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9第九章 名词性从句


英语的三大从句及其翻译

2014-9-13

? 英语的三大从句是英语组句的重要 手段,使用频率非常高。 ? 相比之下,汉语的从句数量少,功 能弱,尤其不喜欢在主语、宾语或 定语的位置上放很长的句子,其状 语也往往不带明显的语法标志。 ? 因此,翻译英语从句时一般都要进 行调整和变通。

英语的三大从句:

>
? (1)副词性从句或称状语从句 ? (2)形容词性从句或称定语从句。 ? (3)名词性从句,常用来作主语、宾语、表语、 介词宾语或同位语。 从实质上来说,这三种从句的语法功能 分别等于名词、形容词和副词的语法功 能,但由于它们本身是句子,放到大的 句子中去时就使句法变得复杂多了,从而也增加 了翻译的信息载量和难度。

第九讲 Nominal Clauses 名词性从句
一、教学重点:
1. 名词性从句的翻译 2. 同位语从句的翻译

二、教学内容:
1. 英语名词性从句的翻译 2. 汉语复句的翻译

? 英语名词性从句可分为主语从句、 宾语从句、表语从句和同位语从句 四大类。 ? 汉语不存在类似英语的名词性从句。

? 1.名词性从句,特别是由what, how, whether等引起的名词性从句,翻译比较困 难。这些从句往往表达的是一种具体概念, 如“ how things stand ”,实际上是表达 “情况”这个概念,如照译“事情是如何站 着的”就不明确,同时也违背了愿意。所以 翻译这类从句时多采用概略法,也就是使从 句陈述的内容明确化。这样许多情况下都需 要进行概括或引申。

? ? ? ?

例1:That’s where we differ. 这就是我们的分歧所在。 例2:My brother is not what he used to be. 我弟弟不是他以前那个样子了。/我弟弟变 了。 ? 例3:He has made what I am. ? 我之有今日都是他给的。

? 2.That从句
? ? ? ? ? 例1:That he should do such a thing! 他竟然干出这种事来! 例2:That a brother should be so perfidious! 一个作兄弟的居然如此不义! 例3:That nobody was killed or even slightly injured in such a serious accident was incredible.

? 如此严重的事故竟然无一人伤亡,(这)真 叫人难以置信!

Ⅰ. Translation of English Nominal Clauses

英语名词性从句的翻译
1、Subject Clauses 1) Subject Clauses Introduced by Pronouns ? Whatever he saw and heard on his trip gave him a very deep impression. 他此行所见所闻都给他留下了深刻的印象。 2) "It“ Functions as a Formal Subject ? It doesn't make much difference whether he attends the meeting or not. 他参不参加会议都没多大关系。

Ⅰ. Translation of English Nominal Clauses

英语名词性从句的翻译
2、Object Clauses ? I take it for granted that you will come and talk the matter over with him. 我理所当然地认为 ,你会来跟他谈这件事的。 ? We have no definite information yet as to which route he will take. 关于他将走哪条路线 ,我们还没有确切的消息。 3、Predicative Clauses ? This is where the shoe pinches. 这就是问题的症结所在了。 ? Things are not always as they seem to be. 事物并不总是如其表象。

Ⅰ. Translation of English Nominal Clauses

英语名词性从句的翻译
4、Appositive Clauses 1) Keeping the Original Order ? He expressed the hope that he would come over to visit China again. 他表示希望能再来中国访问。 2) Converting into an Attributive Order or an Independent Clause ? It does not alter the fact that he is the man responsible for the delay. 迟延应由他负责,这个事实是改变不了的。

Ⅰ. Translation of English Nominal Clauses

英语名词性从句的翻译
3) Using Punctuation Marks or Specific Words ? Punctuation marks : colon, dash ; expressions : “这样”,“这种”, “这一”, “即" ? But considering realistically, we had to face the fact that our prospects were less than good. 但是现实地考虑一下,我们不得不正视这样一个事 实: 我们的前景并不妙。 ? Not long ago the scientists made an exciting discovery that this "waste“ material could be turned into plastics. 不久以前,科学家们有了一个令人振奋的发现, 即可以把这种废物变为塑料。

Ⅰ. Translation of English Nominal Clauses

英语名词性从句的翻译
4) Changing into Sentences without the Subject ? An order has been given that the researchers who are now in the skylab should be sent back. 己下命令将目前在太空实验室里的研究人员送回来。 ? However, the writing of chemical symbols in the form of an equation does not give any assurance that the reaction shown will actually occur. 但是将化学符号写成反应式,并不意味着所表示的 反应确实会发生。

Ⅱ. Translation of Chinese Complex Sentences

汉语复句的翻译
1、Sentence Combination ? 门口放着一堆雨伞,少说也有12把,五颜六色,大 小不一。 In the doorway lay at least twelve umbrellas of all sizes and colors. ? 我有一个问题弄不清楚,想请教你,你能回答吗? Could you kindly answer a question which is puzzling me? ? 因为距离远,又缺乏交通工具。农村社会是与外界 隔绝的。这种隔绝伏态,由于通讯工具不足而变得 更加严重了。 The isolation of the rural world because of distance and the lack of transport facilities is compounded by the paucity of the information media.

