一,SAT 阅读概述 ............................................................................................................................. 2 考试时间和分项组成 .......
........................................................................................................ 4 二,结构阅读法综述 ........................................................................................................................ 4 (1)概述 .................................................................................................................................... 4 (2)结构化阅读法的产生 ......................................................................................................... 4 三，结构阅读法注意的问题 ................................................................................................... 5 四,文章分类 .................................................................................................................................. 14 五，题目类型及解法 .................................................................................................................... 15 （1）主旨题 ........................................................................................................................... 15 （2）词汇题 ........................................................................................................................... 18 （3）态度题 ........................................................................................................................... 20 （4）举例说明题 ................................................................................................................... 23 （5）推断题 ........................................................................................................................... 25 （6）排除题 ........................................................................................................................... 27 （7）写作手法题 ................................................................................................................... 28 （8）作用题 ........................................................................................................................... 29 （9）对比文章阅读题 ........................................................................................................... 32 附 1：正确选项及错误选项的特点 ...................................................................................... 33 附 2：态度词汇总结 .............................................................................................................. 33 六，阅读冲刺复习策略................................................................................................................. 34
SAT（Scholastic Assessment Test）是美国 ETS 考试委员会的重要考试项目之一，SAT 成绩是美国大学本科录取学生的一个重要参考标准，对美国国内甚至世界各国考生而言， SAT 考试成绩的高低，接决定了他能否被美国名校录取，且能否申请、请多少奖学金。 直 并 申 总而言之，SAT 考试的重要性就几乎等同于我们国内的高考。与其不同是的是，SAT 成绩 是美国高校评价一个学生的重要参考标准， 而不是唯一的依据。 再次， SAT 考试是一门挣钱 的考试， 如果同学们在 SAT 考试中取得了 2200 左右的骄人成绩， 基本上都以获得每年合 20 万人民币以上的奖学金， 而这一点给一些学习能力很好， 但是家庭确不是很富有的同学带来 了希望。 作为美国高考的精髓部分，SAT 阅读是最难也是最后需要攻克的一部分，因为以中国 人的智商短时间内把SAT 数学和SAT 语法训练到一个比较高的分数是比较容易的。而CR 部分（Critical Reading）则比较难，而难上加难的则是SAT 阅读。但SAT 阅读也不是像国 内高考的文言文阅读或者现代文阅读那样显得琢磨不透， 而是有一定的规律可循， 当然这些 规律是需要你对SAT 所出的所有试题潜心研究才可以得出的。本文便以文章分型，题目分 型，文章如何阅读，SAT 阅读如何训练为议题来展开，让学生掌握SAT阅读的基本方法和 解题技巧,再加上足够的练习,最后对SAT阅读熟能生巧. 为了控制SAT 阅读的总体难度的稳定性（大约平均145 左右），使得ETS 的官员在考 题的文章和题目类型设计上都出现了一定的模式化。 比如从文章类型设计上， 每次考试都会 出现“两个短篇+一个双短篇对比阅读+一个双长对比阅读+三个中长篇阅读 （小说+社会科学 类文章+自然科学类文章， 小说+社会科学类+社会科学类， 小说+社会科学类+回忆录或者随 笔性散文）”这样的文章搭配方式。后面三个中长之所以会出现很多搭配的方式，是因为要 维持总体难度的稳定性， 当前面的双短或者双长对比阅读文章比较难的时候， 三个中长搭配 要做适当的调整以维持总体阅读难度稳定。 从题型设计上来看， 经过统计， 词汇题和细节题 在每次考试中总和都会稳定的占一半左右， 这是两类比较简单的题型， 同时其他比较难的题 型，比如中心题，结构题，逻辑题，作者态度题，写作手法题等则经过搭配会构成题目的另 外一半，这在OG和历年真题中是一条比较稳定的规律。
接下来,我们要对SAT阅读部分有个框架性的了解：SAT对大家阅读能力的考察 主要基于两个LEVEL， Sentence level Reading + Paragraph level Reading， 即我们所熟 知的填空题与阅读题。解决这部分内容的关键是要找到词与词之间、句与句之间、 段与段之间、文章与文章之间的逻辑关系。两个部分中最难的部分就是段落阅读。 同学们在刚开始复习的时候遇到的问题是什么？就是阅读能力不过关，归纳一下大 致有三个： 1．单词看不懂。 2．虽然似乎没有不熟悉的词（一篇长文章的生词量在10个左右），但是还是看不懂文 章中的长难句。不清楚什么是主谓宾，看不懂哪个词修饰哪个词，哪个句子修饰哪个句 子。即一个句子读完之后，找不出主、谓、宾，肯否定、转折关系。 3．读完文章后记不住文章的内容，部分文章连逻辑结构都不清楚。对文章内容一知半 解，甚至不知所云。 其实归根结底是一个毛病，文章看不大懂，不知道作者在绕来绕去说什么，处 于一种似懂非懂的阶段。一篇阅读文章做下来，就算查了字典解决了生词，再通读 文章两三遍后仍然不明白自己为什么错，答案为什么对。
