopts

me GriceaIl framework and foHnulates

series of

ma)【ims a11d sub—maXims.These maxims ofPoliteness I 1’ACT

PrincipIe

are as

follows:

MAXIM

(in impositives
to

and

commissiVes)

(a)Minimize cost

D肪"
to

[(b)Ma)(imize benem

o捕Pr】

II GENEROSITY MAXIM

(a)Minimize benem 【(b)Maximize cost

to

5e矿

to

J醐
MAXIM (in expressives and assertiVes)

ⅡI APPROBATION

(a)Mmimize

dispraise ofD腩97 praise of o腩e,1

[(b)Maximize

IV MODESTY

MAXIM

(in expressives

aIId

assertives)

(a)Minimize praise of占8扩 【(b)Ma)(imize dispmise of船们


AGREEMENT MAXIM

(in assertives)

(a)Minimize disa哥eemem betWeen sP纩and o腩P,

[(”Ma)(imize

agreementbetween

jP矿and o伪P,】

VI SYMPATHY

MAXIM

(in assenives)

(a)Minjmize antipamy [(b)Ma)【imize

between

JP矿and

D历F,

sympathy between

sPf,aJld D砌g,】
ll

山东师范大学硕士学位论文

(Leech,1983:132)
According importance. Of a11 the siX ma)(ims,Tact conversational
to

Leech,not all

the ma)(ims

a11d

sub-ma)【ims

are

of equal

Ma)【im印pears

to be a more

power如1 constraim

on

behavior than Generosity Maxim,and

Approbation

Maxim more

powe向lthan

Modest MaXim(Leech,1 983).In fact,Tact Maxim is
essence

of州mary
use

importance among all廿le six maXims,as‘、acr’is the 1angIlage politely meaIls to
use

of politeness.Tb is

laIlguage

tact蹦ly Besides,T乱t Maxim

minly

perfonned in impositiVes,wmch require me highest rank of politeness and manjfest politeness to the greatest extent among a11illocutionary acts.

2.3 The Face—SaViⅡg View of Politeness-Brown and LeVinson’s Face TheoI了

2.3.1 The Dennition of“Face”

“Face”,as by

an

explan咖ry concept

in humall imeraction,is originally in仃oduced

Er弋,ing Go归矗nall.He

defines“fbe”as‘、he positiVe

socialⅦlue



person


e行bctively claims

for hjmself by the line others

ass哪e

he has taken dllring

panicular contacr’,i.e.me image Of t11e“self’’that

is presemed.According to

Go位nan,“fke”is



sacred thing for every human being,an essemial f如t that all

communicators have
for other people’s Based
on

to pay attention to;if one want his face cared for,he should care

face(Gomnall,1959).

the f犯e notion raised by

Go缸1an,Brown and

Levinson proposed their

own face—saving theor弘According to them,‘face’refcrs to“the public self.image that eVery member wants to claim for himself,’and“something that is

emotiomlly

iIlvested,and恤at
a钍ended to in

caIl

be lost,maintajned,or enhanced,and rm】st be constantly

imeraction”(Brown&Levmson,1987:61).

Brown and Levinson assume廿1at all the intemctants,i.e.all competent adult members of a society,llave‘face’a11d certain rational capabil“ies.According to mem, 廿1e notion of

f犯e

entails tvm di岱:rent kinds of desires

Or

face wallts w11ich people

12

山东师范大学硕士学位论文

have and whjch all people l(Ilow ot王lers to have.Thcse t、v0 types
a.

ofw锄ts

are:

NegatiVe face:the wam of a person no“o be imposed upon by others. Positive face:the want of


b.

person mat his attributes,achievements,ideas,

possessions,goals,etc.should be desirable to at least cenain others.

2.3.2 Face-Threatening Acts

Usually,ratioml

people t}link stratcgically and

are

conscious of their langllage

choice.In order to achjeVe some paniclllar go“in interaction,people tend to aVoid

disa即eemcnt aild minimize their loss of face.HoWever,“it is intumvely the
certain kinds of acts intrinsically t11reaten

case

that

face,n锄ely

mose

acts that by t11eir natIlre

mn contrary

to

me f.ace、vants of me addressee aIld/0r of the speaker,’(Brown&
speech acts
are

Levinson,1987).Those
Brown and Levinson.

called

Face-Threatening

Acts(FTA)by

Brown a11d Levinson men distinguiSh me Face-Threatenjng Acts

as

follows: indicating

1)Those

that

threaten

the

addressee’s

negative

face、vant,by

(potentially)that

the speaker does not i11tend to avoid impeding tlle hearer’s fkedom

ofaction,including:

orders锄d requests,suggestions,advice,rcmindings,t11reats,wamings,dares, offers,promises,compliments,expressions
stmng emotions
of enVy
or

adrniration,expressiolls of

t0删the

hearer,e.g.,haIred,anger,lust

2)Those

acts that tllreaten the positive

f犯e want of me addressee,by indicatir塔

tllat the speaker does not expressions reprimaIlds,

care曲out

the addressee’s feelings,wants,etc,includ抽g:
or

of disapproval,criticism,comempt insults, con订adictions
or

ridicule,cornplaints aIld challcnges, those

accusations,

disagreements,

eXpression of violem emotions,i玎everence,memion of taboo that
are

topics(including

in印propriate

in me

context),bringillg

bad news about the hearcr,or good
or

news(boasting)about the

Speaker,raising of dangemusly emotional
an

diVisiVe topics,

bla恤t non.cooperation in

actiVity

and

so on

山东师范大学硕士学位论文

3)Those

that o仃end me speaker’s negatiVe face,including:
or

accepting the hearer’s thanks

thc hearer’s ap0109y,excuses,acceptallce of
so on

o圩er,response to the hearer’s fall)(pas,uIl、villing promises and offers and

4)Those

that directly damage the speaker’s positive fhce,includiIlg:

印ologies,

acc印tance
or

of



compliment,
so on

selfcontradiction,

confessions,

adInissions ofguilt

responsibility and

2.3.3

Polit嘶ess Strate昏es

According to Brown a11d Levinson,since most ofme speech acts

arc

in仃insically
or

f如e threatening,imeractams of



conVersation tend to aVoid the FTAs

try to

emplOy some politeness s廿.1tegies While doing the FTAs to mmga把me FTAs
so as

d锄age oftlle

to acllieve their commu血cational goals successfhlly.For the interactants,

the politeness is used to maintain the f如e wants oftlle both sides ofa conVersation to

utIllost.Thus,me

p01iteness

s位札egies

are

also

called“redressiVe

strategies”.

