一．英汉翻译理论与实践课程之教案目录 第1讲 ―翻译‖溯源 第2讲 翻译的本质 第3讲 翻译的标准 第4讲 翻译面面观 第5讲 翻译必有―失‖ / 失于此而得于彼 （两讲合并） 第6讲 翻译与联想 第7讲 翻译与语法 第8讲 翻译与语体 第9讲 翻译与语篇 第10讲 英汉十大差异 第11讲 形合与意合 第12讲 代词的困惑 第13讲 Connotation的翻译 第14讲 翻译与
词典 第15讲 以―模糊‖求精确 第16讲 落笔知轻重 译文讲分寸 第17讲 翻译最难是口吻 第18讲 翻译与形象思维 第19讲 翻译与灵感思维 第20讲 英语修辞的翻译（包括连接三讲） 第21讲 翻译中的文化冲击 第22讲 思维是语言的脊梁 （两讲合并） 第23讲 翻译美学之思考（两讲合并） 二．汉英翻译理论与实践课程之教案目录 第1讲 汉译英呼唤文字功力 第2讲 语篇与翻译 第3讲： 英汉语美感比读（两讲合并） 第4讲： 理性概译：翻译之坦途 第5讲：英语句式的亮点：非人称主语句 （两讲合并） 第6讲：汉译英有用的句型（两讲合并） 第7讲：类析汉译英常见拙译（三讲合并） 第8讲：从 ―湖光山色‖的英译说开去（两讲合并） 第9讲：Denotation和Connotation（两讲合并） 第10讲：翻译，你的本质是什么？ 第11讲：归化与异化----汉语习语的英译
一．英汉翻译理论与实践课程之练习 第1讲 ―翻译‖溯源 试将下列文字译成汉语： 1/ Translation consists in reproducing in the receptor language the closest natural equivalent of the source language, first in terms of meaning and secondly in terms of style. (Eugene A. Nida & Charles R. Taber: The Theory and Practice of Translation, 1969) 2/ Translation may be defined as follows: The replacement of textual material in one language (SL) by equivalent textual material in another language (TL) 3/ A translation should give a complete transcript of the ideas of the original work. The style and manner of writing should be of the same character as that of the original. A translation should have all the ease of the original composition. (A. F. Tytler: Essay on the Principles of Translation. 1791) 参考译文 1/ 所谓翻译，是在译语中用最切近的自然的对等语再现原语的信息，首先是意义，其次是 文体。 2/ 翻译可作如下界定：用一种语言（目的语）的文本材料对等地再现另一种语言（出发语） 的文本材料。 3/ 译文应完全复写出原作的思想。译文的风格和笔调应与原文的性质相同。译文应和原作 同样流畅。 第2讲 翻译的本质 将下列段落译成汉语： 1/ Some professional translation take considerable pride in denying that they have any theory of translation—--they just translate. In reality, however, all person engaged in the complex task of translating posses some type of underlying or covert theory, even though it may be still very embryonic and described only as just being ―faithful to what the author was trying to say.‖（ Nida ） 2/ It is rendering the meaning of a text into another language in the way that the author intended the text. Common sense tells us that this ought to be simple, as one ought to be able to say something as well in one language as in another. On the other hand, you may see it as complicated, artificial and fraudulent, since by using another language you are pretending to be someone you are not. The translation cannot simply reproduce, or be, the original. And since this is so, the first business of the translator is to translate. (Peter Newmark) 参考译文： 1/ 一些职业翻译工作者相当得意地称他们没有翻译理论——他们只顾埋头翻译。然而，事 实上，所有从事翻译这项复杂工作的人都具有或隐或掩的理论，尽管这种理论尚处在萌芽状态， 或者被轻描淡写地说成―忠实于作者想要说的‖。 （奈达） 2/ 翻译，就是像原作者把思想变成文字那样，把一个文本的意思译成另一种语言。常识告 诉我们翻译应该是简单的，就如一个人能够用一种语言自如表达，也能够用另一种语言自如表 达一样。但从另一方面来说，你也许会觉得翻译是复杂的、做作的以及虚假的，因为在使用另 一种语言的时候，你实际上在扮演一个非你的角色。翻译不可能是简单的复制，或者，也不可 能是如出一辙的原本。既然如此，译者的第一任务就是翻译。(纽马克) 第3讲 翻译的标准 请将下列段落译成汉语： Translation is first a science, which entails the knowledge and verification of the facts and the language that describe them – here, what is wrong, mistakes of truth, can be identified;
Secondly, it is a skill, which calls for appropriate language and acceptable usage; Thirdly, an art, which distinguishes good from undistinguished writing and is the creative, the intuitive, sometimes the inspired, level of the translation; Lastly, a matter of taste, where argument ceases, preference are expressed, and the variety of meritorious translation is the reflection of individual differences. (Peter Newmark) 参考译文： 首先， 翻译是一门科学， 它需要对事实的认知、 核查， 需要懂得描述这些事实的语言 ---- 错 误的内容，错误的事实，应该得以鉴别。 第二，翻译是一种技巧，它需要恰当的语言和约定俗成的用法。 第三，翻译是一门艺术，它识优辨劣，是一种创造性的、凭直觉的，有时是闪烁灵感的翻 译。 最后，翻译是一种风格，它弥合了分歧，显示了个人的偏爱，形形色色精彩纷呈的译文折 射了译者的特点。 （纽马克） 第4讲 翻译面面观 试将下列句子译成汉语： 1/ No hand can make the clock strike for me the hours that we are passed. 2/ It is very difficult to know people and I don’t think one can ever really know any but one’s own countrymen. 3/ They never fail who die in a great cause. 4/ A lie can be halfway round the world before the truth has got its boots on. 5/ So swift was the advance that the German did not have time to destroy the harbor facilities at Antwerp. 6/ The record was considered soft since it was set last May. 7/ Work is the grand cure of all the maladies 【弊病、疾病、坏风气】and miseries that ever beset [包 围、困扰] mankind. 8/ Then she saw her husband and two middle-aged men who looked like brokers sitting at a table in the corner. 9/ We can read of things that happened 5,000 years ago in the Near East, where people first learned to write. 10/ Stone does not decay, and so the tools of long ago have remained when even the bones of the men who made them have disappeared without trace. 11/ As the police put it, anything you say may be used as evidence against you. If handwriting reveals character, writing reveals it still more. 12/ Pursue your object, be it what it will, steadily and indefatigably. 参考译文： 1/ 光阴如流水，一去不复返。 2/了解人不是一件容易的事；我觉得一个人除掉他本国人以外，很难说真正了解什么人。 3/为伟大事业而死，决不是失败。 4/ 真话未出门，谎言行千里。 5/ 盟军进展神速，德军来不及破坏安特卫普的港口设施。 6/ 这个记录是去（今）年五月创造的，人们并不认为这是什么无法超过的记录。 7/ 工作是医治人间一切疾病和厄运的良药。 8/ 不一会儿，她瞧见丈夫跟两个经纪人模样的中年人在屋角的一张桌子边坐着。 9/我们可以读道关于5000年前近东的情况记载，因为在近东，人们首先学会了写字。 10/ 石头不会腐烂，因而远古年代的石器遗留了下来，尽管制作这些器具的人的尸骨早已荡然 无存。 11/ 警察有句话：只要你开口，证据就在手。字如其人，文尤如其人。
12/ 不管追求什么目标，都应该坚持不懈。 第5讲 翻译必有―失‖ / 失于此而得于彼 （两讲合并） 1试将下列这段文字译成英语，注意黑体字部分： It is not only in affluent societies that people are obsessed with the idea of making more money. Consumer goods are desirable everywhere and modern industry deliberately sets out to create new markets. Gone are the days when industrial goods were made to last forever. The wheels of industry must be kept turning. ―Built-in obsolescence‖ provide the means: goods are made to be discarded. Cars get thinner and thinner. You no sooner acquire this year’s model than you are thinking about its replacement. This materialistic outlook has seriously influenced education. Fewer and fewer young people these days acquire knowledge only for its own sake. Every course of studies must lead somewhere: i.e. to a bigger wage pocket. The demand for skilled personnel far exceeds the supply and big companies compete with each other to recruit students before they have completed their studies. Tempting salaries and ―fringe benefits‖ are offered to them. Recruiting tactics of this kind of have led to the ―brain drain‖, the process by which highly skilled people offer their services to the higher bidder. The wealthier nations deprive their poorer neighbors of their most able citizens. While Mammon is worshipped as never before, the rich get richer and the poor, poorer. 参考译文 不仅是在富裕社会中人们会被多多赚钱的想法弄得不能自拔。对消费品处处有需求，而现 代工业则着意要创造新市场。工业品被作得永久耐用的日子已经一去不返了，工业必须时刻更 新换代，保持向前发展，而商品的―内设废弃性‖则为此提供了途径：制造一件商品，就意味着 将来要废弃这件商品。轿车作得越来越单薄。你刚买下今年的新车型，可能就得考虑如何替代 它了。 这种实利主义的观念已严重波及教育。如今，越来越少的年轻人为了求知本身的乐趣而求 知。每门课程都必须带来实际的好处，比如说更丰厚的工资。由于对技能人才的求远大于供， 大公司竞相在学生尚未完成学业之时就先录用他们，为他们提供的是诱人的薪水和附加福利。 这样的人才录用策略已导致―人才流失‖，也就是高技能人才流向出最高价码的雇主。富国如此 这般地从与它相邻的穷国掠走了他们最富才干的公民。在对财神的膜拜已经史无前例的今天， 富则更富，穷则更穷。 2．试将下列文字译成汉语，特别注意黑体字部分： 1/ The best friend a man has in this world may turn against him and become his enemy. His son or daughter whom he has reared with loving care may prove ungrateful. Those who are nearest and dearest to us, those whom we trust with our happiness and our good name, may become traitors to their faith. 2/ I took home a briefcase full of troubles. As I sat down on that hot and humid evening, there seemed to be no solutions to the problems thrashing around in my brain. So I picked up a book, settled into a comfortable chair and applied my own special therapy—super-slow reading. 3/ To the end, the Emperor, like an eagle deprived of its wings, remained submissive to his aunt. Ignorance added to a strong character was a double curse; stupidity joining hands with stubbornness was twice stupid. 4/ The stage of mental comfort to which they had arrived at this hour was one wherein their souls expanded beyond their skins, and spread their personalities warmly through the room. 参考译文： 1/ 世上的莫逆之交可能反目为仇。倾心呵护抚养成人的儿女到头来可能不念养育之恩。我 们的至爱亲朋，我们以幸福与名声相托的人，也许会背叛其当初的誓词。 2/ 我带着满满一皮包伤透脑筋的问题回到家里。黄昏时分，既闷热，又潮湿，我坐下来， 满脑子翻腾起伏的问题似乎找不到解决的办法。我只好拿起一本书，坐在舒适的椅子里，施展
自己的特殊疗法了——那便是超慢速阅读。 3/ 皇上象个剪去双翅的仓鹰， 一直对这位大权在握的老伯母必恭必敬， 百依百顺。 愚而妄， 其为祸害则加倍的强烈。愚蠢再与刚愎携手，则愚蠢倍增。 4/ 他们那时所达到的欢畅阶段是：神游身外，脱则形骸，满眼生花，一室生春。 第6讲 翻译与联想
试将下列文字译成汉语,特别注意黑体字部分 1/ At the beginning of a romance, a person’s habits may seem unimportant or even endearing, but over the long term his nightly snoring or her thing about never raising the window shades can begin to grate. 2/ The best indication of whether a man or woman is capable of genuine friendship with a mate, social psychologists say, is whether he or she has close, nonsexual friends of the opposite sex. Also important, says Pittman, is whether that person is friends with his parents, since someone still at war with his parents is probably not ready for friendship with a romantic partner. 3/ In a fruitful argument, each partner explains why her or she is mad while the other one listens—with respect. Long-term happy couples also tend to argue calmly. Loss of control—yelling, sobbing—seldom helps solve problems. ―Couples whose relationship has improved over time usually have learned to keep the lid on arguments,‖ says Gottman. ―They de-escalate anger by suggesting a compromise or solution.‖ 4/ Feelings of love may wax and wane during a relationship, but trust is constant. Infidelity is the most devastating betrayal of trust a couple can experience. That survey found that when one partner had sex outside the relationship, the couple were more likely to break up. Even a little bit of infidelity can set forces in motion that eventually wrech a marriage. Only when we trust our lover to be faithful and know that he or she can trust us do we fell comfortable and at peace with our own conduct and our relationship. 5/ Successful couples don’t take each other for granted but work constantly at rejuvenating their good feelings for each other. The most satisfied couples put the thought and energy into their relationship that they put into their children or career. 参考译文 1/ 罗曼史伊始,个人习惯似微不足道,抑或还惹人喜爱.但是久而久之,他夜半的鼾声,或是她 从不卷启窗帘的小节开始令人不快。 2/ 社会心理学家认为,一个男人和一个女人是否能成为真挚友谊的相托者,其最佳标志是:他 或她是否具有亲密而又无性关系的异性朋友.皮特曼说,此人与其父母是否友好也不可忽视。 既与 父母为敌，也许与情人无友情而言。 3/ 一个富有成果的争论中，双方解释他或她为何激怒，而另一方则洗耳恭听。长久的和睦 夫妇惯于冷静地争辩。失去控制——吼叫、哭泣——无济于事。―经岁月磨合了关系的夫妇通常 学会调控争吵。‖高特曼说，―他们会用提出让步与解释来息怒。‖ 4/ 卡拉斯勃龙说：―朝夕相处，爱情会退潮，但是彼此信任却天长地久。‖不忠，是一对夫 妇所经历的对信任的最大破坏。据一项对6000名夫妇的调查，社会学家菲力普·勃鲁斯坦和柏 泼·斯克华尔兹发现：一旦一方有外遇，夫妇即可能分道扬镳。―甚至一丁点的不忠也能最终导 致婚姻的破裂。‖斯克华尔兹说，―只有我们确信爱人忠贞不渝，并知道他或她可信赖我们，我 们才能对我们自己的行为与关系感到心安理得。‖ 5/ ―成功的夫妇不是想当然地彼此相处，而是不断努力让彼此的好感情不断更新。‖耶鲁的罗伯 特· 斯坦勃格说， ―最感满足的夫妇将其心思与精力投入其关系， 又将其关系投入其子女及职业。 第7讲 翻译与语法 请将下列各句译成汉语，注意黑体字部分：