如果把这些细节问题提升到理论的高度，即同学们在阅读不分的学习过程中应 该经历两个环节：首先应该解决的是读不懂与读不准的问题，再次应该解决阅读度 与答题正确率之间的矛盾。这样就引出了我们应该如何复习SAT阅读部分的问题。 首先， 词汇是基础。 TOEFL一万词汇对SAT而言是基础词汇。 从对OG八套模拟 题以及部分真题的研究发现，阅读文章中95%的词汇是托福及托福以下词汇。剩下 的词汇是不需要知道其准确含义的（因为可以从原文中推理出其大致含义）。填空 题部分有一半多一些的题目也基本可以用TOEFL词汇解决掉。但是，如果想在SAT 中获得2000分左右的成绩，词汇量应该达到2万甚至更多。
词汇在SAT中的分类 1、基础词汇 television、frustrate、inherent 2、专有词汇 herbivore、fungi、Homo sapiens 3、高频词汇 indifferent、contemporaries、course 4、对待陌生词汇的心态 平时复习：不管是多么专业、多么偏的词汇，遇到就要记住！ 考试中 ：只要掌握了TOEFL词汇，剩下的词汇都与解题无直接关系，所以不用怕！ 正确背诵词汇工具及顺序： ① TOEFL词汇书。 市面上大部分关于TOEFL词汇的书籍都可以，是买之前一定要经过同学们自己 但 的筛选，因为每本词汇书的编写内容、顺序、采取的记忆方法都是不太一样的。应 该从3~4本中挑取一本最适合自己用的书籍。(笔者推荐王玉梅编的绿皮书) ② SAT的OG词汇 在解决完基础词汇之后，OG八套官方模拟题中的词汇，尤其是阅读文章中的和 填空题中的词汇一定要背的滚瓜烂熟。因为这些词汇的重复频率是相当高的，背词 一定要有真对性。 ③ GRE词汇 市面上流行的一种说法是想获得SAT高分， GRE词汇是一定要背的。 这种说法十 分值得商榷。部分GRE词汇过偏过难，SAT中根本不可能见到。这种词汇书有很大 一部分词汇是为了GRE考试中的词汇题专门设置的，这种题目就是单纯的考察生僻 词汇的含义， 这些词除了在GRE考试中， 其他任何场所是根本不可能出现的。 因此， 同学们花费大量时间和精力去记忆GRE词汇，是事倍功半的一种做法。 但是， 在解决完TOEFL+SATOG词汇之后， 我们可以去背一些GRE词汇， 或者专 门的SAT词汇书，作为提高。 其次，阅读能力是关键。任何一篇文章的写作过程都是由词组成句、再由句组 成段落、再由段落组成文章。因此，我们在单词问题之后，首先要攻克难题就是句 子理解。任何一个句子都跑不出五大要素：主语、谓语、宾语、以及肯否定转折关 系。而能否在短时间内从长难句中辨别出这五大要素，就是读懂一个句子的关键！ 读出这五大要素，基本可以解决读不懂的问题；辨别出五大要素以外的修饰型内容 及其与五大要素的关系，即谁修饰谁的关系，可以解决读不准的问题。而阅读能力 永远是做对阅读题的基础，同学们一定不能过分的去追求所谓的答题规律和答题技
Type of Qs
No. of Qs
19 70 mins (including two 25-min sections and one 20-min section)
(1)概述 帮助考生了解应该读什么，应该怎样去读的问题。 SAT阅读文章无论长短，都很复杂，并且要求阅读速度。通过结构阅读法，主 要解决考生读不懂与读不准的问题，进而，可以破解考生阅读速度与做题准确率之 间的矛盾问题。 (2)结构化阅读法的产生 任何一篇议论文，都跑不出三个内容：论点、论据、论证方法。论点就是本文 的中心思想和支持这个思想的分论点。论据就是支持总论点或者是分论点的细节性 内容。论证方法就是结构。我们知道，一篇好的议论文，最关键的内容是论据，论 据找的越好，文章越有说服力。其次，一篇优秀议论文的的作者往往是先观察到一 些现象（即以后文中的论据），然后思考出一个观点（即论点），最后按一种特定 的方法（文章的结构安排，即论点和分论点、论据之间的编排）去写作完成这篇论 文。总而言之，评价阅读一篇阅读文章的好坏一是看论据，二才是看论述方法。 但是，对考试而言，我们的重点却是在论述方法上，即文章的结构，而论据都是细 节内容，在阅读过程中有些甚至都可以不读。我们在读一篇文章的时候，在看到论 点的时候，马上要想到的是作者要如何针对这个论点去论证，而并非论据本身。 需要强调的是，一篇文章的结构绝对不是读完文章之后才能归纳出来的，而是边读 边预测出来的。
结构阅读法是什么 ? 即基于句子理解上的对文章框架的整体把握。想读懂一篇文章，要先后解决三个问 题：即 1、 词汇
要保证至少有80%的词汇是认识的。 只有这样， 我们才有资格去谈论能不能读懂 文章的问题。 2、 句子 读懂长难句的关键是对五大要素的把握。 并且区分出五大要素与从句子中剥离开 的修饰成分的关系。搞清楚到底是谁修饰谁。 3、 段落 就像每一篇文章都有主旨和分论点一样， 每一个段落都有主旨和支持主旨的例子 和阐述性的语句。主旨句是一定要读的，而每个例子都是为了主旨所服务的，所以 例子可以不读或者略读。如果在例子中出了考题，答案应该首先在这个例子上下的 概述性句子中寻找，再在例子本身中去寻找。 4、 文章 段落和段落间的关系就是文章的构成元素。我们在读文章的时候，一定要去预测本 篇文章的结构。
重点题材：文学评论、美国历史、弱势群体、新兴科学 写作方法 Presentation： 作者自己的观点，并解释说明（立论型） Argument： 引出别人的观点，对其进行批判（评论型） 夹叙夹议文： 叙述一件事情的基础上加以一定数量的作者评述（无明显格式）
强转折词汇：强转折词汇后易出考点 although/ while/ but/ yet /however/whereas in fact/ actually/ nevertheless/ nonetheless despite/ in spite of rather/ instead 强因果词汇：考查因多果少 conclude类、consequent类 thus/ hence/ therefore /so result in/ result from/ lead to because、since、due to、冒号(后面一般是解释，略读) 表达逻辑顺序的词汇： A、 第一、（for one thing, firstly, first of all）第二… B、 总结概述性词汇： C、 时间词汇
表达对比关系的词汇： A、 时间词汇（traditionally、recent、now、年代词） B、 比较级 C、 对比关系词汇 （Compared、Unlike、To the contrary、on the other hand） 专业性词汇： 人名、 专有名词、 （外来词和拼凑词） 读题时往往缩写成大写字母就可以了。 难词 ， 判断性词汇： 肯定：be、remain、can、may等 否定：not be、cannot等 感情色彩词汇：形容词、副词、含有感情色彩的动词（往往表明作者的态度和写作 方向。 强调词汇：最高级与唯一性词汇
2、 句子（主谓宾SVO） （一）论述问题专业性强、不能用简单的生活用语；信息量集中，又要严谨准确； 所以有些句子结构可能会比较复杂，影响阅读。 影响阅读的句子结构： 1、 修饰性成分过多 2、 双重否定或转折过多 3、 倒装句或者后语前置现象 4、 插入语过多或者固定短语被分割 5、 专业性词汇过多（心态上影响）
??修饰性成分过多 1、For instance, the very women who had been drawn to him by the penetrating intuition of the female heart that he showed in his novels were appalled to discover how insensitive and awkward the real man could be. ______________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________ 2、This serves to confirm the view of one Victorian man, born in 1790, that whereas his mother had confidently joined in the family auctioneering business, the increased division of the sexes had seen the withdrawal of women from business life. ______________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________