According to me degrees to whjch the s仃ategies tllreat nle speal(er’s face want,Brown a11d Levinson illustrates the p01iteness strafegies in the schema below:

1.wjtIlout redressjve action,baldly

On

reC0rn

,Dothe FTA

<.

wim redressiVe 4.offrecOrd

acti。n/


3megatiVe pojitelless





2.positiVe poljteness

5.Don’t do血eFTA

Figurc

1 Possible snaIegies for dojng FTAs

(Brown

a11d

LeVinson,1987:60)

at By tal(i119 baId—on—record strategy it means the speaker does not redress FTAs

a11.usually蚰s

strategy is used in circumstance

Where(a)me

speal(er a11d血e hearer

14

山东师范大学硕:匕学位论文

bom tacitly
of u唱ency

agree that
or

me relev锄ce of face demands may be suspended in the interest
daIlger to hearer’s face is very small,as in

efnciency;(b)where the

o行brs,requests;a11d(c)where

the speaker is vastly superior in power to the hearer'or

c龇1 enlist audience support to des仃oy the hearer’s face WiⅡ10ut 10sing his own.

Thou曲FTAs

can

be done“bald-on rccord”,that is to say directl y’most of the

time me speaker chooses to tal(e some redressiVe actions that‘‘give face’’to attempt to countemct the potential face his own face of
so

d锄age

of FTA and maintain both血c hearcr’s face and
can

that the communication
or

proceed

Smoothly.Based on
can

which a印ect

face(negative

positive)is

being strcssed,redressive action

be divided into

廿1ree fbllIls:positiVe p01iteness,negative politeness and o圩_record poIitencss. POsitiVe politeness is oriented toward the positive face of t11e hearer,血e positive selfimage廿1at he claims for himself Positive politeness shows that the speal(er recognizes the hearer’s desire
to

have his positive face

want respected.Positive

politeness is approach.based,which expresses s01idarity,friendliness aIld in-gmup reciprocity PositiVe p01iteness exaggerate

s昀te百es

include:notice/attend to the

hearer’s啪nts,

interest/approval,intensi母intercst,use

in-group identity markers,seek

鸥reement,assen common舒ound,joke,assert

kIlowledge of the}learcr’s wants,

off音r佃romise,be

optimistic,include the speaker and the hearer in the

activity,叠ive

reasons,assume assert

reciproci吼giVe百R

to the hcarcI:

Negative politeness,on the otherhand,is Oriented toward恤e hearer’s desire to maintain claims of territory arld self-deteHnination aIld to be unimpeded.Negative politeness shows that the speaker recognizes me hearer’s rights of autonom y-It e×presses the speaker’s essentially

remain

and avoidallce of imposing p01iteness strategies

On

the hearer,出us is

avoidance_based.Negative

mainly

includc:be

conVen廿onally inmrect,question,hedge,be pessimistic,minilnize

imposition,百ve
F11A
as a

deference,印ologize,avoid血e pmnouns“I’’a11d‘‘you”,state the
rule,go
on

gencral

record

as

not indebting the hearet to the indirect s打ategies
on

O搏record politeness refers
explicit than
or

that avoid mak洫g any
are

unequiVocal imposition

the heareL By going o圩record,mere

more

one

interpretation of an u札erallce,so the speaker caIlnot be held to have done the
15

山东师范大学碗士学位论文

F7rA and the hearer

can

choose not to understand 1t.

Whenme

riskto dotheFTAistoo great,the

speakerchoose幽肝}面腩PF列
an

Bro、vn and Levinson argue mat the face afrect of againstⅡ1ree pragmatic fktors:the social hearer,the relative

utterance

is calculated the of

distallce(D)between

the

speaker柚d

power(P)between

the speaker and the

hearer肌d

me础ing

imposition(R).
D refers to


symmetric social dimension of sjmilarity/dif斑rence wim which me
on

speaker and恤e hearer stand forthe act.It is based of interaction andⅡle kinds of matcrial
0r

the assessment of恤e frequency

non—material

goods(including face)

eXchaI】gedbet、veen t11e speaker a11d me heareL P is the degree to which the hearer
can

impose hjs own plalls a11d self_evaluation

(f如e)at me

expense of血e speal【er’plail and self_eValuation.

R refers to山e culmmlly and situationalIy defined ranking of imposition by the degree to which也ey
are

considered to interfbre with

an

agem’s wants of self

—detemlination

or

of印proval.
a11

According to Browll and Levinson,each of them has the choice of p01iteness strategies and their

independent

e脏ct

on

e船cts

call

be specified in

tems

of



nmerical
able

value.Thlls,knowing how to

use a

langu剐昏e co工Tectly

just

means being

t0 assess

these values accurately aIld cor工℃1ate them wim certain laIlgIlage
an

expressions,ways Of spea:king,etc.in order to produce jntended fhce a丘bct.

utte啪ce

tllat llas the



山东师范大学硕士学位论文

Chapter 3 An OVerView of English Business Correspondence

3.1 The Definition of Business Correspondence

Business refcrS to a¨t11e acti、rities of buying and selling goods

or

seⅣices.