1/ I must confess that I did not expect a speech about oysters here, I thought that Hiroshima still felt the impact of the atomic cataclysm. 2/ By now I can count the blows again. The only pain I feel is in the lips I have been biting. 3/ I took the hall-porter of the hotel into my confidence, and asked if he had ever heard of Mr.Whiteman. 4/ ―So that’s it? You were trying to hold out on me, weren’t you?‖ She laughed softly. 5/ ―My father’s dying,‖ said Soams between his teeth. ―I’m going up. Give my love to Annette.‖ 6/ Courage in excess becomes foolhardiness, affection weakness, thrift avarice. 7/ Moreover, a successful scientist thinks he can improve the existing conditions, whether of pure or applied knowledge. 练习参考答案: 1/ 不瞒您说，我并没有想到会在这里听到讲牡蛎。我原以为广岛还在经受那场原子灾难的 影响。 2/ 现在我又可以计算打的次数了，我唯一的痛感来自一直紧咬着的双唇. 3/ 我向旅馆的行李搬运工吐露了心腹话,问他是否听说过惠特曼先生。 4/ ―是这样吗？你刚才想把那事瞒过去，是吗？―她和蔼地笑了。 5/ ―我的父亲快要不行了，‖沙姆士低声说，―我要上伦敦去了。请替我向南安蒂问好。‖ 6/ 过度的勇气变为蛮勇，过度的爱情变为溺爱，过度的节俭变为贪婪。 7/ 此外，凡是成功的科学家总认为他能够改进无论是基础知识还是应用知识的现状。 第8讲 翻译与语体 请将下列两段译成汉语： 1/ At a time when a towering personality like Mme. Curie has come to the end of her life, let us not merely rest content with recalling what she has given to mankind in the fruits of her work. It is the moral qualities of its leading personalities that are perhaps of even greater significance for a generation and for the course of history than purely intellectual accomplishments. Even these latter are, to a far greater degree than is commonly credited, dependent on the stature of character. The greatest scientific dead of her life—proving the existence of radioactive elements and isolating them—owes its accomplishment not under the most extreme hardships imaginable, such as the history of experimental science has not often witnessed. If but a small part of Mme. Curie’s strength of character and devotion were alive in Europe’s intellectuals, Europe would face a brighter future. 2/ One evening my sister was sleeping in her bedroom upstairs while her eight-year-old son, Jason, was in his room on the first floor. Suddenly she was wakened by a loud crash. A van has run off the road, smacked into the side of the house and come to a stop in the living room. Her first thought was of her son. ―Jason!‖ she yelled out—and from downstairs her son yelled back, ―I didn’t do it, Ma!‖ 参考译文 1/ 在象居里夫人这样一位伟人与世长辞的时候，我们不要仅仅满足于回忆她以自己的科研 成果对人类所作的贡献。杰出人物的道德品质，与其纯才智成就相比，也许具有更重大的意义； 无论是对于一代人，还是对于历史进程，都是如此。甚至这些才智成就本身也取决于崇高品格， 其依赖程度远远超过人们通常所能想见的。 她一生中最伟大的科学功绩——证明了放射性元素的存在，并把它们分离出来——之所以 能取得，不仅要归功于她大胆的直觉，而且要归功于她在人们很难想象到的极端艰苦的实践中 所表现出来的工作热忱和坚韧毅力，当时条件之艰苦在实验科学史上也是罕见的。 居里夫人的坚毅性格和献身精神，哪怕只有一小部分能在欧洲知识分子身上再现，欧洲也 就会迎来更加光辉的未来。 2/ 一天晚上我姐姐睡在楼上的卧室里，她8岁的儿子杰森在一楼自己的房里。突然，她被一
阵巨响震醒。一辆运货车偏离了道路，冲入了房内，在客厅里才停住。她的第一个念头是她的 儿子。 ―杰森！‖她大吼道。不料，从楼下传来了她儿子的吼声，―妈，不是我干的！ 第9讲 翻译与语篇 请改译以下译文： Love Is Not like Merchandise 爱情不是商品 1/ A reader in Florida, apparently bruised by some personal experience, writes in to complain ―if I steal a nickel’s worth of merchandise, I am a thief and punished; but if I steal the love of another’s wife, I am free.‖ 佛罗里达州的一位读者显然是在个人生活中受过创伤，他写信来悲叹道：―如果我偷走了五 分钱的商品，我是个贼，就要受到惩罚，但要是我偷走了别人妻子的爱情，我却没事。‖ 2/ This is a prevalent misconception in many people’s minds that love, like merchandise, can be ―stolen.‖ Numerous states, in fact, have enacted laws allowing damages for ―alienation of affections.‖ 这是许多人心目中普遍存在的一种错觉爱情，像商品一样，可以―偷走‖。实际上，许多州 都颁布法令，允许索取―情感转让‖赔偿金。 3/ But love is not a commodity; the real thing cannot be bought, sold, traded or stolen. It is an act of the will, a turning of the emotions, a change in the climate of the personality. 但是爱情并非商品；真情实意不可能购买，出售，交易，或者偷走。爱情是意愿之果，感 情之向，是个性潮流之变。 4/ When a husband or wife is ―stolen‖ by another person, that husband or wife was already ripe for the stealing, was already predisposed toward a new partner. The ―lovebandit‖ was only taking what was waiting to be taken, what wanted to be taken. 当丈夫或妻子被他人―偷走‖，那个丈夫或妻子被―偷‖的条件成熟，已经做好了接纳新伴侣 的准备。这位―爱匪‖不过是取走等候取走、盼望取走之物。 5/ We tend to treat persons like goods. We ever speak of children ―belonging‖ to their parents. But nobody ―belongs‖ to anyone else; each person belongs to himself, and to God. Children are entrusted to their parents, and if their parents do not treat them properly, the state has a right to remove from their parents’ trusteeship. 我们往往待人如物。我们甚至说孩子―属于‖父母。但是谁也不―属于‖谁。每个个人只属于 自己，属于上帝。孩子是托付给父母的，如果父母不善待他们，州政府有权取消父母的托管。 6/ Most of us, when young, had the experience of a sweetheart being taken from us by somebody more attractive and more appealing. At the time, we may have resented this intruder— but as we grew older, we recognized that the sweetheart had never been ours to begin with. It was not the intruder that ―caused‖ the break, but the lack of a real relationship. 我们中的多数人年轻时也许都有过情人被某个更漂亮、更具魅力的人夺走的经历。当时， 我们也许怨恨这位―窃贼‖，但是，随年岁的增长，我们认识到：所谓情人，原本就不属于我们。 不是―窃贼‖―导致‖决裂，而是本来就缺乏真实的关系。 7/ On the surface, many marriages seem to break up because of a ―third party.‖ This is, however, a psychological illusion. The other woman or the other man merely serves as a pretext for dissolving a marriage that had already lost its essential integrity. 从表面上看，许多婚姻似乎是因为有了―第三者‖才破裂的。然而这只是一种心理幻觉。那 个女人，或者那个男人，实际上掩盖了一个已经失却真正意义的婚姻的解体。 8/ Nothing is more futile and more self-defeating than the bitterness of spurned love, the vengeful feeling that someone else has ―come between‖ oneself and a beloved. This is always a distortion of reality, for people are not the captives or victims of others — they are free agents, working out their own destinies for good or for ill. 因爱情破裂而痛苦，因别人―插足‖于自己与心上人之间而生复仇之心，是最没有出息、最
自欺欺人的了。这是对事实的歪曲，因为谁都没有给别人当俘虏或牺牲品，他们都是自由的， 不论命运是好是坏，都自己来做主。 9/ But the rejected lover or mate cannot afford to believe that his beloved has freely turned away from him — and so he ascribes sinister or magical properties to the interloper. He calls him a hypnotist or a thief or a home-breaker. In the vast majority of cases, however, when a home is broken, the breaking has begun long before any ―third party ― has appeared on the scene. 但是，遭离弃的情人或配偶无法相信他的心上人是自由地背离他的，因而他归咎于插足者 心术不正或迷人有招。他把他叫做催眠师、窃贼或家庭破坏者。然而，从大多数事例看，一个 家的破裂，是早在什么―第三者‖出现之前就开始了的。 参考译文： 1/ 佛罗里达州的一位读者显然是在个人生活中受过创伤，他写信抱怨：―如果我偷了五分 钱的商品，我便是个贼，便要受罚，但是，如果我从别人那里横刀夺爱，却没事。‖ 2/ 这是一个普遍的误解：爱情，犹如商品，可以―偷走‖。实际上，许多州都颁布了法令， 允许索取―情感转让‖赔偿金。 3/ 然而，爱情并非商品；真爱，买不到、卖不了、不能交换、也不能偷盗。爱情，是意志 行为，是感情转折，是个性风标的转向。 4/ 当丈夫或妻子被―盗‖，其实，该丈夫或该妻子被―盗‖的时机已经成熟，他/她早已移情别 恋，―爱匪‖盗走之物，等候盗贼的光顾久矣。 5/ 我们往往视人如物。我们总是说孩子―属于‖父母。但是，在这个世界上，谁也不―属于‖ 谁。每个人只属于自己，属于上帝。孩子不过是托付给了父母，如果父母不善待孩子，州政府 有权取消父母的托管权。 6/ 或许，我们中的多数人，年轻时也许都有过这样的经历：情人被某个更漂亮、更具魅力 的人夺走了！当时，我们怨恨过这位―入侵者‖，但是，随年岁的增长，我们认识到：所谓情人， 原本就不属于我们。不是―入侵者‖导致决裂，而是本来就缺乏坚实的关系。 7/ 从表面上看，许多婚姻好像毁在―第三者‖手里。然而，这只是一种心理幻觉。第三者不 过是一个表象，它瓦解了一个早就失却了其内在完整性的婚姻而已。 8/ 世上最没有出息、最自欺欺人之事莫过于因失却爱情而痛苦，因第三者的―插足‖而萌生 复仇之念。这其实是对事实的歪曲，因为人，并非他人的―俘虏‖或―牺牲品‖，他们都是自由的， 命运是好是坏，都应该自己作主。 9/ 然而，遭离弃的情人或配偶实在无法相信他心爱的人是自觉自愿地离他而去的，因此， 他归咎于插足者心术不正或迷人有招。他把他叫做催眠士、窃贼或家庭杀手。然而，从大多数 事例看，一个家庭的破裂，远远早于第三者―登场‖之前。 。 第10讲 英汉十大差异 请将以下短文译成汉语： 原文： Americans Eat Out More often and Less Healthfully Although food cooked at home is far more healthful than meals eaten at restaurants, Americans are dining out more than ever, the U.S. Agriculture Department said Tuesday. Restaurant food accounted for（[在数量，比例方面] 占） 39 percent of U.S. meals bought in 1996, up from 26 percent in 1970, the department said in a report, ``Away-From-Home Foods Increasingly Important to Quality of American Diet.'' ``While（尽管）the nutritional quality（营养质量）of foods consumed by Americans has improved overall, foods prepared at home are generally much more healthful than away-from-home foods,'' the department said. ``Despite nutritional gains at home, Americans will find it difficult to improve their diets because they purchase so many meals outside the home,'' the study said. While （尽管）the nutritional content of food prepared both at home and in restaurants has
improved in recent years, food eaten out contains more of the nutrients Americans typically（一般地； 通常） eat too much of, including fat and saturated fat 饱和脂肪） and less of what is lacking from （ , most diets, such as calcium, fiber and iron. The department recommended nutrition education programs should place more emphasis on teaching U.S. consumers about how to order healthful meals when dining out. Improved diets have been found to prevent risk of heart disease, stroke（中风）, cancer, diabetes（糖尿病）, osteoporosis-related hip fractures（与骨质疏松症有关的髋关节骨折） and neural tube birth defects（神经管先天缺损）. Osteoporosis-related hip fractures cost up to $10.6 billion each year in the United States in medical care expenses, missed work and premature deaths 早 （ 亡）, the department said. 参考译文： 美国人外出用餐频繁而饮食健康水准美况愈下 据美国农业部星期二称尽管在家煮烧的食物远比餐馆里所用之餐有益于健康，美国人外出 用餐更频繁。餐馆里的食物占1996年美国人购餐的39%，比1970年增长了26%。该部门在报告 中称：―外出所用之餐对于美国人饮食质量日益重要‖。该部门还称：―虽然美国人消费的食物的 营养质量总体改善了。但是，一般来说，家里所备的食物远比外出用餐的食物有益于健康。‖ 研究表明：―尽管在家里用餐能获取养份，美国人发觉他们难以改善自己的饮食，因为他们多次 在外购餐。‖近年来在家里和餐馆里所备的食物的营养结构都得到了改善，然而，外出用餐的食 物包含了较多典型的美国人汲取过多的养份，包括脂肪和饱和脂肪，也包含了较少多数饮食中 所缺少的，如钙，纤维和铁。该农业部提议营养教育计划应更着重于教导美国消费者外出用餐 时如何预定有益于健康的一餐。人们发现改善后的饮食结构能预防心脏病，中风，癌症，糖尿 病，与骨盆炎相关的髋部骨折以及试管婴儿的神经缺陷所带来的危险。该部门称，在美国与骨 盆炎相关的髋部骨折每年在医疗照料费用，医疗失误和早产死亡之上的耗费高达106亿美元。 第11讲 形合与意合 请将下列句子译成汉语： 1/ As the weather was fine, we decided to climb the mountain. 2/ As water can float a ship, so can it swallow the ship. 3/ Put into an old Chinese proverb, it means that one will never find it difficult to do anything until one has experienced it. 4/ A notion has taken hold in the United States to the effect that the only people who should be encouraged to bring children into the world are those who can afford them. 5/ As soon as the cinema is in darkness, spotlights are focused on the curtains which are drawn slowly apart, often to the accompaniment of music to reveal the title of the film. 6/ While the prospects are bright, the road has twists and turns. 7/ The church was surrounded by yew trees which seemed almost coeval with itself. 8/ The sea thundered on, over and past, and as it roared by it revealed a hideous sight. 9/ The research work is being done by a small group of dedicated and imaginative scientists who specialize in extracting from various sea animals substances that may improve the health of the human race. 参考译文 1/ 天气很好，我们决定去爬山。 2/ 水能载舟，亦能覆舟。 3/ 用中国的一句老话来说：事非经过不知难。 4/ 在美国有一种根深蒂固的观点，说是只有那些抚养得起子女的人才应鼓励其生育。 5/ 在电影院变成一片漆黑的一刹那见，聚光灯照在徐徐打开的帷幕上，常常在音乐的伴奏
下，显露出影片的片名。 6/ 前途是光明的，道路是曲折的。 7/ 教堂四周，有紫杉环合，两者几乎一样古老。 8/ 狂澜霹雳，隆隆滚远。汹涌波涛，呼啸喧闹了一阵后，一片惨状，顿现眼前。 9/ 一群人数不多，专心致志，富有想象力的科学家，正在研究这项工作，专门研究从各种 海洋动物中提取增进人类健康的物质。
第12讲 代词的困惑 请将下列各句译成汉语，注意句中的代词： 1/ The shopman offers you a third apple; but, before biting it, you examine it, and find that it is hard and green, and you immediately say that you will not have it, as it must be sour. 2/ In this way facts lead to ideas, ideas to more facts, these to revised or new ideas and so on. The process never ends. 3/ Although the traditionalist may have good intuitions about his language, his grammar only enables him to make invulnerable statements about language. 4/ This document is the property of Roll-Royce limited and may not be copied or used for any purpose other than that for which it is supplied without the express written authority of Roll-Royce limited. 5/ Creep processes are diffusion controlled, and are therefore sensitive to temperature and holding time. This is demonstrated in Fig.2. 6/ Periodic checks are automatically performed to insure that the entire system is operating correctly and that no failures have occurred, unnoticed, that would affect the count data. 7/ The greater capacity of the depth filter usually enable them to be longer before being clogged. 8/ In order to achieve a special level of cleanliness, filtration system must be afforded the same degree of attention normally given to the selection of pumps and valves it serves. 参考译文 1/ 店员给你三个苹果，但这次在吃之前，你把苹果看个仔细发现又硬又青，立刻就说不要 这个，因为这只苹果必定是酸的。 2/ 这样，事实产生思想，思想产生更多的事实，更多的事实又产生修正了的或新的思想， 等等。这个过程永不止息。 3/ 虽然传统语法学家对自己的语言可能有着良好的直觉，但是，他们的语法只能使自己对 语言提出一些无懈可击的论述。 4/ 本资料的所有权属于―罗罗公司‖，未经本公司明确的书面许可，不准复制或用于所提供 的资料的规定用途不同的任何其他场所。 5/ 蠕变过程是受扩散控制的，所以易受温度和保持时间的影响。这一点可以从图2得到证 明。 6/ 计数器能自动地作定期检查，保证整个系统正常工作，并不使那些会影响计数数据的任 何故障出现或被忽视。 7/ 深度过滤器的容量越大，通常它们在阻塞之前的使用期越长。 8/ 为了达到规定的清洁度的要求，人们在选择过滤装置时，必须象选择装有过滤装置的泵 和阀一样，给予同样程度的注意。
请将下列段落中的划线部分译成汉语： Seated behind the front desk at a New York firm, the receptionist was efficient. Stylishly dressed, the firm’s newest employee had a pleasant telephone voice and a natural charm that put clients at ease.