??双重否定 1、To mention just one example, no one has yet succeeded in putting before us even a single viewer who was incapable of telling the difference between a family quarrel in the current soap opera and one at his or her family’s breakfast table. ______________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________ 2、However, it is na? assume that any culture’s history is perceived without ve to subjective prejudice. ______________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________ ??倒装句 1、Only when a system possess natural or artificial boundaries that associate the water within it with the hydrologic cycle may the entire system properly be termed hydrogeology. ______________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________ 2、More remarkable than the origin has been the persistence of such sex segregation in the twenty-century industry. ______________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________ ??固定短语被分割 1、Either the theorists make no use of television at all (in which case they do not know what they are talking about) or they subject themselves to m and then the question arises--through what miracle is the theorist able to escape the alleged effects of television. ______________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________
2、Under the force of this view, it was perhaps inevitable that the art of rhetoric should pass from the status of being regarded as of questionable worth because although it might be both a source of pleasure and a means to urge people to right action, it might also be a means to distort truth and a source of misguided action) to the status of being wholly condemned. ______________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________ ??简单句、抽象化 先理解本段落的主旨，再去理解句义 主动被动关系一定要辨别出来 指代词到底指代什么，一定要读出来 1、Most students do not start from point zero, but from minus zero, and in the process are often required to abandon cherished childhood fantasies of superheroes or larger-than-life villains. ______________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________ 2、It is little wonder, therefore, that Native Americans were perceived not so much they were but they had to be, from a European viewpoint. They dealt in magic, not method. They were stuck in their past, not guided by its precedents. ______________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________
（二）句子间关系（段落间句子关系）：语意顺承（并列递进）、转折关系 语义顺承（+）： 1、 从句：修饰与限定 宾语从句、定语从句、同位语从句、状语从句 2、 因果关系： A、 因果关系词汇
B、 3、 A、 B、
引用、冒号、破折号、括号（表示强调或者解释说明） 并列句： 逻辑顺序并列（第一、第二…） 平行的并列（And等）
转折关系（-）： 1、 先肯定后否定 2、 让步转折
3、 全文结构（2：转折+并列） 1、 简单逻辑结构（立论型文章和夹叙夹议文） 因果、果因、现象原因、原因现象 时间顺序 作者心态顺序 2、 一次转折结构 先提出旧观点、别人的观点甚至论据 再批判别人的观点（可能是一句话、也可能是两句话） 再提出自己的观点及论据 最后总结 3、 二次转折结构（难） 先提出旧观点、别人的观点甚至论据 再批判别人的观点（可能是一句话、也可能是两句话） 再提出自己的观点及论据 最后一段再次让步转折，即部分肯定作者所批判观点，其目的并非肯定，而是使得 文章逻辑更加严谨，更有说服力。
※读文章（特别是长文章），请在这三点上把握和思考： a/ 了解本文的写作对象（写作内容） b/ 预测本文的行文结构（论证方法） c/ 明确本文的主要态度。
（一）短阅读 The critic Edmund Wilson was not a self-conscious letter writer or one who tried to sustain studied mannerisms. Nor did he resort to artifice or entangle himself in the circumlocutions. The young, middle-aged, and old Wilson speaks directly through his letters, which are informal for the most part and which undisguised reflect his changing moods. On occasion--in response, perhaps, to the misery of a friend or a public outrage or a personal challenge--he can become eloquent, even passionate, but that is not his prevailing tone.
（二）短阅读 That nineteenth-century French novelist Honore de Balzac could be financially wise in his fiction while losing all his money in life was an irony duplicated in other matters. For instance, the very women who had been drawn to him by the penetrating intuition of the female heart that he showed in his novels were appalled to discover how insensitive and awkward the real man could be. It seems the true source of creation for Balzac was not sensitivity but imagination, Balzac's fiction originally sprang from an intuition he first discovered as a wretched little school boy locked in a dark closet of his boarding school: life is a prison, and only imagination can open its doors.
（三）长阅读 Since the advent of television, social commentators have been evaluating its role in a modern society. In the following excerpt from an essay published in 1992, a German social commentator offers a pointed evaluation of the evaluators.