Correspondence is tlle act of exchanging letters orthe 1eners exchanged.So,generally speaking,business correspondence business
can

be defined

as

me co玎espondence used in
or

tr柚saction,i.e.,1etters
one

that support the goal ofbuying and selling goods

services.As

of me most popular meatls of communication ifl business activities,
a11

business coH它spondence plays

irreplaceable mle in me向lfillment of buSiness


transactions.In this chapter,we wi儿have

detailed discussion onⅡ1e classi矗cation of

business correspondence according to the nature 0f me letters conceming poIiteness. Then we will discuss the FTAs in each type of the business con.espondence.At last, we

wm_【alk
on

about

the

tcndency

of

currem

business

correspondence

a11d

its

requirements

tlle politeness ofbusiness letters.

3.2 Speech Act TheoI了and the Classification of Business Correspondence

3.2.1 Leech’s Classjncation of nlocutionar),Functions

Beforc coming to the classification of business correspondence,let general review of the speech act theoretical foundations for tlle politeness. According to things. He then

us

first haVe



meo吼which

lays

one

of the most importallt

cIassificati叽of

business correspondence conceming

Austin(1975),1a119llage

is used not only to describe but also to do speech
acts

distinguishes three dif| ̄erent of
a a

of

a11

utterance,

i.e.,

locutionary

act—the眦erallce

sentence with

detelminate

sense

a11d reference;


i110cutiOnary act一廿le making of by virtue of the

statement,ofrc置promise,etc.in force associated wim

utt鲥ng

sentence,

conventio衄1

it(or、Ⅳjm

its performatiVe

par印hrase);a11d

perlocutionary act—me bringing about of

e虢cts

on出e audience by
17

生查堑苎查兰堡主堂垡丝兰
means of uttering thc sentence,Such

e虢cts

being special to t11e circl】mstaIlces of

utterance(Levinson,1 983:236).
Based

on也is恤eory’Leech(1983)ofrers
terms
of how they relate
to



classification of i110cutio玎ary goal of establishing and

缸1ctions.111
maintaining types:

the social

comity,illocu瞳ionary觚ctions

can

be classmed into the follow.mg four

1)COMPETITIVE:the i110cutionary goal co瑚巾etes with the social goal:e.g.
ordering,asking,demanding,begging,etc. Illocutions of tllis type
are

impolite in uleir nature,as

no

matter in what tone me

Speech is uttered,the intention of the speaker is to force the hearer to do according to the

some蚰ng

speaker’s谢11.There

is



lack of

h锄ony

beMeen

the speaker’s

com吼icative

goal a11d the requirement of p01iteness.Because of this,me speaker

should pay special attention to nle imp01iteness ofthe i110cution.

p01i船1ess

of his lallguage in order to mitigate the

2)CONVIVIAL:the i110cutionary goal coincides wim me social goal;e.g.

o&Iing,inviting,greeting,也ankin&congramlating.
1110cutiona坷acts
of this type
are

essentially polite,as they colncide with the invitation,’or“imp01itc

demalld of p01iteness.It

is hard t0 imagine‘气mp01ite

congratulation”under nornlal

circ啪stance.
i110cutionary goalis indiffbrent to nle social goal;e召.

3)COLLABORATIVE:the

assening,reponing,釉ouncing,instructing.
According to Leech,politeness does not matter much in t11is type of i110cmions,
aS

it is the message itself that me interlocutors

care

abaut.They pay more attention to

how to订ansfer血e message in me

mo虬e骶ctive way.

4)CONFLICTIVE:tlle i1Iocutionary goal connicts with the social goal;e.g.
t11reatenin&accusing,reprimanding. This type of illocutions is imp01ite in nanlre.So,in order to avOid,to the greatest

degree,the confromations and connicts between the speaker and me hearer,otller
types of illocutions
are

often

perfomed indircctly

at血e same血ne.

18

山东师范大学硕士学位论文

3.2.2 CIassincation of Business Correspondence

Business cofrespondence difrerent criteria.For

call

be classified from din臼ent an91es a11d according to
to the di丘brent fhnctions in the process of a

ex砌ple,according
can

business trrmsaction.business letters

be class洒ed

as

Ietters for me establishment

ofbusiness relations,letters for me enquiry ofbusiness,quotation Ietters,negotiating letterS,

ord“ng

leners,

payment

1eners,

sllipment

a11d

insurallce

letters,

acl(nowledging good rcceipt letters,claim le廿ers atld according to the content of me Ietter,business letters lettcrs,letters answering requests,claim a11d 】etter,sales

adjustment
can

letters,etc.Or,
as

be classified

request

adjustment

letters,credit and collect

letters,employment

le牡ers and sociaJ

business

letters,etc.(stewan,

1984:380—3811 T11e lattcr way of classmcation centers
on

the fUnction and the communicatiVe

90al of the 1etters,which has g豫at to do With the illocutionary acts perfbnned by the

le他rs.Thus

we can group the letters into t}le following four categories according tO

thc classmcation of illocutionary缸1ctions by Leech:

】)C01laborative

le他rs:including inqu时letters,o行er le№rs,conformation
so

le骶rs,notmcation

le仕ers afld

on,which

perfom

mainly collaboratiVe illocutions,

that is to say,t11e main purpose of me 1etcer is to exchange conveyed by this type of letter
are

itlfomlation.Messages

neutral—news messages.