The company was pleased : (1) Clearly, this was a person who took considerable pride in personal appearance. David King, the receptionist, is unusual, but by no means unique. (2) Just as all truck drivers and construction workers are no longer necessarily men, all secretaries and receptionists are no longer necessarily women. The number of men in women-dominated fields is still small and they haven’t attracted the attention that has often followed women advancing into male-dominated fields, but men are moving into more and more jobs that have traditionally been held by women. Strictly speaking, the phenomenon is not new. For the past several decades, men have been quietly entering fields such as nursing, social work and elementary education. But today no job seems off-limits. Men serve coffee in offices and meals on airplanes. (3) These changes are helping to influence some of the long-standing traditions about the types of work men and women can do – but they also produce some undeniable problems for the men who are entering those fields formerly dominated by women. What kinds of men venture into these so-called ―women’s fields‖? All kinds. (4) ―I don’t know of any definite answers I’d be comfortable with,‖ explains Joseph Pleck, Ph.D., of the Wellesley College Center for Research on women. 参考译文 1/ 很显然，他是个对自己的仪表感到相当自豪的人。 2/ 正像卡车司机和建筑工人再没必要都是男的一样，秘书和接待员再也不一定都是女的。 3/ 这些变化中影响着长期存在的传统观念中关于男女各可以干哪几类工作的看法，但这对 于进入原先以妇女为主的那些领域的男人来说，无疑也带来了一些问题。 4/ 我还没听说过有任何使我感到满意的确切答案。
第14讲 翻译与词典 翻译以下句子，对句子里的黑体词查考词典后再作翻译： 1/ Beer is the tipple of choice in Holland, where beer consumption follows hot on the heels of that in Germany, where beer is almost a religion, and Belgium, where they drink it for breakfast and feed it to babes and sucklings. 2/ Most U.S. brands use German brewing techniques as their basis rather than the British version, which produces a less alcoholic, flatter beer. 3/ Kids can catch up on sleep on weekends ---- up to a point. Going to bed in the wee hours and snoozing until noon only disrupts the brain's clock further. It's better to go to bed within about an hour of usual bedtime and then sleep an hour or two later. 4/ No doubt you’ve heard this grim statistic about weight loss: 90 percent of dieters who lose weight regain it ---- and sometimes more ---- within five years. This has become an article of faith among dieters, and it leaves many people hopeless about slimming down. 5/ The public health approach was found to be least effective then tried alone. However, the authors found strong evidence that a ―full court press‖ combination of public policy with other types of interventions works best 6/ Tolken, who was not at the conference but is aware of the scientific findings and concerned about the general trend toward cutting physical education programs, said, ―What we’re doing in the schools, I think, flies in the face of research.‖ 参考译文 1/啤酒是荷兰人常饮的酒之一，荷兰啤酒的消费仅次于德国和比利时。在德国，喝啤酒几 乎成了每个人的心之所好。在比利时，甚至吃早餐时也喝啤酒，也给娃娃们喝啤酒。 2/美国大多数品牌的啤酒是以德国技术而不是以英国技术为基础酿造的，因为英国的啤酒 酒精含量较少，且气也相对不足。 3/周末，孩子们可以作一定程度的补睡。凌晨上床睡觉，一直睡到第二天中午，只会进一 步破坏大脑的生物钟。在平时就寝时间一小时内上床，再多睡一两个小时是更好的办法。
4/毫无疑问，你听说过这个有关减肥的无情的统计：百分之九十的减肥者在减肥后的五年内 体重复原，有的甚至还增加了。这已经成为动摇减肥者信心的一个问题，使许多人对减肥失去 信心。 5/ 已经发现单枪匹马地实施公众健康方案效果最差。然而，作者们已经发现有强有力的证 据表明，公众政策和其他方略介入的―全面出击‖式的结合作用最理想。 6/ 托尔肯尽管没有参加这次会议，但对这项研究成果是了解的，他对学校削弱体育运动 的总趋势表示了关注。他说：―我认为，学校目前的所作所为完全置这项研究成果于不顾。‖ 第15讲 以―模糊‖求精确 请将下列短文译成汉语： 原文： Haven't They Seen 'Casablanca'? 1/ Lingering kisses and tearful farewells are to be a thing of the past on the platforms of some of France's biggest railway stations. 2/ In a move decidedly not in keeping with the country's reputation for romance, officials at stations in Paris, Lyon and Marseille have launched new ―welcome-filtering operations'' to keep platforms reserved purely for passengers. 3/ ―These operations aim to reduce fraud (欺骗)by preventing people without tickets from boarding trains and to make it easier for trains to leave at the exact time,'' Jean-Luc Obadia, manager of Lyon Part Dieu station, said Tuesday. 4/ Uniformed 身着制服的） （ staff for the SNCF （abbr. <法>Socié Nationale des Chemins de Fer té 法国国营铁路公司）rail company will demand to see people's tickets before letting them onto platforms, while their loved-ones will be encouraged to say their good-byes elsewhere in the stations' precincts（区域）. 5/ Officials said a new high-speed link between Paris and Marseille due to open next month will raise the number of trains traveling between the three cities, making it essential that all trains leave on the dot（准时地）. 6/ ―If you're accompanying a person who is in good health and able to manage alone, we'll ask you to say goodbye before the platform. But if you're with your grandmother and she's carrying a heavy suitcase, we'll let you through,'' Obadia added. 7/ For those left behind at the platform barrier (栅栏), he had a consolatory （慰问的， 可藉慰的） thought: ―I tell people that they won't see the train leave so it won't be so sad.'' （注：关于标题中的Casablanca请参见本书第X页） 参考译文： 别了，―卡萨布兰卡‖式的吻别！ 1/ 久吻和泪别将称为法国一些主要火车站的一道历史风景。 2/ 在一项置该国浪漫名声于不顾的行动中，巴黎、里昂、马赛车站的官员们开展了一场新 的所谓―情侣止步‖行动，以便使月台能方便乘客使用。 3/ ―此项目活动旨在通过防止无票人员登上列车而减少欺诈行为， 同时也让列车正点离站。 ‖ 里昂Part Dieu车站的经理Jean-Luc Obadia周二说。 4/ 身着制服的法国国营铁路公司的工作人员在允许乘客进入站台之前将进行检票，情侣们 将被要求在车站的别处告别。 5/ 官员们称，连接巴黎和马赛的高速列车下月将开通，往返于这三座城市的列车将有所增 加，列车正点发车就显得尤为重要。 6/ ―如果你送别的乘客身体健康，能独立行动，我们将要求你在月台外告别，当然如果你和
你的祖母在一块，她有携带一只沉重的手提箱，我们会让你进入。‖Obadia补充道。 7/ 对那些被阻在月台栅栏外的人员，Obadia表达了这样一个可聊以自慰的想法：―哎，眼不见， 心不烦。‖ 第16讲 落笔知轻重 译文讲分寸 试将下列段落中的划线部分译成汉语： Standardized tests should be considered in this context. They provide a quick, objective method of getting some kinds of information about what a person learned, the skill he has developed, or the kind of person he is. The information so obtained has, qualitatively, the same advantages and shortcomings as other kinds of information. (1) Whether to use tests, other kinds of information, or both in a particular situation depends, therefore, upon the evidence from experience concerning comparative validity and upon such factors as cost and availability. (2) In general, the tests work most effectively when the qualities to be measured can be most precisely defined and least effectively when what is to be measured or predicted can not be well defined. Properly used, they provide a rapid means of getting comparable information about many people. Sometimes they identify students whose high potential has not been previously recognized, but there are many things they do not do. (3) For example, they do not compensate for gross social inequality, and thus do not tell how able an underprivileged youngster might have been had he grown up under more favorable circumstances. 参考译文 1/ 因此，在某一特定情况下，究竟是采用测试还是其它种类的欣喜，或是两者同时使用， 须凭有关相对效度的经验依据而定，也取决于诸如费用和有无来源等因素。 2/ 一般地说，当所要测定的特征能很精确地界定时，测试最为有效；而当所要测定或预测 的东西不能明确地界定时，测试的效果则最差。 3/ 例如，测试并不弥补明显的社会不公；因此，它们不能说明一个物质条件差的年轻人， 如果在较好的环境下成长的话，会有多大才干。 第17讲 翻译最难是口吻 将下列两段文字译成汉语，注意行文的口吻 1/ Your friends stopped giving you their doubles, eh? Mooching doubles is a good scam, but you only get the crap nobody else wants (out-of-focus Eiffel Tower, anyone?). It's time to grow up and plunk down some cash for a camera of your own. It's daunting, we know ---- the salespeople use technical jargon, the prices run from $50 to $1,000, and with the advent of digital cameras, you're not even sure what type of camera you want (nobody wants to get stuck with the Betamax of cameras, after all). Don't spaz out ---- we're here to explain the options, outline the prices, and help you deal with tech-happy salespeople. Just say cheese. 2/ Color. What can we say? This is a personal choice. Phones come in many colors from chrome to emerald to basic black. If this is an important consideration to you, you have warped priorities, but hey, we said we'd provide you with all the information, so there you have it. 参考译文： 1/ 朋友不再送你他们加洗的照片了吗？去讨加洗的照片可得动不少脑筋。不料，你得到的 只是没人要的废片（焦距没有对准的艾非尔铁塔，有谁要吗？） 。现在该像个大人一样，掏出点 钱来买一部自己的相机了！ 不过， 这件事可有点棘手。 我们知道 ---- 销售人员满嘴的技术名词， 相机价格从50美元到1,000美元不等，而且随着数码相机的到来，你甚至弄不清自己想买何种相 机（毕竟没人愿意被beta 制大尺寸磁带录象系统搞得晕头转向） 。不必去做小傻瓜！有我们呢， 我们来给你解释可能的选择，报一报大概的价格，帮你对付那些以谈论技术为乐的生意人。你 呢，只要等着说―cheese‖，就行了！
2/ 颜色。颜色，我们能说些什么呢？这可是个个人喜好的问题。手机颜色有铬黄、翡翠绿 及常见的黑色等。假如颜色对你来说需要慎重考虑，那么，你一定有自己的偏爱。嗨，我们罗 嗦了！不过，我们说过要向你提供全部的信息，于是，就扯上了这些。
第18讲 翻译与形象思维 请将下列段落中的划线部分译成汉语： An office is the ―Brain‖ of a business. (1) In an office, figures, lists and information are compiled which tell the managers or heads of the business what is happening in their shops and factories. These figures guide the managers by telling them what has happened and what is happening. Information comes into an office in all sorts of ways but the main items of information come in regularly. (2) It is part of the job of the clerks to collect and classify that information and to put it into such a form that it is easily interpreted and understood. Offices collect information, then they classify it. This work of collection is common in a office from the sorting of mail every morning to the accountant’s work in finding out the final figure for the year’s profit. (3) Classification always requires the arrangement of the same kind of information, often into lists or columns. (4) For this work, correctness, accuracy and speed, as in all office work, are essential. There is no value, however, in collecting figures which mean nothing. Figures are guides which should help us make decisions. (5) The interpretation of information and of tables should tell us where success or failure lies, where profit can be had and where losses occur. (6) On this kind of information and from the known figures, a choice is made and a series of such choices may make a policy. A fire which has three factories may find, for instance, from its figures, that one factory is losing money and a choice may lie between either a change of manager, a cut in production, an increase in production or closure of the factory. Whichever one of these decision is taken becomes the policy. (7) It is clear that a decision leading to a policy can only be as good as the information on which it is based. Consequently there is a constant search for more and more exact information. (8) Managers will want to have all the necessary facts before they can make the best decision and it is normal for them to seek for more and more information. 参考译文 1/ 在办公室，人们将各种数据、表格和资料（信息）加以汇编，使经理或企业主管人了解 商店或工厂目前正在发生的情况。 2/ 职员的一部分任务，就是收集资料（信息） ，分类归类，制成表格；表格要使资料（信 息）易于解释，易于理解。 3/ 分类工作始终需要将同类资料加以整理，通常将资料列成表格或专栏。 4/ 对这种工作来说，象所有办公室的工作一样，正确性、精确性和速度，这三者是缺一不 可的。 5/ 对资料（信息）和报表所作的解释，务必给我们显示出成败关键之所在，即指出哪里可 以牟利以及哪里出现亏损。 6/ 根据这种字（信息）和已知数据，就能作出一种选择，而一系列如此的选择就能制定一 项决策。 7/ 很显然，导致形成政策的决定，正确与否只能取决于它所依据的资料（信息）的正确或 错误。 8/ 经理务必在掌握一切必要的情况之后，才能作出最佳决定。对经理来说，要求得到越来 越多的资料（信息）是很正常的。