"Television makes you stupid." Virtually all current theories of the medium come down to this simple statement. As a rule, this conclusion is delivered with a melancholy undertone. Four principal theories can be distinguished. The manipulation thesis points to an ideological dimension. It sees in television above all an instrument of political domination. The medium is understood as a neutral vessel, which pours out opinions over a public thought of as passive. Seduced, unsuspecting viewers are won over by the wire-pullers, without ever realizing what is happening to them. The imitation thesis argues primarily in moral terms. According to it, television consumption leads above all to moral dangers. Anyone who is exposed to the medium becomes habituated rd libertinism, irresponsibility, crime, and violence. The private consequences are blunted, callous; and obstinate individuals; the public consequences are the loss of social virtues and general moral decline. This form of critique draws, as is obvious at first glance, on traditional, bourgeois sources. The motifs that recur in this thesis can be identified as far back as the eighteenth century m the vain warnings that early cultural criticism sounded against the dangers of reading novels. More recent is the simulation thesis. According to it, the viewer is rendered incapable of distinguishing between reality and fiction. The primary reality is rendered unrecognizable or replaced by a secondary, phantomlike reality. All of these converge in the stupefaction thesis. According to it, watching television not only undermines the viewers' ability id criticize and differentiate, along with the moral and political fiber of their being, but also impairs their overall ability to perceive. Television produces, therefore, a new type of human being, who can, according to taste, be imagined as a zombie or a mutant. All these theories are rather unconvincing. Their authors consider proof to be superfluous. Even the minimal criterion of plausibility does not worry them at all. To mention just one example, no one has yet succeeded in putting before us even a single viewer who was incapable of telling the difference between a family quarrel in the current soap opera and one at his or her family’s breakfast table. This doesn't seem to bother the advocates of the simulation thesis. Another common feature of the theories is just as curious but has even more serious
consequences. Basically, the viewers appear as defenseless victims, the programmers as crafty criminals. This polarity is maintained with great seriousness: manipulators and manipulated, actors and imitators, stimulants and simulated, stupefies and stupefied face one another in a fine symmetry. The relationship of the theorists themselves to television rinses some important questions. Either the theorists make no use of television at all (in which case they do not know what they are talking about) or they subject themselves to m and then the question arises--through what miracle is the theorist able rd escape the alleged effects of television Unlike everyone else, the theorist has remained completely intact morally, can distinguish in a sovereign manner between deception and reality, and enjoys complete immunity in the face of the idiocy that he or she sorrow-fully diagnoses in the rest of us. Or could fatal loophole in the dilemma--the theories themselves be symptoms of a universal stupefaction? One can hardly say that these theorists have failed to have any effect. it is true that their influence on what is actually broadcast is severely limited, which maybe considered distressing or noted with gratitude, depending on one's mood. On the other hand, they have found ready listeners among politicians. That is not surprising, for the conviction that one is dealing with millions or idiots "out there in the country" is part of the basic psychological equipment of the professional politician. One might have second thoughts about the theorists influence when one watches how the veterans of televised election campaigns fight each other for every single minute when it comes to displaying their limousine their historic appearance before the guard of honor, their hairstyle on the platform, and above all their speech organs. The number of broadcast minutes, the camera angles, and the level of applause are registered with a touching enthusiasm. The politicians have been particularly taken by the good old manipulation thesis.
The following passage appeared in an essay written in 1987 in which the author, who is of Native American descent, examines the representation of Native Americans during the course of United States history. In many respects living Native Americans remain as mysterious, exotic, and unfathomable to their contemporaries at the end of the twentieth century as they were to the Line Pilgrim settlers over three hundred fifty years ago. Native rights, motives, customs, languages, and aspirations are misunderstood by Euro-Americans out of a culpable ignorance that is both self-serving and self-righteous. Part of the problem may well stem from the long-standing tendency of European or Euro-American thinkers to regard Native Americans as fundamentally and profoundly different, motivated more often by mysticism than by ambition, charged more by unfathomable visions than by intelligence or introspection. This idea is certainly not new. Rousseau's* "noble savages" wandered, pure of heart, through a pristine world. Since native people were simply assumed to be incomprehensible, they were seldom comprehended. Their societies were simply beheld, often through cloudy glasses, and rarely probed by the tools of logic and deductive analysis automatically reserved for cultures prejudged to be "civilized." And on those occasions when Europeans did attempt to formulate an encompassing theory, it was not, ordinarily, on a human-being-t o-human-being basis, but rather through an ancestor-descendant model. Native Americans, though obviously contemporary with
their observers, were somehow regarded as ancient, examples of what Stone Age Europeans must have been like. It's a great story, an international crowd pleaser, but there is a difficulty: Native Americans were, and are, Homo sapiens sapiens. Though often equipped with a shovel-shaped incisor tooth, eyes with epicanthic folds, or an extra molar cusp, Native American people have had to cope, for the last forty thousand years or so, just like everyone else. Their cultures have had to make internal sense, their medicines have had to work consistently and practically, their philosophical explanations have had to be reasonably satisfying and dependable, or else the ancestors of those now called Native Americans would truly have vanished long ago. The reluctance in accepting this obvious fact comes from the Eurocentric conviction that the West holds a monopoly on science, logic, and clear thinking. To admit that other, culturally divergent viewpoints are equally plausible is to cast doubt on the monolithic center of Judeo-Christian belief: that there is but one of everything--God, right way, truth--and Europeans alone knew what that was. If Native American cultures were acknowledged as viable, then European societies were something less than an exclusive club. It is little wonder, therefore, that Native Americans were perceived not so much as they were but as they had to be from a European viewpoint. They dealt in magic, not method, they were stuck in their past, not guided by its precedents. Such expedient misconception argues strongly for development and dissemination of a more accurate, more objective historical account of native peoples--a goal easier stated than accomplished. Native American societies were nonliterate before and during much of the early period of their contact with Europe, making the task of piecing together a history particularly demanding. The familiar and reassuring kinds of written documentation found in European societies of equivalent chronological periods do not exist and the forms of tribal record preservation available-oral history, tales, mnemonic devices, and religious rituals strike university-trained academics as inexact, unreliable, and suspect. Western historians, culture-bound by their own approach to knowledge, are apt to declaim that next to nothing, save the evidence of archaeology, can be known of early Native American life. To them, an absolute void is more acceptable and rigorous than an educated guess. However, it is naive to assume that any culture's history is perceived without subjective prejudice. Every modern observer, whether he or she was schooled in the traditions of the South Pacific or Zaire, of Hanover, New Hampshire or Vienna, Austria, was exposed at an early age to 0ne or another form of folklore about Native Americans. For some, the very impressions about Native American tribes that initially attracted them to the field of American history are aspects most firmly rooted in popular myth and stereotype. Serious scholarship about Native American culture and history is unique in that it requires an initial, abrupt, and wrenching demythologizing. Most students do not start from point zero, but from minus zero, and in the process and often required to abandon cherished childhood fantasies superheroes or larger-than-life villains. * Rousseau was an eighteenth-century French philosopher.
