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Unit 1 A The critical reading 英语(二)第1课A

Unit 1 The Power of Language Text A Pre-reading Questions 1. Do you usually challenge the idea an author represents? What do you think is active reading? 通常情况下,你是否会反对作者提出的观点?你认为什么是积极阅读? 2. Wh

at suggestions do you expect the author will give on reading critically? 你希望作者就批判性阅读提出什么样的建议呢? Critical Reading Critical reading applies to non-fiction writing in which the author puts forth a position or seeks to make a statement. Critical reading is active reading. It involves more than just understanding what an author is saying. Critical reading involves questioning and evaluating what the author is saying, and forming your own opinions about what the author is saying. Here are the things you should do to be a critical reader.
阅读纪实文学适合用批评性的阅读方法,因为在非文学类作品里,作者常常会提出某种 观点或是寻找作者的态度。 批评性的阅读方法是一种主动性很强的阅读方法。 它涉及到的不 仅仅是理解作者所说的话。 批评性的阅读方法还涉及到质疑和评估作者所说的话, 涉及到作 者所说的话要形成你自己的观点。 如果我想要成为一名有批评性思维的读者, 在这里我列出 一些你应该做到的。 The new words: 1. Power 2. Pre-reading 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. 11. 12. 13. 14. 15. 16. 17. 18. 19. 20. 21. Challenge 怀疑 Author 作家 Represent 描述 Active 积极有效 Suggestion 建议 Expect 期望 Critically 公正 Apply 适用 Non-fiction 非小说 Put Forth 向前 Position 观点 Seek 寻找 Statement 态度 Involve 包含

Questioning 质问
Evaluate[?'v? lj?e?t] 评价 Form 产生 Opinion[?'p?nj?n]主张


Consider the context of what is written. You may be reading something that was written by an author from a different cultural context than yours. Or, you may be reading something written some time ago in a different time context than yours. In either case, you must recognize and take into account any differences between your values and attitudes and those represented by the author.
仔细思考作者的写作背景。 你可能正在读一篇与你的文化背景截然不同的作者所写的文章。 或者,你可能正在读一篇写于不同于你所处的时代的文章。不论哪种情况,你必须能搞清楚 同时好好考虑你的价值观和态度与作者的不同之处。 The new words: 22. 23. 24. 25. 26. 27. 28. 29. 30. 31. 32. 33. Consider 考虑 Context 背景 Different 不同的 Cultural ['k?lt?(?)r(?)l] 文化 either 任何一个 case 情况 recognize ['rek?ɡna?z] 识别 account 解释、账目 difference 差异 value 评价 attitude 态度 represent [repr? 'zent] 表现

Question assertions made by the author. Don’t accept what is written at face value. Before accepting what is written, be certain that the author provides sufficient support for any assertions made. Look for facts, examples, and statistics that provide support. Also, look to see if the author has integrated the work of authorities.
合理质疑作者所做出的论断。对于作者写出来的不要全盘接受。你在接受作者的观点之 前,要确保作者提供了足够多的论据来支持其论点。你要仔细查看支持论断的事实、举例和 统计数据。同时,你要查看作者是否参考了权威专家的著作。 The new words: 34. Assertion[?'s???(?)n]断言、声明 35. Accept 同意 36. Value 价值 37. Certain 确信 38. Provide 提供 39. Sufficient[s?'f??(?)nt] 足够的 40. Support[s?'p??t] 支持 41. Statistic [st?'t? st? k] 统计数值 42. integrate ['? nt? gre? t] 完整的 43. authorities[??'θ?r?t?z]官方的

Compare what is written with other written work on the subject. Look to see that what is written is consistent with what others have written about the subject. If there are inconsistencies, carefully evaluate the support the author provides for the inconsistencies. 把作者所写的内容和该题材其他著作做对比。看看作者所写的内容与该题材 领域其他人所写的是否一致。 如果有不一致之处,要仔细评估该处作者提供的论 据。