第19讲 翻译与灵感思维 请将下列段落中划线部分译成汉语： It would be interesting to discover how many young people go to university without any clear idea of what they are going to do afterwards. (1) In one considers the enormous variety of courses offered, it is not hard to see how difficult it is for a student to select the course most suited to his interests and abilities. (2) If a student goes to university to acquire a broader perspective of life, to enlarge his ideas and to learn to think for himself, he will undoubtedly benefit. (3) Schools often have too restricting an atmosphere, with its timetables and disciplines, to allow him much time for independent assessment of the work he is asked to do. (4) Most students would, I believe, profit by a year or so’s exploration of different academic studies, especially those ―all-rounders‖ with no particular interest. They should have longer time to decide in what subject they want to take their degrees, so that in later life, they do not look back and say,‖I should like to have been an archaeologist. If I hadn’t taken a degree in modern language, I shouldn’t have ended up as an interpreter, but it’s too late now. I couldn’t go back and begin all over again. (5) There is, of course, another side to the question of how to make the best use of one’s time at university. (6) This is the case of the student who excels in a particular branch of learning. (7) He is immediately accepted by the University of his choice, and spends his three or four years becoming a specialist, emerging with a first-class Honor Degree and very little knowledge of what the rest of the world is all about. (8) It therefore becomes more and more important that, if students are not to waste their opportunities, there will have to be much more detailed information about courses and more advice. Only in this way can we be sure that we are not to have, on the one hand, a band of specialists ignorant of anything outside of their own subject, and on the other hand, an ever-increasing number of graduates qualified in subjects for which there is little or no demand in the working world. 参考译文 1/ 如果想一想为学生设置的那些门类繁多的课程，就不难发现，对学生来说，要选一门符 合其兴趣和能力的课程是多么困难。 2/ 如果学生进大学，其目的是想获得在人生憧憬方面更广泛的知识，开阔思想境界，并学 会独立思考，那么毫无疑问，进大学对他是有所裨益的。 3/ 由于受课程表和纪律的约束，校内气氛往往令人感到过于拘谨，这使学生没有充分时间 对规定要他做的作业持有独立见解。 4/ 我认为：大多数学生，特别是那些不偏重某一门课程的―全面发展的学生‖，经过一年左 右时间对各门不同学科的钻研，将会从中获益。 5/ 当然，问题的另一方面是如何最充分地利用上大学的时间。 6/ 某一学科中出类拔萃的学生就属于这种情况。 7/ 他一毕业，马上就被他自己选中的一所大学所接受，再花三四年时间，以优异成绩取得 荣誉学位，成为一名专家，但对外界的一切事却一无所知。 8/ 因此，如果要学生善于利用上大学的机会，就应该为学生提供大量关于课程方面更为详尽 的信息和更多的指点。这个问题显得日益重要了。 第20讲 英语修辞的翻译（包括连接三讲） 1．试将下列段落中的划线部分译成汉语： The fact is that the energy crisis, which has suddenly been officially announced, has been with us for a long time now, and will be for an even longer time. Whether Arab oil flows freely or not, it is clear to everyone that world industry cannot be allowed to depend on so fragile a base. (1) The supply of oil can be shut off unexpectedly at any time, and in any case, the oil wells will all run dry in thirty years or so at the present rate of use. (2) New sources of energy must be found, and this will take time, but it is not likely to result in any situation that will ever restore that sense of cheap and plentiful energy we have had in the past.
For an indefinite period from here on, mankind is going to advance cautiously, and consider itself lucky that it can advance at all. To make the situation worse, there is as yet no sign that any slowing of the world’s population is in sight. Although the birth rate has dropped in some nations, including the United States, the population of the world seems sure to pass six billion and perhaps even billion as the twenty-fist century opens. (3) The food supply will not increase nearly enough to match this, which means we are heading into a crisis in the matter of producing and marketing food. 参考译文 1/ 石油供应可能随时会被切断；不管怎样，以目前这种消费速度，只需30年左右，所有的 油井都会枯竭。 2/ 必须找到新的能源，这需要时间；而过去我们感觉的那种能源价廉而充足的情况将不大 可能再出现了。 3/ 食品供应的增加将赶不上人口的增长，这就意味着我们在秒年个粮食的生产和购销方面 正陷入危机。 2．请将段落中划线部分译成汉语： Taking all this account, what might we reasonably estimate supermarkets to be like in the year 2001? To begin with, the world food supply is going to become steadily tighter over the next thirty years—even here in the United States. By 2001, the population of the United States will be at least two hundred fifty million and possibly two hundred seventy million, and the nation will find it difficult to expand food production to fill the additional mouths. (1) This will be particularly true since energy pinch will make it difficult to continue agriculture in the high-energy American fashion that makes it possible to combine few farmers with high yields. It seems almost certain that by 2001 the United States will no longer be a great food-exporting nation and that, if necessity forces exports, it will be at the price of belt-tightening at home. In fact, as food items will tend to decline in quality and decrease in variety, there is very likely to be increasing use of flavoring additives. (2) Until such time as mankind has the sense to lower its population to the point where the planet can provide a comfortable support for all, people will have to accept more ―unnatural food‖. 参考译文 1/ 这种困境将是确定无疑的，因为能源的匮乏使农业无法以高能量消耗这种美国耕种方式 继续下去了，而这种耕种方式使投入少数农民就可获得高产成为可能。 2/ 除非人类终于意识到要把人口减少到这样的程度，使地球能为所有人提供足够的饮 食，否则，人们将不得不接受更多的―人造食品‖。 3．试将下列段落中的划线部分译成汉语： ―Intelligence‖ at best is an assumptive construct—the meaning of the word has never been clear. (1) There is more agreement on the kings of behavior referred to by the term than there is on how to interpret or classify them. But it is generally agreed that a person of high intelligence is one who can grasp ideas readily, make distinctions, reason logically, and make use of verbal and mathematical symbols in solving problems. An intelligence test is a rough measure of a child’s capacity for learning, particularly for learning the kinds of things required in school. It does not measure character, social adjustment, physical endurance, manual skills, or artistic abilities. It is not supposed to –it was not designed for such purposes. (2) To criticize it for such failure is roughly comparable to criticizing a thermometer for not measuring wind velocity. 参考译文 1/ 人们对智力所指的有哪些不同表现，比对这些表现如何进行解释或分类，看法更为一致
第21讲 翻译中的文化冲击 试将下列段落中的划线部分译成汉语 (1)―It’s humiliating to be done out of your job by a machine and there is no way to fight back, but it is the effort to find a new job that really hurts.‖ Some workers, like Jane Mathesen, are retrained to handle the new equipment, but often a whole new set of skills is required and that means a new and invariably smaller, set of workers. (2) The old workers, trapped by their limited skills, often never regain their old status and employment. Many drift into marginal area. They feel no pride in their new work. They get badly paid for it and they feel miserable, but still they are luckier than those who never find it. (3) The social costs go far beyond the welfare and unemployment payments made by the government. Unemployment increases the chances of divorce, child abuse, and alcoholism, a new federal survey shows. Some experts say the problem is only temporary – that new technology will eventually create as many jobs as it destroys. (4) But futurologist Hymen Seymour says the astonishing efficiency of the new technology means there will be a simple and direct net reduction in the amount of human labor that needs to be done.‖ We should treat this as an opportunity to give people more leisure. It may not be easy, but society will have to reach a new unanimity on the division and distribution of labor.‖ Seymour says. He predicts most people will work only six-hour days and four-day weeks by the end of the century. But the concern for the unemployed is for now. (5) Federally funded training and free back-to-school programs for laid-off workers are under way, but few experts believe they will be able to keep up with the pace of the new technology. For the next years, for a substantial portion of the workforce, times are going to be very tough indeed. 参考译文 1/ 被一台机器抢走你的工作是很伤自尊心的，可又没法还击，但真正伤我心的是要费很大 的劲去寻找新的工作。 2/ 老工人由于处于技术掌握很有限的困境，往往不能重新获得其原有的地位和就业机会。 3/ 要付出的社会代价远远超过政府在福利与失业救济方面的开支。 4/ 未来的科学家海曼·西摩说，新技术所具有的惊人效率意味着所需要的劳力将出现一个 绝对的和直接的净减数。 5/ 为失业工人提供的由联邦政府资助的培训计划和免费重返学校学习的计划目前都在实施 中，但专家中几乎没有人认为这些计划能跟上新技术的发展步伐。
第22讲 思维是语言的脊梁 （两讲合并） 1. 将下列段落中的划线部分译成汉语： The increasing scale and scope of the experiments needed to test new hypotheses and develop new techniques and industrial processes led to the setting up of research groups or teams using highly complicated equipment in elaborately designed laboratories. (1) Owing to the large sums of money involved, it was then felt essential to direct these human and material resources into specific channels with clearly-defined objectives. In this way it was considered that the quickest and most practical results could be obtained. This, then, was programmed (programmatic) research. One of the effects of this organized and standardized investigation is to cause the scientists to become increasingly involved in applied research (development), especially in the branches of science which seem most likely to have industrial applications. (2) Since private industry and even government departments tend to concentrate on immediate results and show comparatively little interest in long-range investigations, there is a steady shift of scientists from the pure to the applied field, where there are more jobs available, frequently more highly-paid and with better technical
facilities than jobs connected with pure research in a university. Owing to the interdependence between pure and applied science, it is easy to see that this system, if extended too far, carries considerable dangers for the future of science – and not only pure science, but applied science as well. 参考译文 1/ 由于涉及到大笔科研经费，因此有必要把这些人力和物力投入到目标明确的具体研究方 面。 2/ 由于私营工业、甚至政府部门都注重快速取得成果，并对长期性研究缺乏兴趣，所以科 学家不断从理论科学研究领域转移到应用科学研究领域，因为后者能够提供更多的工作机会， 而且通常是待遇优厚，技术设施比大学理论研究工作更良好。 2. 试将下列段落中的划线部分译成汉语： According to the new school of scientists, technology is an overloaded force in expanding the horizons of scientific knowledge.(1)Science moves forward, they say, not so much through the insights of great men of genius as because of more ordinary things like improved techniques and tools. ―In short‖, a leader of the new school contends, ―the scientific revolution, as we call it, was largely the improvement and invention and use of a series of instruments that expanded the reach of science in innumerable directions.‖ (2)Over the years, tools and technology themselves as a source of fundamental innovation have largely been ignored by historians and philosophers of science. The modern school that hails technology argues that such as Edison attached great importance to, and derived great benefit from, craft information and technological devices of different kinds that were usable in scientific experiments. 参考译文 1/ 他们（新学派科学家们）说，科学的发展与其说源于天才伟人的真知灼识，不如说源于 改进了的技术和工具等等更为普通的东西。新学派的一位领袖人物坚持说：―简而言之，我们所 称谓的科学革命，主要是指一系列器具的改进、发明和使用，这些改进、发明和使用使科学发 展的范围无所不及。‖ 2/ 工具和技术本身作为根本性创新的源泉多年来在很大程度上被科学史学家和科学思想 家们忽视了。
第23讲 翻译美学之思考（两讲合并） 1．试将下列段落译成汉语： American urbanization went forward in the same climate of the unexpected that has characterized urbanization everywhere. Townsmen, home builders, immigrants, businesses, and governments have made their way in a setting of constant change. They have dwelt in a space they could never know or predict. The settlement , the building and rebuilding, the economy and the governance of American cities thus takes the shape of a history of peoples who brought commonly accepted knowledge and traditions to a situation that demanded continuing adaptation and change. Today the United States is a thoroughly urbanized nation. Only 3.4 percent of the population still farms, and everyone else, regardless of the size of the settlement, is employed in urban-type jobs. Yet for all the novelty of the present situation, survivals of past stages of American urbanization continues as active tensions within the new totally urbanized setting. The racial conflicts between whites and blacks, devolving from the seventeenth century enslavement of Africans, grind on. Seventeenth, eighteenth, and nineteenth century conflicts among farmers, village merchants, city brokers, and bankers go forward in the politics of governments-subsidized agriculture and government-managed banking. The rivalries among developers, contractors, and cities that characterized the building of nineteenth century canals and railroads reappear in the politics of interstate highways, and airplanes, telecommunications. The specialized city districts that first took