The intelligence of dolphins is well documented by science. Studies show that dolphins are able to understand sign language, solve puzzles, and use objects in their environment as tools. Scientists also believe that dolphins possess a sophisticated language: numerous instances have been recorded in which dolphins transmitted information from one individual to another. A recent experiment proved that dolphins can even recognize themselves in a mirror-- something achieved by very few animals. This behavior demonstrates that dolphins are aware of their own individuality, indicating a level of intelligence that may be very near our own.
Are dolphins unusually intelligent? Dolphins have large brains, but we know that brain size alone does not determine either the nature or extent of intelligence. Some researchers have suggested that dolphins have big brains because they need them--for sonar and sound processing and for social interactions. Others have argued that regardless of brain size, dolphins have an intelligence level somewhere between that of a dog and a chimpanzee. The fact is, we don't know, and comparisons may not be especially helpful. Just as human intelligence is appropriate for human needs, dolphin intelligence is right for the dolphin's way of life. Until we know more, all we can say is that dolphin intelligence is different.
文章分类及阅读的方法 单短&双短 中篇&长篇 长双篇对比 随笔性散文 （较少， 其中 一篇） 阅读的方法*
详读：边读边划下来， 作者态度和文章中心 的词语和句子；
略读： 直接跳读， 具体 事件和人物的描写；
写景 议 论 文 自然 科学 类 现象解释 类 现象讨论 类
小说 信息说明 性文章 名家随笔 性杂文 现象解释 对立（多） 科学研究 方法论对 立（少）
详读：边读边划下来， 表达作者的态度和文 章中心的词语和句子； 文章结构的词语，如 but, yet, ,however, some…others…I… ， 必然是考点的写作手 法；
社会 科学 类
弱势群体 类 历史评论 类
多（双篇都 是） 多（双篇都 是） 多（双篇都 是）
略读： 很多排比 （很多 逗号或者很多分号并 列），只读一个；破折 号和破折号之间， 括号 之间甚至逗号之间的 插入语， 不读。 具体的 例子，具体的引用不 读！
多（双篇都 公共生活 类 是）
阅读方法*：此处的阅读方法是指第一遍读文章时的方法，比如在议论文中具体的例子和引 用不读，但是一般来说具体的例子和引用容易出“例子所支持的论点”或者写作手法题， 这时候碰到题目了就要回到原文，如果没出现题目就永远不要读了。
（1）主旨题 ID：mainly discuss/concern Main idea/ point/ purpose/ title/ topic Answer which of the following questions 题型： 全文主旨题与段落主旨题 方法： 对全文主旨题而言 1.根据文章首段或尾段内容直接选答案，有些文章的主旨出现在文章中部。 2.也可以根据选项排除部分答案。需要排除的选项所具备的特征： ※含有细节的内容，因为细节是分论点 ※没有全文的写作对象 ※与全文作者的态度不一致 3.要注意的是全文主旨题在做题顺序中要放到最后(短篇阅读可以放在首位做)
例如 The common belief of some linguists that each language is a perfect vehicle for the thoughts of the nation speaking it is in some ways the exact counterpart of the conviction of the Manchester school of economics that supply and demand will regulate everything for the best. No language is perfect, and if we admit this truth, we must also admit that it is not unreasonable to investigate the relative merits of different languages or of different details in languages. The primary purpose of the main passage is to A. analyze an interesting feature of the English language B. refute a belief held by some linguists C. show that economic theory is relevant to linguistic study D. illustrate the confusion that can result from the improper use of language E. suggest a way in which languages can be made more nearly perfect 【练习】 1
During the nineteenth century privileged travelers from England and the United States often published accounts of their journeys to foreign lands. Some of these travelers were women who wrote travel books.
In 19th century, for most women of the leisure class, immobilized as they were by the iron hoops of convention, the term “abroad” had a dreamlike, talismanic quality. … When women who had the time and means traveled to India, China, or Africa, their real destination, more often than not, was a restorative idea rather than a place on the map. Though this restorative idea sometimes led them to endure long, uncomfortable journeys to remote places where few of their compatriots had penetrated before them, there was little intent to imitate the male fashion for exploration, which was such a feature of the time. …
What, specifically, were these women seeking “abroad”? … History put these women travelers in a unique position, and they responded in a unique way: they created a small but impressive library of first-person narratives that combined genuine learning with the spirit of individualism. … Thus, the once-lowly travel book rather unexpectedly became an important instrument for the emancipation of women. Q: The primary purpose of the passage is to A. evaluate women’s travel books and journals from a literary perspective B. contrast nineteenth-century women travelers with male explorers of the same period C. describe changes in travel opportunities for wealthy women in the nineteenth century D. examine the motives that some nineteenth century women had for traveling E. analyze the historical significance of women traveler’s books and journals 2
First published in 1976, this passage discusses W.E.B.Du.Bois and Marcus Garvey, two leaders of the black American community in the 1910’s and 1920’s.