2)Convivial 1etters:including印proval letters,letters invitation锄d
favorable
so

0f印preciation,1e岫s of

on,which usually

perf0珊me

conviVialillocutions.ConVeying

message and

building衔endly

business relationship甜e the primary

communicative goal ofⅡ1is type of letteL

3)Competitive le他rs:including
and
so

requestletters,collection le札ers,salcs letters of w11ich is to persuade the reader to take

on,the

primary comm岫icative goal

cerlain action,也us is impolite in nature.However,with proper skills of persuasion,“ is possible to chaJlge the

lener舶m“imp01ite'’to“polite,’.Messages

conveyed m this

type ofletter

are

called persuasiVe messages.
letters:including alI types of refbal letters,claim and

4)Connictive

adjust
19

山东师范大学硕士学位论文

let【ers a11d

so

on.Lettcrs of t11is type pcrfornl mainly co对1ictive illocutions,which
or eVen

may danlage t11e business rela廿on behveen me writer ajld the reader connicts,廿1us
are

lead to

at a
are

comparatively high leVel of impoliteness.Messages conVeyed
called bad—news messages.

in mis type of Ietter

According to the nature ofme

infomation giVen,Stewart(1984:382)s啪med up te珊s
of its eff色ct on恤e reader’s needs:neu廿al
on

fbur di丘色rem kinds of infbnnation in

news,good news,persuasion a11d bad news.Based neutral一news

this claSsification,here comes

letters(routine business letters),good—news
are

le撕s,persuasive letters and

bad—news letters,w11ich

s印arately

equal to the aboVe—mentioned collaboratiVe

letcers,convivial 1etters,competitive 1etcers,a11d connictive letters. For me consideration ofⅡle degree to wllich the classifications politeness
are

related to

and for me sake of brevity and clarity of廿le thesis,the last type of

claSsi6cation,nanlely routine business 1etcers,good-news letters,persuaSiVe 1etters and bad-ne、vs 1etters,is adopted in tllis thesis.

3.2.3 FTAs in

Different.Iypes

of BusiⅡess CorrespoⅡdeⅡce

According to Brown a11d LeVinson,most of me speech acts threateIling,but defer in degree,which decides whether they what extent mey
are are

are

intrinsically face
or

polite

not and to

polite.Based

on

the face

theory,Rjley&Mackiewicz(2003)
on

classi母the business

correspondence according to the e丘'ect of the business lcners business letters
are

the readers’face.According to mem,routine good—news business letters
are

face-neutral,

fke_building,bad-news busiIless letters tbreaten the

reader’s positive face,and persuasive business letters t11reaten me reader’s negatiVe

f如e.Now Let
coITespondence.

us

discuss in detail the f如e ef!F色cts of the follr types of business

Ro嘶ne

business

letters恤^eatcn

neimer the positive northe negatiVe face of the

reader,as most of t11e letters of this type aim at conveying conductmg me reader’s behavior messages delivered in tlle leners
or cven

info珊ation

otller man

criticizing the readeL Besides,most of t11e
are

are

llncomroversial routine infomlation a11d

20

山东师范大学硕士学位论文

presupposed to be necessary and helpml for恤e readers. Good-ncws business 1etters convey

f打orable

messages to the reader,which is

imended to be beneficial to t11e reader,thus will attend to the reader’s bot}l positive face a11d negative face. Bad—news business Ietters mreaten the positive fhce of the readers by showing some kind of disagreement
to the rcader’s
on

me reader

or

bringing some bad ncws that will do hann


benefit.Most of the bad news Ietters,for example 1etters declinjng

countem虢r

orletters of delaying

deliVe吼蹦limo

tllis type.Some bad—news letters posing explicit

like complaints and claims t11reaten me reader’s positive face by criticism
on

the readeL

Persuasive business 1ettersⅡlreaten the negative fhce of the reader,as mey jmpede 0n出e readef,s疗eedo啪0faction by de】iVerjng jnfornlation that、vill benefit automaticany to the readeL

not确ng

3.3 Politeness aⅡd CurreⅡt Business Correspondence

A business letter is considered successful only when it conveys me messages

as

the writer has imended to and achieves t11e writer,s particular communicative goal.To meet these requirements,seven Cs the business letter writing.These
arc

genemted by experts in order to Cs
are aS

help

guiding

seven

follo、vs:completelless,concretencss,

cleamess,conciseness,courtesy,consideration,and correc协ess,of which me concise
principle, the considefation principle

肌d

the

courtesy

principle

are

of

Vital

signmcaIlce

to t11e present politeness study ofbusiness letters. t0

Corlciseness,which means

write in

me fewest

possible words witllout

sacrificing completeness a11d cOurtesy,presems not oIlly t11e proposed by

Maxim

of

Mallner

Grice,but

also the Tact

MaXim proposed by

Leech.Being

tact彻means,
to the

to some extent,to use

me properlanguage in proper context.When coming

style of the business

corrcspondence、vritin岛“means the、vrit血g style of me busilless

letter Shollld be the prevailing、vriting style of the present

days.wim the西ob“ization

of the wodd economy a11d the popuIarit)r of e—mail and facsimiIe,business messages

21

山东师范大学硕士学位论文

are

required to be and in practice have been deliVcred more

e腩ctiVely

than

eVer

before.Thus,compared讪th

the business letters ofthe 1950s When 1a唱e qualltities of


wordy dich6s a11d commercialese were used,nlerc is 1etterS me
are

clear tenderlcy that busirless expressions a11d

to be written in a more direct a11d 1ess tone

fo衄al way.Wordy

over

fomlal

may

not only afrect the correct

imerpretation of t}le messages

trallsferred,but more seriousl y,be considered too indi付brent and not sincere

mendly

and

enou曲,which

may

arouse

the antipa'七hy of the reader,enlarge the emotional

distallce and at 1ast damage the cooperative business relatioIls. Consideration,on me other haIld,means the writer should be t110ught向l a11d considemte to the reader in order to Consideration

get恤faVorable

response丘om me reader

principle

embodies the 1hct Maxim,Approbation Maxim,A孕eement bearing the reader’s need in mind and

MaXim and

Syrnp砒ly Max洫by

p帆ng the

reader’s want at the丘rst place.n also attends to the reader’s positiVe face by sho、ving consideration fbr the benefit of me readeL Being considerate shows the you—oriented