2、Sentence Sequence ? 只要己发现有可能反对他的人 ,他就本能地要用他 的魅力和风趣将这个人争取过来 , ? English version A: When he catches a glimpse of a potential antagonist. his instinct is to win him over with charm and humor. ? English version B: As soon as he finds any possible opponent, he is, by instinct, to have an inclination for winning him over with charm and humor. ? English version C: The sight of any potential antagonist arouses his innate impulse for winning him over with charm and humor.

Practice: ? He poured into his writing all the pains of his life and the conviction it had brought to him that the world could be made a better place to live in if the exploited would rise up. ? Furthermore, it is obvious that the strength of a country's economy is directly bound up with the efficiency of its agriculture and industry, and that this in turn rests upon the efforts of scientists and technologists of all lands. ? 森林给人提供木材,还能调节气候、保持水土、防风 固沙、改善水质、防烟防尘、消毒杀菌、减少噪音、 美化环境、维持及改善生态平衡。 ? 如果没有绿色植物不断制造氧气和吸收有害的气体, 人类就无法生存。人们的健慷与空气的忧劣有关,而 空气的忧劣又与森林的多少有关。

? 他在作品里倾诉了自己一生的痛苦和这种痛苦给他带 来的一种信念,认为如果被剥削的人们起来反抗,世 界就会变得美好。 ? 再者,显而易见的是一个国家的经济实力与其工农业 生产效率密切相关,而效率的提高则又有赖于各种科 技人员的努力。 ? Apart from providing people with timber, forests help regulate climate, conserve water and soil, wall off wind, fix sands, improve water quality, keep away smoke and dust, sterilize (purify) the air,reduce noise, beautify surroundings, maintain and improve ecological balance. ? Man would not be able to exist without green plants producing oxygen and absorbing harmful gases all the time. Man's health is closely related to the quality of the air ,which in turn is decided by the size (extent) of forests.

1. He always lives ahead of his salary. 2. A divorced woman is likely to find herself in an unenviable position. 3. He acts a lot older than his years. 4. Life here is as cheap as taxies are expensive. 5. The minimal cost far outweighs the inconvenience of being immobile in this vast urban area. 6. Hardly a day passes without him getting scratched or bruised as he scrambles for a place on a bus. 7. It's one of Asia's most traditional cities, rich with a Chinese culture that is gracious and lively, and boasts an amazing archive of Chinese art and artifacts. 8. All told China has roughly 380 million women between the age of 15 and 55, and few of them--particularly in the cities—want to look any less than their budgets allow.

9. Eager to trust but determined to verify, many single women in an age of risky romance are hiring private detectives to check the background of their suitors. 10. Battered by an almost daily terror of worrisome reports about the hazards of what they eat and how they live, Americans have become engulfed in an epidemic, not of cancer but of fear. 11. The company's top executives all are refugees from the country's bureaucratic and underfinanced state research sector. 12. A potentially dangerous blunder by police and security authorities here yesterday saw Mrs. Thatcher mobbed by yelling demonstrators during a shopping mall walkabout. 13. Opponents of a proposed agreement with Japan to build the new generation FSX fighter plane have made a vigorous appeal to President George Bush, and a long debate at the White House has left Mr. Bush torn between differing views in the cabinet. 14. In the space of three decades he (Lee Kuan Yew) built a poor island of tin-roofed shacks and chicken coops into a clockwork city of gleaming office towers.

1. 他的生活开销总是超过他的工资收入。 2. 离婚女子很容易觉察自己被人另眼相看。 3. 他年纪轻轻,做事却相当老练。 4. 这里的生活支出费用挺低 ,但乘出租车却贵得要命。 5. 城区广大,交通不便,四处难行。 所以出这么点钱(坐出租车) 还是非常划得来的。 6. 他挤公共汽车 ,身上不是这里擦破,就是那里碰伤 ,几乎天 天如此。 7. 这是亚洲最具传统色彩的城市之一。浓郁的中国文化给人以亲 切欢快之感。这个城市还拥有一座中国艺术和手工艺制品 的 陈列馆,里面的陈列令人叹为观止。 8. 中国年龄在 15至 55岁之间 的妇女大约有 3.8亿,只要自己 的 经济条件允许 ,她们几乎人人都想尽可能把自己打扮得绰约 舰丽,这种情形在城市尤为明显。 9. 这个年月,谈情说爱颇有风险。 许多单身女子对向自己求婚 者既急切地愿以心相许。但又一定要核查对方是否靠得住, 于是就纷纷雇佣私人侦探去查清对方的身世经历。

10. 每天部有大量报道,谈到人们的饮食和生活方式处处郡有险 区。这些报道 弄得美国人终日提心吊胆。美国人已被一种流 行病听笼罩,这个流行病并非是癌症,而是恐惧症。 11. 该公司的高层经理人员部来自该国的国家研究机构,这些机 构不仅充满官僚主义气息,而且研究经费不足,他们很难在 那里呆下去。 12. 警察和安全部门一时的粗心大意昨天险些惹出大祸。撒切尔 天人在这里的一个购物中心漫步时,被愤怒喊叫的示威人群 团团围住了。 13. 有人提议美国与日本签订协议,共同研制新一代FSX战斗机, 另有人不赞成这么做,并向乔治.布什总统表示了强烈的反对 意见。白宫开会进行了长时间的争论,但内阁成员意见相左, 布什先生很难定夺。 14. 李光耀用了30年时间使一个贫穷的岛国变成了一座井然有序 的城市。昔日的棚屋与鸡笼己被闪亮的摩天楼宇群所代替。


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