The concept of two warring souls within the body of the Black American was as meaningful for Du Bois at the end of his years as editor of Crisis, the official Journal of the National Association for the Advancement of Colored People (NAACP), as when he had first used the image at the start of the century. Du Bois nevertheless saw danger in the negation of race pride, by those who did not recognize their own beauty as Black people, for example. … The focal point of the magazine’s efforts in this respect between those who advocated came with the rise of Marcus Garvey, the gifted Jamaican leader whose “back-to-Africa” movement, as it was popularly called…. Garveyism, which flourished during the height of Crisis’ influence and success, brought a formidable challenge to Du Bois. There were superficial similarities between Garvey’s and Du Bois’s commitment to race consciousness and economic empowerment; both men saw the world as comprising separate cultures, each reflecting a distinct heritage and demanding freedom of expression…. In a cryptic piece in Crisis in 1922, Du Bois was surely referring to Garvey when he ominously predicted the rise of demagogue who would “come to lead, inflame, lie, and steal” and when he commented that such a person would “gather followings and then burst and disappear.” Q: The primary purpose of the passage is to A. account for the rise of Black nationalism in the United Sates B. explain the charismatic appeal of two Black American leaders C. explain why Garvey refused to support Du Bois as a leader of Black America D. Describe difference between the philosophies of Du Bois and Garvey E. Describe Du Bois’s quarrel and eventual reconciliation with Garvey
3 In the Women of Mexico City, 1976~1857, Sylvia Marina Arrom argues that the status on women in Mexico City improved during the nineteenth century. … Mention of the fact that the civil codes of 1870 and 1884 significantly advanced women’s rights would have further strengthened Arrom’s argument. Arrom does not discuss whether women’s improved status counteracted the effects on women of instability in the Mexican economy during the nineteenth century. … Indeed, such gaps in Mexican history are precisely what make Arrom’s pioneering study an important addition to Latin American women’s history. Q: The passage is primarily concerned with doing which of the following? A. Reviewing a historical study of the status of women in Mexico City during the nineteenth century. B. Analyzing the effects of economic instability on the status of women in Mexico during the nineteenth century C. Advancing a thesis explaining why women’s status in Mexico City improved during the nineteenth century D. Rejecting the thesis explaining why women’s status of women in Mexico City during the nineteenth century actually improved E. Praising an author for a pioneering attempt to bridge significant gaps in Mexico’s economic history prior to 1790 4 Aid by the recent ability to analyze samples of air trapped in glaciers, scientists now have a clearer idea of the relationship between atmospheric composition and global temperature change over the past 160,000 years. … Data from the Vostok core also indicate that the amount of carbon dioxide has fluctuated with temperature over the same period … The correlation between carbon dioxide and temperature throughout the Vostok record is consistent and predictable. … Other data from the Vostok core show that methane gas also correlates closely with temperature and carbon dioxide…. Q: The primary purpose of the passage is to A. interpret data B. explain research methodology C. evaluate a conclusion D. suggest a new technique E. attack a theory
（2）词汇题 ID：题眼： In line …, “WORD” most nearly means:
题型：主要两种题型，熟词辟意和生僻词汇 在介绍做题方法之前，我们对题型要有个基本了解。什么是熟词辟意？大家学英语 学到一种境界的时候会发现，几乎没有多少英文单词能与中文单词在词意上有完全 的一一对应。 因此， 在做这种题目的时候要小心， 因为ABCDE五个选项中很可能有个 单词就是你所认为的那个单词的常见意思。比如： In Passage 1, line 2, “entertain” most nearly means A. amuse B. harbor C. occupy D. cherish E. engage Anyone with more than a superficial knowledge of Shakespeare’s plays must necessarily entertain some doubt concerning their true authorship. In line 23, “range” most nearly means A. scope B. distance C. variation D. ranking E. value His (Mark Twin’s) humor has international range because it is constructed out of a deep comprehension of human nature and a profound sympathy for human relationships and human failings.
Tip1： 如果一道词汇题发现它是大家很熟悉的词， 我们一定要小心， 不能马上在选项中选所 谓你知道的含义的同义词。
In Passage 2, line 75, the word “encyclopedic” most nearly means A. technical B. comprehensive C. abridged D. disciplined E. specialized Shakespeare’s dramatic gifts had little to do with encyclopedic knowledge, complex ideas, or a fluency with great systems of thought.
Tip2： 如果词汇题的定位点出现了平行结构， 则去这个平行结构的其他部分找相对应的单词 （如考的是形容词，则去找形容词；考的是动词，则去找动词）并且在选项中找一个与这 ， 个对应单词的同义词。
解词汇题方法： 1．根据题干中所给的行数找定位点 2．读完整个句子，所考察单词一律翻译成“空格”，避免在思维中该词原有含义对解 题的干扰，同时避免在翻译过程中不通顺的问题。 3． 以所考单词为分界点，看前半句与后半句是什么意思。并判断其关系。 如果是平 行结构，则要看平行结构中的对应点。 4． 如是记叙文、 或本句找不出答案， 则要读此定位句的上一句话、 再读其下一句话。 如还没有答案，则需判断这个定位句所属段落作者想要表达的含义。
【练习】 1． They are altogether unlike the provinces, where the surprises lie not in discovering what is odd or new but in appreciating, at last what is routine and everyday, a larger accomplishment than one might imagine. Q: In line 21, “appreciating” most nearly means A. preserving from harm B. increasing in value C. understanding better D. praising E. thanking 2． In the United States, the traditional view embraced by society is that fences are European, out of place in the American landscape. Q: In line 1, “embraced” most nearly means A. caressed B. adopted C. enfolded D. included E. encircled 3． The cost of having so successfully itemized and pigeonholed nature, of being able to name names and explain behaviors, is to limit certain possibilities of seeing and apprehending. For example, the modern human thinks that he or she can best understand a tree (or a species of tree) by examining a single tree. Q: As used in lines 87-88, “apprehending” most nearly means A. seizing B. anticipating