删tude

in business let七er wrmng,which helps arouse吐le imerest of the readcr in the

massages conVeyed,enlarge the muCual u11derstallding of廿1e t、^,o sides and e11hance

也e丘iendly relationship.Tb achieve the goal of consideration principle,positive
politeness strategies
are

oRen taken to present goodwill

and行iendliness

so

as

to

mitigate the potential FTAs ofⅡ1e

1e恤L

These positive p01iteness S仃ategies maillly
so on.

include maI【ing promises,mmre complimems,claiming common掣ound and

Courtesy,which means polite,con啊butes mainly
the business

to the interpersonal aspect of

communic“on.That

is to sa弘it helps to create aIld maintaill

the衔erldly

relation between tlle writer and the rcadeL Courtesy llighlights tlle

f打or a_ble massages

in me 900d—news letters a11d mitigates the negative i11士bnnation in the bad—news letcers, thus e11hances the cooperative relation

be帆een the抑o

sides.Sometimes it

can eVen

conven me bad news into a good one.On the cOntrary,iftllere is not enough attention

paid to cOurtesy,a good—news letter may be treated oIlly
even

as a

routine business letter,or

have some negative ea’ect

on

the communication.

Being courteous means not only to say“mank you”,“、Vould you please...” 、vhenever necessary,but
22

also

to

be

considerate a11d

tact如l

in

writing.Proper

山东师范大学硕士学位论文

politeness strategies help achieve this 90aL Besides the above-mentioned positiVe strategies,negative pol“eness 8trategies autonomy in making hedges,
a are

aIso adopted to giVe the reader more

choice

or

decision.Thcse negative p01iteness strategies include su6h
as

impersonalising

mechanisms
on

passiVes,apologizing

sincefely,

mitigating me imposition

the reader and
see

so on.

FⅫn

the above a11alysis we may

that politeness is

one

of血e mostbasic mles

that 1eads and constrains t11e business communication.Avoiding impoliteness is of vital importaflce in es诅blishill舀maintaining and enhancing ar】d building u恤10st,there


fi瑚business

relations

sound image of the compally.nlus,in order to gain p01itcness t0 the several things tlle writer should bear in mind,no matter what kind of

are

business letter to write.

1)Pmpertonc
Like


vi01in may sound pleasant

or

unpleasant,a business letter may give



feeling of courteolls,personal,sincere,行iendly,modesty,respect如l and tactful,or

discouneous,impem锄al,insincere,hostile,boastful,sarcastic
depending
on

and

tactless,all

the“tone’’of the letter,which is closely rclated to tlle relationship parties in


between me

business transactions.

Loo“ng back

to

the business

correspondence of nle laSt centu掣,we may矗nd that sellers used to take a乒oVel试g attitLIde in、vriting


business 1etter_they humble

themselVes

to

conciliate their

customers.On other occasions,however,the people who had hllmbled themselVes

bec锄e
placed

superior and disdaiⅢh1.No matter which side of me business tmnsaction is
on a

pedes协l

or

humbles

himsel£Ⅱ】e

relationship bet、vcen t11e panies

arc

unequaI. This type ofming is obvious out ofdate.DeVelopment ofscience and technology has greatly elilninated the time aIld space and accelerated globanzation of me wodd economy,making equal“y,coopemtion and mutual benefits the foulldation of all

business transactions.Thus,i11 business
put themselves at也e but
are

correspondence州iting,botll
are

parties should

s锄e

level.Respect and collrtesy

to be sho、Ⅳn by bo血sides

not to be ex&ggera七ed or Stretched t0 the point where the language
as

sound

unbelievable.Being too modest may be considered

nattery a11d lack of sincerity
23

山东师范大学硕士学位论文

while talking down may be inappropriate in tone. 21 Positiveness.

imerpreted

as

un衔endly

and arrogallt,hence

are

Like other ways of communication,business correspondence co瑚曲u11icates in
t、v0 distinct ways.That is to say,廿1e reader get the meaning out of

what is said a11d

how it is said.Besides the literal meaning conveyed,there is message that eitller reinfbrces
or

a1啪ys certain“iII]【plied,’

con拄adicts the words.The combination ofthe cemral


message aIld t11e implied message is me tOtal message

reader gets from me 1etceL

Since thc“implied message”matters much in nle successful delivery of tlle whole message,choosing


better way ofexpressing is ofgreat importance.
arc

Bfrective business letters

oRen those witll the quality of positiveness,i.e.,

也ey eⅡ1phasize the positiVe side of the message.Achievjng posi廿veness is quite similar
to what photographers do when they selectⅡle best angle for a pictl】re.The

nature of the

subject

stays,aIld they

are町ing

to find the most favorable view of the
on

subject.1址ing

the positive point of view lays stress

me f打orable side of the

message,which attends to the reader’s positive fke want.n also positiVe climate that cushions the potemial 31 You-attitude I/we-attitIlde and you—attitllde lettert I/we-attitude
presents
are or

helps

to create the

following FTAs.