shape in the nineteenth century now have been magnified a thousand times into the giant mosaics of metropolitan suburbs, industrial and office parks, shopping centers, and resort and retirement settlements. The community-destroying tensions of relative poverty amidst great wealth first appeared with urban boom of the early nineteenth century. At that time these tensions found their characteristic outlets in workers; unions. Now riches and poverty are separated into distant enclaves within vast metropolitan regions, and class conflicts appear in the rivalry of economic factions for special advantages within the system of welfare capitalism of the federal government. The American city remains, as in the nineteenth century, the preeminent place of class contrast, but in the current national and international economy of the united States the city is no longer the place where relief can be sought. 参考译文 美国的城市化，在那些毫无预见的人看来，是在其他地方的城市话毫无二致的气氛中进行 的。城镇居民、营造家园者、外地移民、商贸往来、政府部门，都在不断变化的环境中拓展。 他们生活在一个自己不可能知道，也不可能预见的空间中。因此，美国城市的开拓，建设和重 建，经济发展，管理整治，呈现初一种历史形式，即不同的民族把共同接受的知识和传统带到 了一个需要不断调整和改变的情势下。 如今的美国已是一个彻底城市化的国家；除了3.4%的人依然务农外，其他人，不管其财产 处理方式如何，均从事城市型的工作。尽管当前的情况很新奇，但是，美国城市化过程中各个 历史阶段遗留下来的东西，都作为灵敏的张力继续出现在完全城市化的新环境中。 从17世纪非洲人沦为奴隶开始的白人和黑人之间的种族冲突，依然存在；17、18和19世纪 农场主、农村商人、城市经纪人、银行家之间的分歧，仍然在政府补贴农业、政府管理银行的 政治方面有增无减。19世纪开发者、承包商和城镇一度围绕开渠修路展开的竞争，有重新出现 在州际公路、机场和电讯等建设上。19世纪首次形成的专业化市区，如今扩大了上千倍，已成 为都市郊区、工业园区、办公园地、购物中心、避暑疗养地等庞大建筑群体。随着19世纪初期 城市的繁荣，首先在巨富中间出现了相对贫困造成破坏社区的紧张状况。当时的这种紧张状况 主要表现在工人的政治组织、互惠协会和手艺行会之中。现在的贫富分化已在广大城区中形成 差异，非常悬殊的社区，阶级冲突已随着经济派别在联邦政府实行的福利资本主义制度内争夺 特殊利益而出现。现在的美国城市仍然是像19世纪那样是一个阶级差别鲜明的地方，但是，在 美国当前的国家和国际经济中，城市不再是人们可以寻求轻松调剂的去处。 2．试将下列段落译成汉语： Now we know that all this is caused by the movement of the earth around the sun. As the earth journeys around the sun, it spins on its own axis. This can be illustrated by a simple experiment. If you push a sharp stick through a rubber ball and twirl it with two fingers, the ball spins around in much the same way the earth is spinning at this very movement. The points where the stick comes through the ball correspond to the North and South Poles. If you twirl this ball at night directly in front of a bright light, you will notice that half the ball is lighted up while the other half is in the shade. That is just like our night and day. If you keep the stick strictly vertical to the light and twirl it at an even speed, any spot on the ball’s surface will be in the light and in the shade the same length of time. f the earth were spinning just like this rubber ball, there would only be day and night on earth, but no seasons, and days would always be the same length as nights – 12 hours each. But that is not how the earth spins. It spins with its axis tilted. Its axis is always at the angle to the plane of its orbit – an angle of about 23.5 degrees. It is this tilting that accounts for our four seasons and the lengthening and shortening of days and nights. For this reason also, the Equator (an imaginary line drawn around the earth at equal distance from the two poles) is not always directly under the sun’s rays. For six months the earth is tilted towards the sun, and the Northern Hemisphere gets more than its share of sunlight every day. Days are longer than nights, and what is more, the sun’s rays come down more perpendicularly instead of slanting down.
参考译文 现在我们知道，所有这一切现象都是由于地球围绕太阳转动而产生的。地球绕着太阳运行 时是围绕自身的轴旋转的。这可以用简单的实验来说明。如果把一根尖头棒插进皮球，用两个 手指使它转动起来，橡皮球的旋转与地球此时此刻的自转极为相似。尖头棒穿过的两处相当于 地球的南极和北极。如果在夜间正对着明亮的灯光转动，就会发现半个皮球被照亮了，而另外 半个在阴暗处。这种情况正好同我们的白天黑夜的现象相同。如果使尖头棒完全与灯光垂直， 以均匀的速度加以转动，球面的任何一点在亮处和暗处的时间长短是相同的。 如果地球完全像这个橡皮球一样转动，那么，地球上就只有白天和黑夜，没有季节，而白 天和黑夜一样长 ---- 各是12小时。但是地球并不是那样转动的。它旋转时地轴是倾斜的。地轴 同地球轨道平面总是成一个角度 ---- 大约二十三度半的角度。 就是这样的倾斜角度才使我们有四个季节。 有昼夜长短的变化。 由于同样的缘故， 赤道 （离 两极距离相等的地方围绕地球的一条假想的线）并不总是在阳光垂直照之下。白天就比黑夜长， 而且，阳光不是斜射，而是以比较直的角度向下照射。 二．汉英翻译理论与实践课程之练习 第1讲 汉译英呼唤文字功力 翻译练习： 等待 他们认识了三年。二人同是羞涩内向，个性保守。他从来没有在她面前提过爱，然而，她 依稀可从她羞涩眼眸中察觉到那一股灼灼爱意。几次三番，她向他暗示鼓励，他却仍是木呐呆 傻，不敢开口。岁月飘逝，三年后，她跟另一个男孩订婚了，在订婚前夕却仍忘不了他。 ―如果他现在开口，说出那一句话，我还愿意回到他的怀抱。‖在亲友的祝福声中，她这么 想。可是，他什么也没表示，只不过眼神里多了一股淡淡的忧郁。 终于，到了结婚前夕，在她新婚的喜悦中却掺杂着一股淡淡的哀伤。 ―如果他现在开口，说出那一句话，我还愿意放弃一切，选择这份迟来的幸福。‖在试穿新 婚礼服的一刻她这么想着，可是他什么也没表示，只不过眼神中的忧郁更浓了些。 50年后，二人都已白发苍苍。终于，她先倒下去，在病危中，他远从外地来看她。她紧紧 握住他的手，把一生中的疑惑与等待化成一句问话：―告诉我，你究竟在等待什么？‖他四顾无 人，颤抖着声音说出了也是一生中的彷徨与等待：―我在等你。‖―等我什么？‖―等你先开口啊！‖ 参考译文： WAITING They had known each other for three years. Both of them were of the conservative type, shy and inhibited. Although he had never mentioned the word of ―love‖ before her, yet she could vaguely detect that passion burning in his diffident look. She dropped him one hint after another to encourage him; however, he remained a big fool, never daring to confess it. Water flowed on under the bridge. Three years later, she was engaged to another young man. On the eve of her engagement, her thoughts went to that young man. ―If he comes and proposes now, I’m still willing to go to him,‖ she brooded, amidst the congratulations of her relatives and friends. Yet, he did nothing of the kind. Added to the shyness of his look was a faint streak of melancholy. Soon, it was the eve of her marriage. The happiness of the happiest girl was not untempered with a touch of sadness. ―Even if he should come and propose now, I would give up all this to embrace the belated
happiness,‖ she repeated to herself as she tried on her bride’s gown. But again he hid his feelings, only his eyes betrayed greater misery. Fifty years passed. The passage of time had dyed their hair silvery white. She was the first to collapse. When she was in a critical condition, he came from a far-away place to have a last look at her. Holding his hands in a tight grip, she asked him one question, into which she had compressed the wondering and expectations of her lifetime. ―Tell me, what on earth have you been waiting for?‖ ―Waiting for you to…‖ he mumbled out his life-long hesitation and expectations only when he had made sure that no one else was within hearing. ―For me to do what?‖ ―For you to break the ice!‖ 第2讲 语篇与翻译 翻译练习： 况且，一想到昨天遇见祥林嫂的事，也就使我不能安住。那是下午，我到镇的东头访过一 个朋友，走出来，就在河边遇见她；而且见她瞪着的眼睛的视线，就知道明明是向我走来的。 我这回在鲁镇所见的人们中，改变之大，可以说无过于她的了：五年前的花白的头发，即今已 经全白，全不像四十上下的人；脸上瘦削不堪，黄中带黑，而且消尽了先前悲哀的神色，仿佛 是木刻似的；只有那眼珠间或一轮，还可以表示她是一个活物。她一手提着竹篮，内中一个破 碗，空的；一手柱着一支比她更长的竹竿，下端开了裂：她分明已经纯乎是一个乞丐了。 参考译文： Besides, the thought of my meeting with Xianglin’s Wife the previous day was preying on my mind. It had happened in the afternoon. On my way back from calling on a friend in the eastern part of the town, I had met her by the river and knew from the fixed look in her eyes that she was going to accost me. Of all the people I had seen during this visit to Luzhen, none had changed so much as she had. Her hair, streaked with grey five years before, was now completely white, making her appear much older than one around forty. Her sallow, dark-tinged face that looked as if it had been carved out of wood was fearfully wasted and had lost the grief-stricken expression it had borne before. The only sign of life about her was the occasional flicker of her eyes. In one hand she had a bamboo basket containing a chipped, empty bowl; in the other, a bamboo pole, taller than herself, that was split at the bottom. She had clearly become a beggar pure and simple. 第3讲： 英汉语美感比读（两讲合并） 翻译练习1： 盼头 细娃盼过年，大人盼开春。儿时，对于大人的盼是不能理解的，但过年，对我来说，可是 一年的大盼头了。过年，不但好玩，且有肉吃，那气氛是迷人的。年一过，又盼日子快些流， 好流来又一个春节。 在盼中，日子真的流得飞快，转眼上了小学，继而初中，然后高中，最后大学；盼的欲望 更加强烈，盼的内容也越渐丰富了：盼有好成绩毕业，盼有一份好工作，盼事业有成，盼挣钱 替父母分忧，盼有一个好爱人……不知不觉，天天踩着盼的石阶而上，自己竟成了一个大男人， 一个挣钱养家糊口的忙碌人了。 生活开始变得复杂。然而，无论自己是否变得庸俗，变得伟大，盼头依然天天有：盼信件， 盼稿件被采用，盼发奖金，盼某事有满意结果，盼一次聚会、一次旅行……人就在盼中找到了 依托。 没有盼头的日子是苍白不可想象的。人，得天天有点什么盼头，生活才不至于暗淡。有了
盼头，会觉得太阳每天都是新的。不管是望梅止渴，还是画饼充饥，它都会激励你不停手中的 桨，去追逐哪怕一星微小的火光。 土地去掉水分，就成了沙漠；人没有了盼，还剩什么？小盼头支撑人的一天，大盼头支撑 人的一生。 人，是绝不能没有盼头的。 参考译文1： Something to Look Forward To Little children look forward to the arrival of lunar New Year, adults to that of spring. When a child I couldn’t understand what the elders hoped for. But New Year’s Day was always the greatest red-letter day of al the year, for it meant the nicest food as well as a lot of fun, which was really fascinating. As soon as the festival was over, another one was my dream and I wished time flew as fast as possible. Days spent in expectation come and go really very fast. Very soon I finished primary school, went to junior and senior middle school, and finally to college; with ever greater desire for more varied things: for graduation with honours, for an ideal job, for a successful career, for more earnings to share my parents’ burden, for a satisfactory wife…. Climbing the upward steps of hope I had become a fully grown man before I was aware of it, a busy breadwinner with a family on my hands. Life began to show its various facets. Whether I have turned more vulgar or great, I have always something to look forward to. It may be arrival of a letter, publication of an article, the bonus-distributing day, a gratifying result of something, a get-together of a pleasure trip…Such expectations serve as a prop to a person’s faith in life. A day without hope would be unimaginably pale. There must be something to look forward to each day to brighten one’s life and keep it out of shadows. To a person cherishing hopes every morning rises a new sun. Even if it is a fantasy or an illusion, so long as it shows a ray of hope it still urges you on in pursuit of that little sparkle without letup. Deprived of moisture content, soil turns into desert. Deprived of hope, what is there left to a person? A small hope sustains a person for a day, a great one for a lifetime. Human beings cannot do without something to look forward to. 翻译练习2： 雄辩症 （王蒙） 一位医生向我介绍，他们在门诊中接触了一位雄辩症病人。医生说：―请坐。‖ 病人说：―为什么要坐呢?难道你要剥夺我的不坐权吗？‖ 医生无可奈何，倒了一杯水，说；―请喝水吧。‖ 病人说：―这样谈问题是片面的，因而是荒谬的，并不是所有的水都能喝。例如你如果在水 里搀上氰化钾，就绝对不能喝。‖ 医生说：―我这里并没有放毒药嘛。你放心！‖ 病人说： ―谁说你放了毒药了呢？难道我诬告你放了毒药？难道检察院起诉书上说你放了毒 药？我没说你放毒药，而你说我说你放了毒药，你这才是放了比毒药还毒的毒药！‖ 医生毫无办法，便叹了口气，换一个话题说：―今天天气不错。‖ 病人说： ―纯粹胡说八道！ 你这里天气不错， 并不等于全世界在今天都是好天气。 例如北极， 今天天气就很坏，刮着大风，漫漫长夜，冰山正在撞击……‖ 医生忍不住反驳说：―我们这里并不是北极嘛。‖ 病人说：―但你不应该否认北极的存在。你否认北极的存在，就是歪曲事实真相，就是别有 用心。‖ 医生说：―你走吧。‖ 病人说： ―你无权命令我走。 你是医院， 不是公安机关， 你不可能逮捕我， 你不可能枪毙我。 ‖ ……经过多方调查，才知道病人当年参加过―梁效‖的写作班子，估计可能是一种后遗症。