The new words: 44. Compare 对比 45. Consistent 一致 46. Inconsistencies 矛盾 47. Carefully 小心的 48. Evaluate 评价 49. Support 支持 50. Provide 提供

Analyze assumptions made by the author. Assumptions are whatever the author must believe is true in order to make assertions. In many cases, the author ’s assumptions are not directly stated. This means you must read carefully in order to identify any assumption. Once you identify an assumption, you must decide whether or not the assumption is valid. 认真分析作者所做的假设。假设指的是作者为了提出其论断所必须相信是正 确的那些观点。在许多情况下,作者的假设都不是直接陈述出来的。这就意味着 你必须通过仔细地阅读来找到作者的所做的那些假定。一旦你找到一个假设,你 必须判断一下这个假设是否是合理的。
The new words: 51. Analyze ['? n?,la?z] 对· · ·进行分析 52. Assumption [?'s?m(p)?(?)n] 假定 53. whatever[w?t'ev?] 无论什么 54. assertion [?'s? ? ?(?)n] 主张 55. 56. 57. 58. 59. directly [d?'rektl?;直接地 Order 命令 Identify[a?'dent?fa?]确定,识别 Decide 决定 Valid 有效的

Evaluate the sources the author uses. In doing this, be certain that the sources are credible. For example, Einstein is a credible source if the author is writing about landmark achievements in physics. Also be certain that the sources are relevant. Einstein is not a relevant source when the subject is poetry. Finally, if the author is writing about a subject in its current state, be sure that the sources are current. For example, studies done by Einstein in the early 20th century may not be appropriate if the writer is discussing the current state of knowledge in physics. 评估作者的引用来源。评估时,要确定这些来源是否合适的。举例来说,如 果作者写的是关于物理学上里程碑式的成就, 那么爱因斯坦就是一个可靠的引用。 第二,要确定这些引用是相关的。如果文章主题是诗歌,那么爱因斯坦这个例子 就是不相关的。最后,如果作者所写的主题是当今局势,那就一定要确保引用来 源也是当前的。例如,如果作者讨论的是物理学当今的学科知识情况,那么 20 世纪早期爱因斯坦的研究可能就不太适合了。
The new words: 60. Evaluate [?'v? lj?e?t] 评估 61. Source 水源、来源、引用 62. Certain 确信

63. 64. 65. 66. 67. 68. 69. 70. 71. 72. 73. 74. 75. 76.

Credible 可靠的

Landmark 里程碑 Achievement 业绩 Physics ['f? z? ks] 物理 Relevant 相关的 Poetry ['p??? tr? ]诗 Finally 最后 Current 现在的 State 状态 Century 世纪 Appropriate[?'pr??pr??t] 恰当的 Discuss 论述
knowledge['n?l?d?] 知识

Identify any possible author bias. A written discussion of American politics will likely look considerably different depending on whether the writer is a Democrat or a Republican. What is written may very well reflect a biased position. You need to take this possible bias into account when reading what the author has written. That is , take what is written with “a grain of salt.” 识别作者可能带有的偏见。有关美国政治的书面论述可能因作者是共和党人 或是民主党人迥然而异。 写出来的文章可能会很好地反映出作者的偏见态度和立 场。你需要在阅读作者的文章的过程中考虑到其可能带有的偏见。这也就是说, 要有持保留态度看待作者所写的文章。 By being a critical reader, you will become better informed and may change your views as appropriate. 通过做一个有批判性的读者,你会成为一个更加有见识和学问的人,并可能 适当的改变你自己的观念。
The new words: 77. 78. 79. 80. 81. 82. 83. 84. 85. 86. 87. 88. 89. 90. 91. 92. 93.
Identify[a?'dent?fa?] 确定

Possible 可能的 Bias 偏爱 Discussion 讨论 Politics 政治 Considerably 相当的 Depend 依靠 Democrat 民主党人 Republican 共和党人 Reflect 反射 Biased 有偏见的 Position 位置 Grain 颗 Salt 盐 Inform 通知 View 观点 Appropriate 恰当的

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