two basic approaches in

witing



business

the message行om the writer’s poim

of view a11d

emphasizes

t11e w—ter’s bene6t while you-aItitllde states丘Dm the reader’s point of

View a11d Stresses也e reader,s bene丘t.Adopting you-att“ude means considering the reader’s needs atld expressing the、vriter’s readiness to reader’s

s撕sfy

mem.It sees丘Dm thc

stalldpoint

and

emphasizes

the bene丘t to the reader brought by tl】e lener, a11d attends to me reader’s

which coincides wim the Tact

M强h

face啪nt.Besides,it


helps build aIld strengthen 900d、vill,w11ich 1ays the foundation for relation in the fhn】re. You-anitude Varies in

betterbusiness

di&rem
0r

f0肌s鼬ong di疵rent

types of business letters. good_news

When

refbrring to p01iteness
or

messages beneficial t0 t}Ie reader in
to use

business 1etters
24

persuasive letters,it is better

more

you.1angllages to

山东师范大学硕士学位论文

strcngttlen

the face-building

e虢cts.When

the眦ssage
so as

is impolite in bad—news
not to o圩end me reader

business 1etter,it is necessary to avoid you_Ianguages directlv

山东师范大学硕:七学位论文

Chapter 4 Presentation of Politeness in English Business Correspondence

The preVious chapter shows the significance of politeness to English business corrcspondence.In the following chaptcr we
are

going to discuss how it is presented

in血e 1e札ers.According

to the classification in the previous

chapter(see 3.2.2),

routine business 1etters aim at conveymg neutral messages a11d t}lreaten nei山er廿1e positive face
nor

the negative face of me readers,thus,need much fbwer politeness
on

strate{;iesⅡlan the other t11ree types ofbusmess 1e雠eL So,廿1is chapter just cemers
how politeness strategies
are

employed to meet tlle need of successfm commumcation

in good—news letters,bad-news 1etterg and persuasive letters.

4.1 Presentation of Politeness in Good.Ncws BusiⅡess Letters

Good?news business 1etter,as its the readeL t}lus is easier to get


n锄e

suggests,conveys favorable messages to


fhvorable response矗om the readeL In

good—news

business let七er,the message conveyed is

just

what the reader expects,so is totally

beneficial to the readeL According to t11e Tact Maxim,it is bctter to maXiIIlizeⅡle faVorabIe

e舵ct

ofthe IetceL Also,as the message attends to the reader’s positive f如e

by meeting the needs of the rcader,it is bettcr to present t11e message i11 me most e矗、ectiVe way
so as

to achieve t11e posmve p01iteness.Thus,in writing a good—news

business letter,the more direct,the more concrete,the more personal a11d vivid血e language is,the more polite and eB、ective it is.In血e f01lowing pan,we
are

going to

discuss m detail ho由politeness is acllieved at the word and expression level,at the
sentcnce leVel and at tlle discourse level

thou曲various politerless stmtegies.

0ne ming to poim out is也at most of the sample sentcnces aIld sample letters in tllis

ch印ter

are

selected矗Dm books

on

business cOmmunications a工ld

are

ident谁ed

with sol】rces.All the sample sentences a11d sample letters without idemification of
sollrces are

c01lected行om real business practice of 10cal co印orations.The aumor

26

山东师范大学硕士学位论文

rcmains the essential contexts of tlle

s啪ples

wllile creates otller

inf0珊ation(i.e.
letters,etc.)

n眦es ofthe州iters and rccipiems ofthc Ietters,brand

names,dates ofthe

for me sal【e of confldentiality.Any inforIllation found to be similar to t11at contained in this thesis shall be considered
as a

pure coiflcidence.

4.1.1 Presentation of PoIitcness in Good—News Business Lettcrs at the and Expressjon LeV脚

Word

Word,as

one

of the most basic elemems of language,matters not onIy in ttle

meaning of the message conveyed,but also in how it is conveyed.A 900d choice of 、vords alld exprcssions helps


lot in the e丑、ectiVe deliVery of massages,and at the

s锄e

time anends to the reader’s face waIlt.In血e f0110wing part、ve w订l discuss

some fkquenny used techniques in good—news business letters for the consideration ofpoliteness.

4.1.1.1 Using Specific

Words

Generally spea:king,while conveying



favorable message,specific words work

better than gencral words.As the message is beneficial to the rcader,the more direct it is,the more p01ite it is.Here,direct
carl

be explained

as

ViVid

or

specific to some

eXtent.Spec湎c、vords giVe



much clearer and more detailed presentation of the


message in me 1etter,thus help develop 、vorld.Since the image

more ViVid image in the reader’s men扭l

isjuSt

to t11e need ofⅡle reader’s

f犯e w孤t,“greatIy enhances
us

the reader’s positiVe face.In thjs way'positive politeness is achieved.Lct comDarison of血e tw0 sentences below:

make



(1)

Y0ur acceptance speech

l积njght

for lhe Busmess woman ofthe Year award

waS招Ⅳ垆c.

(2)

1mur acceptance speech laSt n远ht for t11e Busjness wbman of the Year award was

矿∞咖,and wff妒.
(Roddick 2003:278)

山东师范大学硕士学位论文

These t、vo semences appear in



letter of we

congratulations.(1)is
caIl

the original aIld tlle two

(2)is

the mal【eoveL

Thmu曲comparison

flnd that

althou曲both

sentences

perfoⅡn the speech act of

congratulating,(2)is much t11an(1).

more e丘bctive in

satis母iilg me

reader’s positive f如e want

In(1),招,7驴c

is used to describe the speech ofthe readeL The word is

so

general

柚d埘thout


a11y specific fean】re ofthe reader’s speech mat“is hard to give t11e reader
even

deep impression.The reader might

t11ink t11at me writer is lack of sincerity.But

in(2),∥Wc∥b,and w打吼t、vo

more specific words,cleady describe the characteristics

of me reader’s speech,wllich makes clear to the reader that her speech is wamed and 1iked,mus enhance me reader’s mat the

posme face to mc utrIlost.The t、Ⅳo words also
more sincere,so it is easier to

shows

Witer

has paid

enou曲attention

to the reader’s speech,、vhich makes
arouse

me

conFa_tulation趾d complimem f打or
of the readeL

the emotional

Besides,(2)is

more generous in giving praise,w11ich embodies

the Approbation

Maxim by

Leech,n锄ely,to maxiIIlize pmise of otherS.
are

From the aboVe comparison we may conclude that Spec试c words under苫tand and easjer to draw me坤ader’s attentjon.thus
are

easier to

more

e±诧ctive in

conveying the beneficial message to the readeL Also,their vividness shows some kind of sincerity,which helps e1111ancing the

good谢11.So,using


specmc words in

good_news business letters comributes to gemng

better response from the readeL

4.1.1.2 Using“You’’instead

of‘‘I’’Or‘‘We’’