参考译文2： A Case of Eloquence （Wang Meng） A doctor once told me about one of his outpatients who suffered from the disease of eloquence: ―Please sit down,‖ the doctor told him. ―Why should I?‖ the patient asked. ―Are you going to deprive me of my right not to sit down?‖ The doctor could say nothing but offered him a glass of water. ―Have some water then.‖ The patient retorted, ―This is lop-sided talk, so it is absurd. Not al water is drinkable. If you put some potassium cyanide in it, it will be undrinkable.‖ The doctor said, ―I didn’t put any poison in it. Please rest assured.‖ ―Who said you put poison in it? Do you mean to say that I am lodging a false accusation against you? Has it been written on the indictment of the procurator that you have put poison in the water? I didn’t say you had put poison in it, but you claimed that I said you had put poison in it. So you have indeed put in more poisonous poison against me!‖ The doctor could not but heave a sigh and switched to another topic, ―It’s fine today.‖ The patient replied. ―Nonsense! The fact that it is fine here doesn’t mean that it is fine everywhere else in the world. At the North Pole, for example, it must be freezing, with strong winds, long nights and icebergs colliding with one another…‖ The doctor couldn’t help but retorted, ―This is not the North Pole.‖ The patient argued. ―You can’t deny the existence of the North Pole. If you do, you’ll be distorting facts with ulterior motives.‖ Finally the doctor begged him, ―Please go away.‖ The patient again answered back. ―You have no right to order me to leave. Yours is a hospital, not a public security office. So you can’t arrest me, nor shoot me to death.‖ An investigation revealed the fact that this patient had joined the so-called ―Liang Xiao‖ (An organization during the Cultural Revolution that wrote the major articles which voiced the opinions of the Gang of Four. Here ―Xiao‖ also implies ―Loyalty to the Gang of Four.‖) writing group. What he was suffering from may have been the after-effects of that period. 第4讲： 理性概译：翻译之坦途 翻译练习： 接着他便说到壮年之日，在南方那些山中冬夜走路的事情。一个人的漂泊生活，我是喜欢 打听的，同时车又没有驰来，便怂恿他说了下去。他说晚上在那些山里，只要你是一个正派的 人，就可以朝灯火人家一直走去，迎着犬声，敲开树阴下的柴门，大胆地闯进。对着火堆周围 的人们，不管他男的女的，用两手向他们两肩头一分，就把你带着风寒露湿的身子，轻轻地放 了过去。烧山芋和热茶的香味，便一下子扑入你的鼻子。抬头看，四周闪着微笑的眼睛，欢迎 着，毫没有怪你唐突的神情。你刚开口说由哪儿来的时候，一杯很热的浓茶，就递在你的下巴 边上。老太婆吩咐她的孙女，快把火拨大些，多添点子柴，说是客人要烘暖他的身子；你暖和 了，还不觉得疲倦的话，你可以摸摸小孩子的下巴，行拧他们的脸蛋，做一点奇怪的样子，给 他们嘻笑。年轻的妈妈，一高兴了，便会怂恿他的孩子把拿着要吃的烧山芋，分开一半，放在 你这位客人的手上。如果你要在他们家过夜，他们的招待，就更来得殷勤些。 参考译文： Then he began to relate to me the adventures of his younger days -travelling alone in winter nights through the mountains in the south. As I was interested in stories about wanderers and since the bus had not arrived yet, I encouraged him to go on. ―When you end up in the mountains at night,‖ he said, ―and if you are a decent person, you can always turns to the place where there is a light flickering and a dog barking. You push open the bramble gate under the shade and walk in without hesitation. Part the people, men or women, around the fire with your hands and you bring yourself-a cold and wet
man with dew-among them. Immediately your nose is filled with the aroma of hot tea and roast sweet potatoes. When you look round you see friendly faces smiling at you; there is no hint of anything like blame for what elsewhere might be considered as brusqueness. Scarcely have you begun to tell them where you come from when a cup of hot and strong tea is handed over to you. Grandma will teal her granddaughter to feed the fire with more wood, saying that the guest needs more heat to warm up. When you are recovered from cold and fatigue, you tend to tease the baby, stroking his chin, giving a gentle pinch to his cheek or making a face to provoke him to gurgle. The delighted young mother will encourage her baby to share his sweet potato with you. The baby will then break it in two and thrust one half into your hand. If you intend to stay overnight, you will be entertained with al possible hospitality. 第5讲：英语句式的亮点：非人称主语句 （两讲合并） 翻译练习1（注意使用非人称主语句） ： 1/ 积习难除； 2/ 他想起了母亲，才鼓足了勇气继续干下去。 3/ 他因家境贫寒失学，似乎感到了失学之苦。 4/ 新的一年将出现巨大变革。 5/ 那个寒冷的下午，他独自在雪地里跋涉。 6/ 他在驾车驶过那事故多发拐角时总是格外小心。 7/ 他失去了勇气。 8/ 登上甲板，我们便见到了一轮旭日。 9/ 他绝望了，正在此时，他见到了远方的帆影，有了绝处逢生的希望。 10/ 人们使用了电脑，劳动生产率突飞猛进。 11/ 此事需立即办理。 12/ 调查结果证明，他就是那个婴儿的生父。 13/ 你吃了这些药就会好些。 14/ 一见到那孤儿，我就想到他的父母。 15/ 你只消仔细比较一下，就会发现不同。 16/ 只要你仔细读一读，一切就会清楚了。
参考译文： 1/ Old habits die hard. 2/ Only the thought of his mother gave him the strength to go on doing it. 3/ The want of his family had kept him from school, and he seemed to feel the loss. 4/ The new year is expected to see great changes. 5/ That chilly afternoon saw him trudging in the snow alone. 6/ He was exceptionally careful when driving past that corner which had seen many accidents. 7/ Courage deserted him. 8/ The morning sun greeted us as we came out on deck. 9/ He gave up all the hope when the appearance of a distant sail raised his hope of rescue.
10/ The application of electronic computers makes for a tremendous rise in labor productivity. 11/ The matter asks immediate attention. 12/ Investigation fathered the baby on him. 13/ This medicine will make feel better. 14/ The sight of the orphan always reminds me of her parents. 15/ Careful comparison of them will show you the differences. 16/ A little careful reading will make everything clear to you. 翻译练习2： 伤害 心灵的伤害比肉体的伤害更深更惨！肉体的伤害经过滋养愈合能够复原，而心灵的伤害足 以摧毁一个人的一生。 青春在一生中是黄金时节，爱情是青春的花朵，人们把这朵花看得尤为重要。所以，爱情 的伤害比起其它的更深重一些。 有的人尽管不爱一个人，然而，不知是出于什么目的，同样接受人家的感情，而且还卑鄙 地掩盖自己说：―我是怕伤害对方。‖岂不知，这样做本身就属于一种伤害。 在感情上，不要只跟着感觉走，―自我感觉‖这东西并不实在，夜晚里闪着银光的路上，往 往是一片泥水。 如果你不爱，请千万别回转身，不要管身后的人怎样泪流满面，那只是一时感受，要知道 爱应是相互的。当岁月流逝，身后的人找到了属于自己的幸福，他和她互相爱慕，你该感到欣 慰。扬起头，潇洒地向前走吧，不要那么心事重重，这不是你的错。你的路上会鲜花常开，你 完全有权利采到自己最喜欢最满意的一朵。 当你走到路的尽头，回首往事的时候，有一个人永远感激并深深祝福着你，因为你给予人 的，不是伤害而是尊重。 参考译文2： Hurt A hurt to feelings causes much greater harm than an injury. The latter will heal by care and nourishment while the former is sometimes so deep as to leave behind a lifelong suffering. Love is so much valued because it is the beautiful flower of youth, the golden time of one’s life. Therefore, nothing other than a hurt received in love affairs affects one more severely. There is such a kind of person who does not love his or her admirer but somehow or other readily accepts the latter’s affection, trying to cover it up by such a cheap excuses as ―I’m afraid of causing a hurt‖. But the fact is one’s doing so is itself a real hurt. Do not trust your intuition in love affairs. So-called ―one’s intuitive feelings‖ can be deceiving. A patch of road glistering at night may be a muddy one. Remember love is mutual. If you don’t have the same affection as the person behind does towards you, never turn round to look even if there’s a tearful pleading face, letting the grief go of itself. There will be a day for that person to find a desirable sweetheart. You will then be pleased to see that there is a reciprocated love between them. Go ahead holding up your head. Don’t be disturbed by your refusal to accept the person’s love for it is not your fault. On your road, you will find flowers here and there, among which you can pick the one you like and are satisfied with. When you look back at the end of the road, the person you catch sight of will be the one forever grateful to you and wishing you happiness, for you showed respect instead of doing hurt. 第6讲：汉译英有用的句型（两讲合并） 翻译练习1： 第二天午后，我上邮局去取了钱，在太阳晒着的大街上走了一会，忽而觉得身上就
淋出汗来。我向我前后左右的行人一看，就不知不觉地把头低俯了下去。我颈上头上的 汗珠，更同盛雨似的，一颗一颗地钻出来了。因为我在深夜游行的时候，天上并没有太 阳，并且料峭的春寒，于东方微白的残夜，老在静寂的街巷中留着，所以我穿的那件破 棉袍子，还觉得不十分与季节违异。如今穿了这件夜游的敞袍，在大街上阔步，于前后 左右的和季节同时进行的我的同类一比，我哪得不自惭形秽呢？我一时竟忘了几日后不 得不付的房金，忘了囊中本来将尽的些微的积聚，便慢慢的走上了闸路的估衣铺去。好 久不在天日之下行走的我，看看街上来往的汽车人力车，车中坐着的华美的少年男女， 和马路两边的绸缎金银铺窗里的丰丽的陈设，听听四周的同蜂衙似的嘈杂的人声，脚步 声，车铃声，一时倒也觉得是身到了大罗天上的样子。我忘记了我自家的存在，也想和 我的同胞一样欢歌欣舞起来，我的嘴里便不知不觉的唱来几句久忘了的京调来了。 （郁达夫：春风沉醉的晚上） 参考译文： 1． The next afternoon I went to the post-office and cashed the money order. A short time on the streets under bright sunlight and I was dripping with perspiration. I looked at the people round me, then looked down at myself and felt self-conscious. Trickles of sweat rained down my head and neck. When I had been roaming about at night, there had no sun and the cool air of the spring nights as I strolled through deserted lanes in the small hours was not so incompatible with the shabby padded gown that was my only wear. But now it was mid-afternoon on a warm sunny spring day and I, like a fool, did not have the sense to realize it but had walked down the street still in the same old attire. Naturally I felt abashed when I compared myself with my fellow creatures on the street, who had adapted themselves to the change of the season. At that moment I forgot all about the rent that was due in a few days and the fast emptying contents of my purse and turned slowly towards the clothiers on Zha Road. I, who had not been out in broad daylight for a fairly long time, now felt for a moment that I had entered paradise when I saw the busy traffic and rickshaws rushing down the street with beautifully clothed young men and women in them, the luxurious and dazzling windows of the silk shops and jeweler’s, and heard the buzz of human voices, footsteps and bells and horns. I forgot my won mean existence and felt like singing and skipping as merrily as my fellow men. Inadvertently, I began to hum a long-forgotten tune from some Peking opera. (Yu Dafu：Intoxicating Spring Nights) 翻译练习 2书籍到了我的手里，我的习惯是先看序文，次看目录。页数不多的往往立刻通读， 篇幅大的，只把正文任择一二章节略加翻阅，就插在书架上。除小说外，我少有全体读 完的大部的书，只凭了购入当时的记忆，知道某册书是何种性质，其中大概有些什么可 取的材料而已。什么书在什么时候再去读再去翻，连我自己也无把握，完全要看一个时 期一个时期的兴趣。关于这事，我常自比为古时的皇帝，而把插在书架上的书譬诸列屋 而居的宫女。 我虽然爱买书，而对于书却不甚爱惜。读书的时候，常在书上把我所认为要紧的处 所标出。线装书大概用笔加圈，洋装书竟用红铅笔划粗粗的线。经我看过的书，统体干 净的很少。 据说，任何爱吃糖果的人，只要叫他到通过铺中去做事，见了糖果就会生厌。自我 入书店以后，对于书的贪念也已消除了不少了，可不免要故态复萌，想买这种，想买那 种。在大概因为糖果要用嘴去吃，摆存毫无意义，而书则可以买了不看，任其只管插在 架上的缘故吧。 （夏眄尊：我之于书） 参考译文2：As soon as a new book comes to hand, I always read the preface first and then the table of contents. If it happens to be a thin one, I often finish reading it at one sitting. Otherwise, I often browse through one or two chapters or sections before putting it onto my bookshelf. I seldom read a thick book from cover to cover unless it is a novel. By dint of the first impression it made on me at the time of buying, I have a rough idea of what a book is about and what useful materials in it are available to me. But I have little idea which book is to be read or looked over again at what time. It is completely subject to the whims of the moment. This often prompts me to liken myself and the
books on my shelves respectively to an ancient emperor and his concubines housed separately in a row of adjoining rooms. Much as I love books, I take little care of them. In doing my reading, I often mark out what I regard as important in a book. If it is a thread-bound Chinese book, I use a writing brush to draw small circles as markings. Otherwise, I use a red pencil to draw heavy underlines. Consequently, the books I have read are rarely clean. It is said that those who have a great liking for candies will sicken to see them when later they happen to work in a candy store. Likewise, ever since I began to work in a bookstore, my obsession with books has been very much on the decline. Nevertheless, I still cannot help slipping back into the same old rut, eager to buy this and that book. This is probably because candies are to be eaten with the mouth and not worth keeping as knick-knacks while books can be bought without being read and just left on a shelf. (Xia Mianzun: Books and I)
第7讲：类析汉译英常见拙译（三讲合并） 翻译练习： 1。落花生 (许地山) 我们屋后有半亩隙地。母亲说：―让它荒芜着怪可惜，既然你们那么爱吃花生，就辟来做花生园 罢。‖ 我们几姊弟和几个小丫头都很喜欢 ---- 买种的买种，动土的动土，灌园的灌园；过不了 几个月， 居然收获了！ 妈妈说：―今晚我们可以做一个收获节，也请你们爹爹来尝尝我们的新花生，如何？‖我们 都答应了。母亲把花生做成好几样食品，还吩咐这节期要在园里的茅亭举行。 那晚上的天色不大好，可是爹爹也到来，实在很难得！爹爹说：―你们爱吃花生么？‖ 我们都争着答应：―爱！‖ ―谁能把花生的好处说出来？‖ 姊姊说：―花生的气味很美。‖ 哥哥说：―花生可以制油。‖ 我说：―无论何等人都可以用贱价买它来吃；都喜欢吃它。这就是它的好处。‖ 爹说：―花生的用处固然很多；但有一样是很可贵的。这小小的豆不像那好看的苹果、 桃子、石榴，把它们的果实悬在枝上，鲜红嫩绿的颜色，令人一望而发生羡慕的心。它只把果 子埋在地里，等到成熟，才容人把它挖出来。你们偶然看见一颗花生瑟缩地长在地上，不能立 刻辨出它有没有果实，非得等到你接触它才能知道。‖ 我们都说：―是的。‖母亲也点点头。爹爹接下去说：―所以你们要像花生， 因为它是有用的， 不是伟大、好看的东西。‖我说：―那么，人要做有用的人，不要做伟大、体面的人了。‖爹爹说： ―这是我对于你们的希望。‖ 我们谈到夜阑才散，所有花生食品虽然没有了，然而父亲的话现在还印在我心版上。
参考译文： 1．The Peanut (Xu Dishan) At the back of our house there was half a mu of vacant land. ―It’s a pity to let it go to waste like that,‖ Mother said. ―Since you all enjoy eating peanuts, let us open it up and make it a peanut garden.‖ At that my brother, sister and I were all delighted and so were the young housemaids. Some went to buy seeds, some dug the ground and others watered it and, in a couple of months, we had a harvest! ―Let us have a party tonight to celebrate,‖ Mother suggested, ―and ask Dad to come for a taste of our fresh peanuts. What do you say?‖ We all agreed, of course. Mother cooked the peanuts in different styles and told us to go to the thatched pavilion in the garden for the celebration.