C. fearing D. understanding E. doubting 4． It sits atop a wooded hillside overlooking the Pacific in Malibu, California. Critics have contemptuously compared it to Disneyland. “A plastic paradise in kitsch city”, grumped one. “It outstrips any existing monument to expensive, aggressive bad taste, cultural pretension, and self-aggrandizement.” Q: In line3, “plastic” most nearly means A. pliable B. artificial C. impermanent D. innovative E. inexpensive 5． For the truth was, as Mulcahy had to acknowledge, pacing up and down his small office, that in spite of all the evidence he had been given of the president’s unremitting hatred, he found himself hurt by the letter—wounded, to be honest, not only in his self-esteem but in some tenderer place, in that sense of contract between people that transcends personal animosities and factional differences, that holds the individual distinct from the deed and maintains even in the fieriest opposition the dream of final agreement and concord. He had not known, in short, that the president disliked him so flatly. Q: In line 60, “flatly” most nearly means A. evenly B. tautly C. shallowly D. unemphatically E. unequivocally
ID：tone, attitude, reaction, response, feeling, sentiment, expression, view, regard， describe, portray, characterize 题型：态度题主要分为全文态度题和细节态度题。什么是全文态度？就是作者对整 篇文章所讨论内容的态度，因此，通过快速阅读法能基本判别出作者的写作态度。
① positive attitude ② negative attitude ③ mixed attitude Tip1：读首段第一句话和最后一句话，注意如有转折连词but、though、however等。再读中 间各段落的首句。最后读末段的首句和尾句，注意in conclusion、in the end等表示总结性的 词汇。然后寻找里面的形容词和副词、以及有感情色彩的动词，来判断作者态度。
但是， 做作者态度题前， 们要对SAT阅读文章的基本行文结构有个初步的了解， 在 我 大部分文章为顺承型，即一篇文章从头到尾只说了一个大观点和大态度。个别难文 章为驳斥型，即先通过一定篇幅说明了一个观点或一件事情，然后作者在文章中部 或中前部才提出自己的观点。时， 些文章的末段并不是对全文的总结或者概述， 同 某 因此要特别小心。比如，作者在说明一件事物的优点时，最后一段也可能说一些它 的不好的地方。世界上没有完美的事物，因此这种行文结构更有逻辑严谨性。对这 种文章我们在阅读的时候要格外小心。
The author's attitude toward the "media" might best be described as A. respectful B. indifferent C. ambivalent D. resentful E. critical Every time another report appears, the media tout the new position, thus providing a misleading view. 【练习】 1． In retrospect, there appear to have been two difficulties. First, the astronomers had a nearly complete lack of knowledge of electronic apparatus, viewing it as magical and sinister. Q: In passage 2, Reber suggests that the astronomers had which attitude toward electronic equipment (line 67~69) A. They were impatient with its limitation B. They took it for granted C. They relied too heavily on it D. They had an unreasonable aversion to it E. They believed it would revolutionize their field
2． The progressive loss of the distinction between the words disinterested (unbiased) and uninterested (apathetic) is regrettable: however, we might admit that the fight on behalf of the distinction is a lost cause. Q: The author’s attitude toward the loss of the distinction referred to in line 20~22 is best described as A. indifference B. resignation C. resentment D. defiance E. puzzlement 3． Passage 1 Does science fiction serve a useful purpose? … Science fiction’s most important use, I submit, is as a means of dramatizing social inquiry, of providing a fictional mode in which cultural tendencies can be isolated and judged. Many a trend hound would be surprised and perhaps mortified to discover how many of his or her cherished insights are common ground in science fiction. Passage 2 Much of the science in science fiction is hokum; … And because science fiction combines scientific elements with stories involving people and relationships, the genre serves as a link between the culture of the humanities and arts on the one hand, and of science and technology on the other. Q: The attitude of each author toward the genre of science fiction might best be described as A. unabashed admiration B. qualified appreciation C. open amusement D. veiled distaste E. utter contempt 4． While Mark Twain has declared that humor is a “subject which has never had much interest” for him, it is as a humorist that the world persists in regarding him. It is certain that Mark Twain is the greatest genius evolved by natural selection out of the ranks of American journalism. Q: What is the author’s attitude toward the term “humorist” used in line 2~3 A. Amusement B. Envy C. Pride D. Approval
E. Respect 5． In other words, Mark Twain the humorist is a bull in the china shop of ideas. When, as in A Connecticut Yankee in King Arthur’s Court, he gave full rein to this fancy, he achieved such a masterpiece of vulgarity as the world has never seen. His book gives you the same sort of impression which you might receive from a beautiful picture over which a poisonous slug had crawled. Q: Which of the following word best represents the attitude of the author used in line 63? A. anger B. disdain C. mockery D. embarrassment E. smugness
ID：Why does the author mention … ….. mention …. In order to …. …. suggest… 题型：这种题型最为常见，是考察大家对细节的理解。这种题的定位点往往出现在 作者就文章某个局部的general statement后举的例子、或阐述的问题。 而不管怎样，它们都只有一个目的，就是为这个general statement做说明。 方法：因此，这道题的答案基本就在这个定位句的前面或者后面（一个总结性的句 子中）。 In passage 2, Reber describes Marcon’s work chiefly in order to A. Disparage the narrow-mindedness of some of the scientific community B. Illustrate the dangers of commercial control over science C. Suggest why Janskys discovery was greater than Marcon’s D. Show that theoretical science is superior to applied science E. Criticize the attitude of the industrialists of Marcon’s day The pundits of Marconi’s day said his ideas about wireless radio would not work because radio waves were similar to light and would not bend around the curvature of the Earth. Even after Marconi’s successful transatlantic radio transmission in 1901, many doubted his results because there was no known way radio waves would perform as he reported. The author likens art to a “rainbow trout” (line63-64) in order to A. Stress the importance of color in art B. Suggest art’s dependence on its environment C. Mock those who prefer abstract painting
D. Argue that must be grounded in a reverence for nature E. Compare the activity of painting to mundane pursuits Whenever I have seen art in its land of origin, I have been struck by its reliance on place. In America, Japanese art looks withdraw into itself, as if stiffened in self-defense; Australian Aboriginal art, unutterably powerful in Australia, loses meaning, can even look merely decorative, when carted off that continent, losing force as visibly as a rainbow trout fades when cast onto the bank of a river.