Using more“you”i11stead of“I”or“we’’in good-news business coⅡespondence is the embodiment of you-amtude discussed in chapter3.3.Using“you”or using“I”

柚d“we”staIld
or

for two totally

di疵rent印proaches

in writing:you-oriented印proach attention
on

I(we)一oriented印proach.You-oriented印proach focuses me I(we)-oriented
approach focuses
on

me reader

while

the writer

himsel蛐erself

In ternls of

good-news business letter,since the message beneflts the reader,nle more attemion

the reader pays
you-attitude

to

the message,the

better

it is.As

is mentioned

previously, mal(es me

helps arouseⅡle

reader’s interest

in the message,thus

山东师范大学硕士学位论文

f如orable

message accepted and the reader’s positiVe fke want如mlled to the utmost.

More importaIltly,廿le“you’’languagc used in the semence

hi曲1i曲ts

the benem to

the reader f的m the writer,wtlich shortens the emotional distaIlce between the“Vo panies and strcngtllens the sympatlly between

JP历the reader


and D腩口,,the、vrit er.In

t11is way,goodwill is built and maintained.HaVe

100k at me two semences below:

(3)

Our savings accounts pay 6%interest. 6%interest f而m your saVings account.

(4)Ybu w川eam

(cao 2000:28)

(3)centers

totally

on

me writef himsel£mersel£Due

to t11e

we—amtude way of

mention expression,the semence seems to haVe nothing to d0 wim the rcader,not to bene丘ting the

reader,thou曲in

fhct“does.The faVombIe message is totally coVered

by the improper way of expression,so n is really hard to expect any fhVorable reaction fbm the readeL But

in(4),“you”,as

the

subject

of t11e sentence,catches me

reader’s attention and forces the reader to wonder what has to do wim

himself船rsel£

In nlis way,the benencial message is conveyed more efficiently The word“your”

eIlh柚ces
himmer

t王lis goodwill and reminds t11e reader of t11e writcr’s considerafion for

again.Compared with(3),(4)is much better

to

be accepted

and well

resDonded.

4.1.2 Presentation of Poli把ness in Good.News BusiⅡess Letters at the SeⅡtence Level

If、ve compare words aIld exprcssions to the building blocks of communication,

men the semences

are

me rows of blocks that

are

properly planned aIld、vell laid out. most weU


Proper words are也e basic need of

success“co删nunication,howeVer,in


situations words themselves cannot express

complete meaning umil they

are

org姐ized

in



sentence.So how to
as

a咖_nge

the words a11d expressions chosen in

semence is

as曲ponallt

what kirld of words and expressions to choose.h the


f0110wing pan we
are

些堡堕翌查兰堡主堂些丝苎.
going to discuss some of the useful techniques in the

e&ctive

deVeIopmem of sentences conceming achicving politeness in good—news busincss 1etters.

4.1.2.1 Using Short SeⅡtcnces

In writing a good—news business letter,it is llighly sentences wim sirIlple structures.As

recommended

to use short

is meInioned

previously,in conveying



good

message,the more direct and cIear,the morc polite.Short sentences contain fewer words and
are

simple in stmcture,mus

are

easier to read aIld understalld.Using shon

sentences greatly decreases the possibiIity for the盘vorabIe messages to be missed or

misllIlderstood,thus guaraIltees me successful delivery of thc messages.Moreover, shon sentences lay more stress reader
a on

meir contents than the long 0nes.By givmg thc the interference of other related is
or

single

message州t110ut

supporting


infoj埘ation,me ben娟cial message
imprcssion
Let
us on

emphasized

and me reader has

deeper

the good


news舶m the writer,mus

the positive p01iteness is achieved.

have

look at t11e

ex锄口les below:

④ ㈣

Congram】ations to Jade Gj】】espje jn cuslomer servjce,ouf EmpIo),ee of出e Mon出.

Con盯atLllations

to

Jade G.1lespie in cllstOmer service!She is

our

Employee of恤e Month



In

ind印endent

f0IIow-up

interview witll

our

customers

whO have

had

contact

witll

customer

servjce,Jade receiVed廿1e highest rallngs in her deparcment for three m。nth jn



rOⅥ



For tllree montll in custom service.

a ro w,Jade

has had the

hi曲est

rating{n her

d印amIlem

for providing

(Roddick 2005:250)

In(6),the

ideas

of(5)are

eXpressed in two independem Short clauses,so也e of the sentence,is greatly

Il锄e

Jade,the main

iⅢ'o硼ation

emphasized.However,in

山东师范大学硕士学位论文

(7),due

to

the adverbial

modifier栩f盯却P胛出脚扣胁w一印f玎结rv耙w
servfc8

w触D“r

c淞幻卅P坶w向。向口ve Add con缸甜wf捕c淞fomer

with



too

complicated

s咖cture

a11d too much unnecessary infbrnlation,the main idea of the good news is

酽eatly weal(encd.ARer rcVising,(8)cuts down all the irrelevant i11fonnation and pms
the main idea in


simple—stmctured

sentence with

common words.InⅡlis way,the

bcneficial message becomes more force如l a11d more outstaIlding,so t11e positive D01iteness stands out.