The weather was not very good that night but, to our great delight, Dad came all the same. ―Do you like peanuts?‖ Dad asked. ―Yes!‖ we all answered eagerly. ―But who can tell me what the peanut is good for?‖ ―It is very delicious to eat,‖ my sister took the lead. ―It is good for making cooking oil,‖ my brother followed. ―It is inexpensive,‖ I said. ―Almost everyone can afford it and everyone enjoys eating it. I think this is what it is good for.‖ ―Peanut is good for many things,‖ Dad said, ―but there is one thing that is particularly good about it. Unlike apples, peaches or pomegranates that display their fruits up in the air, attracting you with their beautiful colors, peanut buries its fruit in the earth. It does not show itself until you dig it out when it is ripe and, unless you dig it out, you can’t tell whether it bears fruit or not just by its frail stems above ground.‖ ―That’s true,‖ we all said and Mother nodded her assent. ―So you should try to be like the peanut,‖ Dad went on, ―because it is useful, though not great or attractive.‖ ―Do you mean,‖ I asked, ―we should learn to be useful but not seek to be great or attractive?‖ ―Yes,‖ Dad said. ―This is what I wish you to be.‖ We stayed up late that night, eating all the peanuts Mother had cooked for us. But Father’s words remained vivid in my memory till this day. 翻译练习2南京，她有层出不穷的风流人物和彪炳千秋的不朽业绩。大都会特有的凝聚力，吸引 了无数风云人物、仁人志士在这里角逐争雄，一逞豪彦。从孙权、谢安到洪秀全、孙中山，从 祖冲之、葛洪到李时珍、郑和，从刘勰、萧统到曹雪芹、吴敬梓，从王羲之、顾恺之到徐悲鸿、 傅抱石，还有陶行知、杨廷宝等等，中国历史上一批杰出的政治家、军事家、科学家、文学家、 艺术家、教育家、建筑家等荟萃于此，在这块钟灵毓秀的土地上一圆他们的辉煌之梦。他们是 中华民族的优秀儿女。巍巍钟山、滚滚长江养育了他们，为他们提供了施展抱负的舞台，他们 也以自己的雄才大略、聪明智慧为中华民族的灿烂文明增添了流光溢彩的新篇章。 南京，她自新中国建立以来发生的巨大而深刻的变化更加令人欢欣鼓舞。―虎踞龙蟠今胜昔， 天翻地覆慨而慷。‖从1949年4月23日始，人民真正成为这座古老城市的主人。金陵回春，古城 新生，昔日饱尝的屈辱和灾难，至此如同梦魇终被摆脱。人民在自己的土地上辛勤劳作，把古 城南京妆扮得面貌一新。特别是近十几年来，改革开放又给这座美丽的名城注入了新的活力， 崭新的工业、通达的运输、如画的城市建设、兴盛的第三产业、多彩的文化生活，都使这个具 有古都特色的现代都市焕发出勃勃英姿。孙中山先生所预言的：―南京将来之发达未可限量也‖， 正在逐步成为现实。 南京，这座古老而又年轻的历史文化名城，是多么的可爱！ 参考译文2． Nanjing has witnessed the continuous emergence of many distinguished talents and noble hearts as well as monumental achievements that shone through the ages. Attracted by her special appeal, a great number of powerful figures and people actuated by high ideals have stayed in or frequented this metropolis to contend for the lead or to give play to their genius and virtues. Military commanders such as Sun Quan and Xie An; political leaders such as Hong Xiuquan and Dr. Sun Yat-sen; scientists like Zu Chongzhi, Ge Hong, Li Shizhen and Zheng He; men of letters such as Liu Xie, Xiao Tong, Cao Xueqing and Wu Jingzi; artists like Wang Xizhi, Gu Kaizhi, Xu Beihong and Fu Baoshi; educators such as Tao Xingzhi; and architects like Yang Tingbao—all these renowned historical figures used to settle on this blessed land to have their splendid dreams fulfilled. The towering Purple Mountains and the billowing Yangtze River nurtured them and provided them with arenas in which to realize their aspirations. By virtue of their genius, vision, and sagacity, those best and brightest sons and daughters of the nation made spectacular contributions to the resplendent Chinese civilization. The tremendous change that have taken place in Nanjing since New China was founded are even more inspiring, just as the much quoted couplet from a poem written by the late Chairman Mao Zedong on the occasion of the liberation of the city on April 23,1949 has it:
The city, a tiger crouching, a dragon curling, outshines its ancient glories; In heroic triumph heaven and earth have been overturned. Balmy spring winds returned to bring new life to this historic city, of which the common people came to be the genuine masters. The nightmarish sufferings and humiliations of the past were left behind once and for all. The citizens of Nanjing have been working hard to give this age-old town a new appearance. Especially for the past ten years or more, the country’s reform and opening-up policy has infused new vigour into this beautiful and famous city. Newly built industries, an efficient transportation network extending in all directions, picturesque urban construction, a booming tertiary industry, a varied and colourful cultural life, all these and more added charm and vitality to this modern metropolis, which retains somehow the ambiance and features of an ancient capita. The prophecy of Dr. Sun Yat-sen father of modern China that ―Nanjing will have a future that knows no bounds‖ is becoming true. Nanjing, an old city with a rich and celebrated past, yet vigorous. 翻译练习3．匆匆 （朱自清） 燕子去了，有再来的时候；杨柳枯了，有再青的时候；桃花谢了，有再开的时候。但是， 聪明的，你告诉我，我们的日子为什么一去不复返呢？——是有人偷了他们罢：那是谁？又藏 在何处呢？是他们自己逃走了罢：现在又到了哪里呢？ 我不知道他们给了我多少日子；但我的手确乎是渐渐空虚了。在默默里算着，八千多日子 已经从我手中溜去；像针尖上一滴水滴在大海里，我的日子滴在时间的流里，没有声音，也没 有影子。我不禁头涔涔而泪潸潸了。 去的尽管去了，来的尽管来着，去来的中间，又怎样地匆匆呢？早上我起来的时候，小屋 里射进两三方斜斜的太阳。 太阳他有脚啊， 轻轻悄悄地挪移了； 我也茫茫然跟着旋转。 于是—— 洗手的时候，日子从水盆里过去；吃饭的时候，日子从饭碗里过去；默默时，便从凝然的双眼 前过去。我觉察他去的匆匆了，伸出手遮挽时，他又从遮挽着的手边过去，天黑时，我躺在床 上，他便伶伶俐俐地从我身上跨过，从我脚边飞去了。等我睁开眼和太阳再见，这算又溜走了 一日。我掩着面叹息。但是新来的日子的影儿又开始在叹息里闪过了。 参考译文3：Rush （Zhu Ziqing） Swallows may have gone, but there is a time of return: willow trees may have died back, but there is a time of regreening; peach blossoms may have fallen, but they will bloom again. Now, you the wise, tell me, why should our days leave us, never to return? –If they had been stolen by someone, who could it be? Where could he hide them? If they had made the escape themselves, then where could they stay at the moment? I do not know how many days I have been given to spend, but I do feel my hands are getting empty. Taking stock silently, I find that more than eight thousand days have already slid away from me. Like a drop of water from the point of a needle disappearing into the ocean, my days are dripping into the stream of time, soundless, traceless. Already sweat is starting on my forehead, and tears welling up in my eyes. Those that have gone have gone for good, those to come keep coming; yet in between, how swift is the shift, in such a rush? When I get up in the morning, the slanting sun marks its presence in my small room in two or three oblongs. The sun has feet, look, he is treading on, lightly and furtively; and I am caught, blankly, in his revolution. Thus –the day flows away through the sink when I wash my hands, wears off in the bowl when I eat my meal, and passes away before my day-dreaming gaze as I reflect in silence. I can feel his haste now, so I reach out my hands to hold him back, but he keeps flowing past my withholding hands. In the evening, as I lie in bed, he strides over my body, glides past my feet, in his agile way. The moment I open my eyes and meet the sun again, one whole day has gone. I bury my face in my hands and heave a sigh. But the new day begins to flash past in the sigh. What can I do, in this bustling world, with my days flying in their escape? Nothing but to hesitate, to rush. What have I been doing in that eight-thousand-day rush, apart from hesitating? Those
bygone days have been dispersed as smoke by a light wind, or evaporated as mist by the morning sun. What traces have I left behind me? Have I ever left behind any gossamer traces at al? I have come to this world, stark naked; am I to go back, in a blink, in the same stark nakedness? It is not fair though: why should I have made such a trip for nothing! You the wise, tell me, why should our days leave us, never to return? 第8讲：从 ―湖光山色‖的英译说开去（两讲合并） 翻译练习： 1．常胜的歌手（王蒙） 有一位歌手，有一次她唱完了歌，竟没有一个人鼓掌，于是她在开会的时候说道：―掌声究 竟说明什么问题呢？难道掌声是美？是艺术？是黄金？掌声到底卖几分钱一斤？被观众鼓了几 声掌就飘飘然，就忘乎所以，就选成歌星，就坐飞机，就灌唱片，这简直是胡闹！是对灵魂的 腐蚀！你不信，如果我扭屁股唱黄歌儿，比她得到的掌声还多！‖ 她还建议，对观众进行一次调查分析，分类排队，以证明掌声的无价值或反价值。 后来，她又唱了一次歌，全场掌声雷动。她在会上又说开了：―歌曲是让人听的，如果人家 不爱听，内容再好，曲调再好又有什么用？群众的眼睛是雪亮的，群众的心里是有一杆秤的， 离开了群众的喜闻乐见，就是不搞大众化，只搞小众化，就是出了方向性差错，就是孤家寡人， 自我欣赏。我听到的不只是掌声，而且是一颗颗火热的心在跳动。‖ 过了一阵子，音乐工作者又开会，谈到歌曲演唱中的一种不健康的倾向和群众的趣味需要 疏导，欣赏水平需要提高。她便举出了那一次唱歌无人鼓掌作为例子，她宣称： ―我顶住了！我顶住了！我顶住了！‖ 又过了一阵子，音乐工作者又开会，谈到受群众欢迎的歌曲还是创造演唱得太少。她又举 出了另一次掌声如雷的例子宣称： ―我早就做了，我早就做了，我早就做了！‖ 参考译文： 1．An Infallible Singer One day, a singer sang for the audience. After she finished, nobody applauded. Thereupon, she said at a meeting, ―What possibly can applause mean? Does it mean beauty? Art? Or gold? How much is one burst of clapping worth? If on account of some sporadic clapping, a singer should become smug and starts to forget herself, and people around her start to vote her a star, qualified to travel by air and cut discs, this would be sheer folly, and an attempt to corrupt the souls of the people. Believe me, I can get much louder applause if I should sing those smutty songs and swing my hips all the while.‖ She also suggested that the audiences be polled and classified so that he non-value or anti-value of applause could be established. On a later occasion her singing was greeted with thunderous applause. At a meeting convened after the performance, she declared, ―Songs are composed for the audience. If the audience don’t like your songs, what’s the use of their good content and melody? The audience know what is good for them and they have their own criteria. If we don’t give them what they like, we are meeting the needs of only a few people, instead of the broad masses. We’ll be committing a mistake in political direction. We’ll be acting like Narcissus, admiring our own images and isolating ourselves from he outside world. What I heard at the concert was not just the clapping of hands, but the beatings of a multitude of fervent hearts.‖ Sometime later, musicians met for another meeting, at which they criticized the unhealthy tendency in vocal concerts and suggested that the musical taste of the masses be properly guided and their level of appreciation be raised. Citing as an example that occasion when her songs received no applause, she declared, ―I resisted that tendency! I did that long, long ago!‖ At still another gathering held later, musicians deplored that songs the people really liked were