4.1.2.2 Using Active VOice

ActiVe Voice is prcfcrable t0 passiVe Voice in

conveying

900d massages.Voice is
or

the gmmmatical term used to refer to t11e relationship between the action expressed by
arc a

statement

Verb and its

arg啪ents(subject,object,etc.).semences

in active voice

generall y,Ⅱ10u曲not always,clearer and morc direct than those in passive voice,

which coincides with me requirement of the P01iteness Principle—to convey t11e faVorable messages
as

direct

as

possible to be polite.Besides,active voice clearly

shows who ca玎ies out the action and puts t11e actor,namely the beginning of me sentence.In tenns of shows

subject,at

the very

conveying favorable

news to the reader,it
or

the、槲ter’s、vilIingness

to act

favorably toward the reader aIld his

hcr by

consideration for me

readcr’s benem,which enhances the positive poIiteness

building goodwill.For instarlce:

(9)we (10)We
(1 1)

are

jn receipt ofyour payment.

have receiVed yourpayment.
us

ThaIlk you for sending

your payment

(Hird 2002:9)

(9)uses a

noun

phmse

to staIe me fact of having

received t11e payment,dull a11d

、vimout a11y personal

emotion.(10)uses me

active voice,wllich

emphasizes

me action

ofhaving receiVed the payment.The eXpression is more natural a11d forceml,mus is

31

山东师范大学硕士学位论文

better

than(9).(1 1)also

uses

tlle active voice,wllich not only

emphasizes

the action
sarne

of having receiVed the paymem but also expresses th剐止s to the reader at nle time.The tone is natural,丘iendly and sincere,thus is most likely to get response疗Dm tlle readeL so,in conveying good news and


f打orable

goodwill,(11)is most

emph撕c,hence

most p01ite alnong the tllree.

4.1.2.3 Using

Amrmative

StnIctures

As is mentioned in me previous

cllapter(see 3.3),positiveness mea董1s



10t in
can

successful business correspondence.In good—news business letters,positiVeness be achieved
not

thou曲using

am珊ative structures.Here,amnnative

structures refer to

only棚Ⅱnative senterlces but also phases with甜firmative meanings.Affi埘dative
presenI t11e messages行om the positive point of view a11d emphasizc t11e

structllres

beneflt brought to the reader by me massages,which attends to the reader’s positiVe face gct


wallt趾d

creates a better atmosphere
us

be研een

the two panies,Ⅱ1us

are

easierto

fhvorable reaction.Let

have

a look

at mc following

ex锄pl c:

(12)we (13)We

are

withh01d{ng your shipment until we receiVe the payment.
as soon as

will deliver your order to you

me payment is receiVed.

(Ca0 2000:30)

(12)uses

the negative


conju玎ction甜胛以which

1ays the stress

on

the payment—t11e

writer’s benefit to

greater degree.This way 0f eXpression wea王(ens the

fhorable

efrect ofⅡle massage a11d is against the Rlct Maxim and the Generosity Maxim,i.e.to maximize benefit to

others趾d m“rnize

benefit to

self_nⅡ姒imizes址le

writer’s

benefit and gives吐le reader the impression that the wmer minks only of himself and totally ne91ects廿le reader’s need and wallt,which is


great threat to the reader’s

positive face.Besides,the tone ofⅡle sentence sounds arrogant aIld t11reatening to the reader,which is easy to
arouse

the reader’s an“pathy,thus violates恤e SympaChy

Maxjm.

山东师范大学硕士学位论文

Di丘brent行om(12),(13)focuses on血e
deliVery ofⅡ1e reader’s ordeL n takes idea of the message—delivery n also

benencial side of the message,出e
sentence to

the缸fimative
uses

presem tlle main
sons

t11e a矗j订native pllrase“as

as’’to

e血ance

the beneficial

e髓ct

by

sho讪ng the

writer’s、villingnesj a11d mought】沁lness

for the reader’s benefit,which attends to the reader’s positive face,mitigates the pOtemial face thrcat ofthe payment ar】d at tlle contributing to

s锄e time builds

goodwill to the reader, much

a如endly

relation in the

m[I】re.Compared、Ⅳith(12),(1 3)is
to thc readeL

more衔endly and

polite,t王lus is more

acc印table

4.1.3 Presentation of Politeness in Good-News Business Letters at the Discourse LeveI

ARer山e proper choice of words aIld sentences,here comes me question ofhow

to猢ge出e
p01itely

sentences into a logical text to conVey the message e丘bctively a11d

According to

Leech(1983),when

the request benefits me reader only,the


more direct it is,the more polite and sincere it is.So in writing 1etteL

good—news business

deductiVe印proach

is often employed

in猢ging血e

semences a11d presentlng

the infbrnlation in order to achieve me directness for the fmnllmem of politeness to the utmost. By using deductiVe approach,也e writer presents the main theme first,and then supports
or

explains it with details.In writing



good?news business 1ettet tlle writer

states the main

po证t oftlle good news

at the very

begiⅢng ofⅡle letter,presems the

detailed infbrmation for the reader later and at last ends the lener wi血a statcmem that echoes a11d strengthens the theme. Deductivc approach is usually used when the、vriter is
sure

that the

reader奶11
sure

agree埘m

t11e idea.In good—news business correSpondence,the reader is


to be

willing to accept me message and give

faVorable reaction,since也e message

conveyed is beneficial to the readet By using the deductiVe approach,the writer presents也e pleasant nBws at the very

begimng

in



s仃aightfom,ard way,which

draws the reader’s attention to t11e pleasant news,thuS greatly meets the reader’s

33

山东师范大学硕士学位论文

positiVe face want.Thc good news at me begillTling of thc lctter also makes



good

impression of the reader

on

the w^ter and

arouses

hjs/ller intereSt in吐lc f0110wing

details,which may enhance the faVor for the rcadeL Moreover,the

strai曲tfonvard

way of presenting me infbnnation also shows me more direct and sincere attitllde to the reader,Which is more likely to win me trust a11d favor of the readeL Tb sum up, deductiVe approach helps convey血g me highlighting the main poim of the

f打orable

massages more

e伍ciently

by

maSsages锄d

emphasizing on恤e benefits to t11e

reade r,so“is f醅quently used in most of t11e good—news and neut

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