still too few in number and that too few singers song such songs. Citing as an example the other occasion when her songs were warmly applauded, she exulted, ―I sang such songs long ago! Long, long ago!‖ 2．夜间，九时余 ---- 从前面漆黑的夜幕中，看见很小很小几点亮光。人们指给我那就是长江 大桥，―江津‖号稳稳地向武汉驶近。从这以后，我一直站在船上眺望，渐渐的渐渐的看出那整 整齐齐的一排像横串起来的珍珠，在熠熠闪亮。我看着，我觉得在这辽阔无边的大江之上，这 正是我们献给我们母亲河流的一顶珍珠冠呀……再前进，江上无数倒影在浮动，那是无数船只 在航行，而那由一颗颗珍珠画出的大桥的轮廓，完全像升在云端一样，高耸空中，而桥那面， 灯光稠密的简直像是灿烂的金河，那是什么？仔细分辨，原来是武汉两岸的亿万灯光。当我们 的―江津‖号，嘹亮地向武汉市发出致敬欢呼的声音时，我心中升起了一种庄严的情感，看一看， 我们创造的新世界有多么灿烂吧！ 2 It is after nine in the evening. Through the black night ahead we see tiny pinpoints of lights. We are told that this is the great bridge over the Yangtze. The S. S. Jiangjin steams steadily towards Wuhan and I remain on deck watching. By degrees I see a row of twinkling lights like a string of well-matched pearls. To me, on this boundless Yangtze, it seems a pearl-decked tiara which we have presented to our mother of rivers … As we approach, innumerable blue, white, red and green lights on different boats appear, trailing long reflections in the water. Then the outline of the giant bridge marked by so many pearls looms high above as if rising to the clouds, while the blaze of lights beyond seems a gleaming river of gold. I see now that it is the millions of lights on both banks at Wuhan. And as the S. S. Jiangjin calls out a loud cheerful greeting to the city, my heart swells with pride. See what a glorious new world we have built! 第9讲：Denotation和Connotation（两讲合并） 翻译练习1： 学校 我怎能忘记那美丽的校园呢？ 那儿处处是碧绿的芳草，绿草中铺着洁白的、笔直的石路。路两旁种的那些树分明是一品 红，然而原该为大红色的排列为环状的叶，却变为柔媚的粉红，还有着淡绿色的边儿。我常在 这条长长的石径上散步。走着走着，来到一座宽阔的台子上，站在这里可以看到迷人的晚霞与 夕照，偶然也能看到冒着浓烟呜呜南去的列车。转身往回走，不远便会来到实验室和图书馆。 这儿宽大的落地窗软帘垂地，窗外的木棉树上开着耀眼的红花。再往前走便是餐厅了，那儿有 一株美丽的树，开着雪一样白的花儿。那花儿开得轻柔而又婀娜，一朵朵地连成一片，从远处 看去，美得像新嫁娘雪白的头纱。后来我才知道这就是我在书上读到那么多次的曼陀罗。 学校的中心地带是个扇形的喷水泉，中间很艺术地摆着些中国式的太湖石。这是新建的。 在我们中国教师住的院子里，有一个跟这模式一样的喷水泉，不过比这要小得多，像个盆 景似的，那是早来这儿的老师利用业余时间建的。他们在池中放了些水草和金鱼，可能是为了 抒发对祖国的怀念之情吧，还在太湖石上用秀丽的隶书字体刻了―二泉映月‖四个红字，似乎这 么一来，西湖便在他们的怀抱之中了，故乡的月便也在向着这些游子微笑了。 一天，学校的校长来到中国教师的住所。他对这个喷水池赞不绝口，定要中国教师为学校 也设计一个跟这一样的喷水池，建在校园的中央。于是在校园里，在绿茸茸的芳草和艳丽的花 朵之间又加上了一个中国色彩的喷水池，在阳光的辉照下，喷射着亮晶晶的水珠儿。 参考译文： 1.The College How can I ever forget the beautiful campus in Africa? The grounds were covered with dark green grass through which stretched a straight white stone
path. On both sides of the path were planted what I believed to be poinsettias. Now the flowers were surrounded by pinkish leaves instead of bright red ones as they should have been. Trimmed with light green edges, the leaves looked delicate and charming. Along the long path I often took a stroll which would take me to a wide terrace, where I could watch the enchanting glow of sunset, and occasionally catch the sight of a train puffing and hooting on its way southward. On my way back I would pass by the laboratory and library building whose large French windows had soft curtains let fall to the floor. Just outside the windows kapok flowers glowed red in full bloom. A short way off stood the dining hall, where I found a tree bearing snow-white blossoms so graceful and soft to the touch. Viewed together from the distance, they were as beautiful as a bridal veil. Later I learned that it was a tree called datura which I had so often read about in books. In the center of the campus was newly-built fan-shaped fountain. A number of Chinese taihu rocks were arranged in it with a touch of artistry. And there was a story behind it. In the courtyard of the house where Chinese teachers were living, there was also a similar but much smaller fountain looking like potted landscape. It was built by the Chinese teachers who had come earlier in their spare time. They had graced it with water plants and goldfish. Perhaps out of a yearning for their homeland, they had even engraved on a taihu rock four Chinese characters: ―Er Quan Ying Yue‖ meaning ―two springs reflecting the moonlight.‖ These characters were painted red and written in an ancient calligraphic style. The homesick Chinese teachers seemed to feel that at the sight of these characters, they could by a fight of the imagination bring to their presence a native moon smilingly beaming over the West Lake. One day the president of the college came to visit the Chinese teachers. Delighted by the beauty of their fountain he asked then to design another one for the college. Thus in the center of the campus, in a field of green grass and colorful flowers appeared a new Chinese fountain spurting out water drops glistening in the sunlight. 翻译练习2： 我最大的爱好是沉思默想。 我可以一个人长时间地独处而感到愉快。 独享欢乐是一种愉快， 独自忧伤也是一种愉快。孤独的时候，精神不会是一片纯粹的空白，它仍然是一个丰富多彩的 世界。情绪上的大欢乐和大悲痛往往都在孤独中产生的。孤独中，思维可以不依照逻辑进行。 孤独更多地产生人生的诗情 ---- 激昂的和伤感的。 孤独可以使人的思想向更遥远更深邃的地方 伸展，也能使你对自己或环境作更透彻的认识和检讨。 参考译文2：My greatest avocation is musing. I can stay by myself for a long time without feeling disconsolate in the least. Happiness enjoyed alone is a pleasure, so is sorrow tasted privately. In solitude, the mind is not a complete blank; it remains a rich and colorful world. Solitude often induces ecstasy or anguish, and allows thinking to wander in a random way. She inspires the mood for poems, passionate or pathetic. She also enables people to think further and deeper and to have a more thorough understanding and examination of themselves and their environment. 第10讲：翻译，你的本质是什么？ 翻译练习： 微笑，是个很奇妙的东西，它既反映一个现象，又反映一种事物。 我们所讲的微笑，是发自内心的诚挚和善良的笑容，而不是为讨好别人的媚笑，也不是存 心不良的奸笑或皮笑肉不笑，更不是带有杀机的笑里藏刀。这就是说，微笑者都有健康的心理、 乐观的情绪和坚定的信念。而一个人只有热爱生活、热爱工作、热爱民众，才会在脸上浮现出 永不消失的微笑。 微笑，永远是微笑者个人的专利，它既不能租，又不能买；既不能借，又不能偷。微笑， 是微笑者心境的体现，这种笑脸又能产生多种功能：它能使某些人之间的生疏变成亲密，使某 些人之间的隔阂变成融洽，它能使失意成为顺意，使烦恼成为愉快；它能使人们的心灵沟通， 感情交融……
微笑，凝聚着内心的纯洁无私，召唤着友谊与情感的到来，消化着矛盾和不快。微笑是无 声的，但又胜似有声。微笑把一具心灵传递给另一具心灵。古人说：笑口常开，笑古笑今，万 事一笑了之。我们可以理解为：带着微笑的赞扬，使人感到诚心，能催人奋进；带着微笑的批 评，使人感到善意，能促人进步；带着微笑的拒绝，使人感到理解，能帮人走出困境；带着微 笑的请求，使人感到亲切，能帮人过关。 微笑是光明的，微笑的世界是文明的世界。愿每一个人都多一点微笑，少一点忧愁。 参考译文： Smile is intricate, for it is not only a phenomenon but also a reflection of something. What we refer to here is a sincere and good-natured smile that comes from the bottom of one’s heart. We do not mean a smile specially put on to please others, or a false one harboring a sinister design, much less a grin with murderous intent behind. That is to say, a smile should be mentally sound, optimistic and firm in faith. Only when a person has a strong love of life, for work and people, can he or she always wear a smile. Smile is inseparable from its owner, for it can neither be rented nor bought, neither borrowed nor stolen. It symbolizes the person’s mind and serves many purposes: bringing strangers closer to each other, turning estrangement [疏远;失和,不和] into reconciliation, giving hope to the disappointed and replacing vexation [烦恼,苦恼;恼火] with joy. It opens channels from heart to heart so that feelings can flow reciprocally… Embodying purity and selflessness, smile calls for friendship and affection. It causes antagonism [对抗;敌对,对立;敌意]and displeasure to dissolve. Its soundlessness is even better than utterance in communicating between minds. The ancient said to a well-known Buddha statue: ―Always grinning, you look at things past and present, and laugh them off whatever they are.‖ What is meant by a smile can be understood this way: a compliment given with a smile represents a sincere encouragement to the addressee for further efforts, while criticism with a smile is likely to be accepted as meaning well and helpful to one’s progress. A smiling refusal, which causes no embarrassment, contributes to mutual understanding; while a smiling request, which appeals irresistibly, does a great deal to help tackle knotty problems. Where there is a smile, there is a light. A smiling world is a civilized one. Let there be more smiles and less worries. 第11讲：归化与异化----汉语习语的英译 翻译练习（注意下列各句中出现的习语） ： 1/ 但是，事实胜于雄辩，水落自然石出。 2/ 青黄不接的季节，…… 3/ 后来出嫁了，两个人还藕断丝连，这只能怪包办婚姻，不能怪她。 4/ 木已成舟，也只好如此了。 5/ 她觉得丈夫这句话说得对，真是一阵见血，点头附和道…… 6/ 她听了这话，像是火上加油，立刻说…… 7/ 他对乡里的情况，了如指掌。 8/ 打蛇先打头，擒贼先擒王。 9/ 夫妻无隔夜之仇。 10/ 东风压倒西风。 11/ 送君千里，终有一别。 12/ 薛蟠也来上学，不过是三日打鱼，两日晒网。 13/ 不是鬼使神差，好端端的他怎么会抽上了鸦片烟？ 14/ 人怕出名猪怕壮。 15/ 最重要的，她不是小姐堆里娇生惯养出来的人。 16/ 失败者成功之母。 17/ 人勤地不懒，这话真不假。
参考译文： 1/ However, facts speak louder than eloquence and the truth will prevail in the end. 2/ In spring when one crop was eaten and the next still green. / When the crop is still in the blade and the old stock is consumed. / Before the green corn grows and after the white crop is consumed. 3/ After she was married they still kept it up. The arranged marriage was the cause of this; she can’t be blamed. 4/ What’s done is done, and can’t be undone. 5/ Feeling that her husband had been right to say this and had touched him on the raw, she nodded and backed him up… 6/ This only added fuel to the flames of her anger and she said at once… 7/ He knew everything about the township like the back of his hand. 8/ If you want to kill a snake, you must first hit it on the head and if you want to catch a band of robbers you must first catch their leader / head / cock. 9/ Enmity between husband and wife doesn’t last the night. 10/ The East wind prevails over the West wind. / The East wind subdues the West wind. 11/ Although you may escort a guest a thousand miles, yet must the parting come at last. 12/ Xue Pan enrolled as a student. But he was like the fisherman who fishes for three days and then suns his net for two. 13/ Had it not been for the influence of devils, how would a decent fellow like him have taken to smoking opium? 14/ Fame is as fatal to men as fattening to pigs. 15/ What’s most important, she isn’t one of those well-born young ladies who’ve been pampered and spoiled all their lives. 16/ Failure is the mother of success. 17/ If man is diligent, soil is not idle. How true the proverb is!
Absence is mother of disillusion. ..... 疏离是觉悟之母 Absence makes the heart grow fonder. ..... 小别情更浓。小别胜新婚 Absence sharpens love, presence strengthens it. .....分离令爱加深，相见 使情更