【练习】 1． In spite of such omissions, what Rosenblatt does include in his discussion makes for an astute and worthwhile study. Black fiction surveys a wide variety of novels, bringing to our attention in the process some fascinating and little-known works like James Weldon Johnson’s Autobiography of an Ex-colored Man. Q: The author of the passage refers to James Weldon Johnson’s Autobiography of an Ex-colored Man most probably in order to A. Point out affinities between Rosenblatt’s method of thematic analysis and earlier criticism B. Clarify the point about expressionistic style made earlier in the passage C. Qualify the assessment of Rosenblatt’s book made in the first paragraph of the passage D. Illustrate the affinities among Black novels disclosed by Rosenblatt’s literary analysis
2． Many theories have been formulated to explain the role of grazers such as zooplankton in controlling the amount of planktonic algae (phytoplankton) in lakes. The first theories of such grazer control were merely based on observations of negative correlations between algal and zooplankton numbers. A low number of algal cells in the presence of a high number of grazers suggested, but did not prove, that the grazers had removed most of the algae. The converse observation, of the absence of grazers in areas of high phytoplankton concentration, led Hardy to propose his principle of animal exclusion, which hypothesized that phytoplankton produced a repellent that excluded grazers from regions of high phytoplankton concentration. This was the first suggestion of algal defenses against grazing. Q: The author most likely mentions Hardy’s principle of animal exclusion in order to A. Give an example of one theory about the interaction of grazers and phytoplankton B. Support the contention that phytoplankton numbers are controlled primarily by environmental factors C. Defend the first theory of algal defenses against grazing D. Demonstrate the superiority of laboratory studies of zooplankton feeding rates to other kinds of studies of such rates
E. Refute researchers who believed that low numbers of phytoplankton indicated the grazing effect of low numbers of zooplankton
3． One way out of this dilemma was to turn to the records of legal courts, for there the voice of the nonelite can most often be heard, as witnesses, plaintiffs, and defendants. These documents have acted as “a point of entry into the mental world of the poor.” Historians such as Le Roy Ladurie have used the documents to extract case histories, which have illuminated the attitudes of different social groups…. Q: The author mentions Le Roy Ladurie (line 16) in order to A. Give an example of a historian who has made one kind of use of court records B. Cite a historian who has based case histories on the birth, marriage, and death records of the nonelite C. Identify the author of the quotation cited in the previous sentence D. Gain authoritative support for the view that the case history approach is the most fruitful approach to court records E. Point out the first historian to realize the value of court records in illuminating the benefits and values of the nonelite
ID：imply、infer、most likely、probably true、would 方法：找关键字后找定位句，进行推理，但是要注意不要多想，原文说的是什么就 是什么，在范围上不要随意扩大、也不要缩小，在内容上不能随意增加或减少。如 果本句及上下句没有答案，则答案英语本段的态度一致。 In line 10-12, Frank J. Scott’s observation implies that nature A. is graceful and beautiful only in areas uninhabited by humans B. should be available for all to enjoy without hindrance C. must be incorporated into the design of American suburbs D. exerts a more powerful effect on the British than on Americans E. Is less evident in American suburbs than in the British countryside One author after another denounces “the Englishman’s insultingly inhospitable brick wall, topped with broken bottles.” Frank J. Scott, early landscape architect who had a large impact on the look of America’s first suburbs, worked tirelessly to rid the landscape fences, which he derided as a feudal holdover from Britain. Writing in 1870, he held that “to narrow our own or our neighbor’s views of the free graces of Nature” was selfish and undemocratic.
The author of Passage 1 uses phrase “enthusiastic uncertainty” in line 17 to suggest that the filmmakers were A. excited to be experimenting in a new field B. delighted at the opportunity to study new technology C. optimistic in spite of the obstacles that faced them D. eager to challenge existing conventions E. eager to please but unsure of what the public wanted The one word that sums up the attitude of the silent filmmakers is enthusiasm, conveyed most strongly before formulas took shape and when there was more room for experimentation. This enthusiasm uncertainty often resulted in such accidental discoveries as new camera or editing techniques…. 【练习】 1 That nineteenth-century French novelist Honore de Balzac could be financially wise in his fiction while losing all his money in life was an irony duplicated in other matters. For instance, the very women who had 5 been drawn to him by the penetrating intuition of the female heart that he showed in his novels were appalled to discover how insensitive and awkward the real man could be. It seems the true source of creation for Balzac was not sensitivity but imagination, Balzac's 10 fiction originally sprang from an intuition he first discovered as a wretched little school boy locked in a dark closet of his boarding school: life is a prison, and only imagination can open its doors. 1. The example in lines 4-8 primarily suggests that (A) Balzac's work was not especially popular among female readers (B) Balzac could not write convincingly about financial matters (C) Balzac's insights into character were not evident in his everyday life (D) people who knew Balzac personally could not respect him as an artist (E) readers had unreasonable expectations of Balzac the man 2. The author mentions Balzac's experience as a schoolboy in order to (A) explain why Balzac was unable to conduct his financial affairs properly (B) point out a possible source of Balzac's powerful imagination (C) exonerate the boarding school for Balzac's lackluster performance (D) foster the impression that Balzac was an unruly student (E) depict the conditions of boarding school life during Balzac's youth
2 I Her name is Jane） （ heard my mother saying to Waverly:” True, one can't teach style. Jane is not sophisticated like you. She must have been born this way."
I was surprised at myself, how humiliated I felt. I had been outsmarted by Waverly once again, and now betrayed by my own mother. 1. In the context of the passage, the statement "I was surprised at myself' (line 10) suggests that Jane (A) had been unaware of the extent of her emotional vulnerability (B) was exasperated that she allowed Waverly to embarrass her in public (C) was amazed that she could dislike anyone so much (D) had not realized that her mother admired her friend Waverly (E) felt guilty about how much she resented her own mother 2．Jane's observation in lines 10-11 ("I had .... again") suggests that (A) Jane had expected Waverly to insult her (B) Jane had hoped to embarrass Waverly this time (C) Waverly had a private understanding with Jane's mother (D) Waverly had made Jane feel inadequate on previous occasions (E) Waverly was a more talented writer than June was
ID：EXCEPT、LEAST 题型：小列举并列（单词、短语、短句），全文列举（最后做） 方法：先看选项、再看提干中的关键字、定位原文、找答案。 正确选项的特点：增加原文没有的内容，使得意思发生明显改变。 移花接木细节内容，即其他部分的细节放到该部分中。 According to the passage, all of the following are true of the West African rules governing marriage mentioned in lines 25-28 EXCEPT A. the rules were derived from rules governing fictive kinship arrangement B. the rules forbade marriages between close kin C. the rules are mentioned in Herbert Gutman’s study D. the rules were not uniform in all respects from one West African tribe to another E. The rules have been considered to be a possible source of slaves’ marriage preferences This preference for exogamy, Gutman suggests, may have derived from West African rules governing marriage, which, though they differed from one tribal group to another, all involved some kind of prohibition against unions with close kin. All of the following aspects of Afro-American poetry are referred to in the passage as having been influenced by Wesleyan hymnals EXCEPT A. subject matter B. word choice C. rhythm
D. structure E. tone The appropriateness of such an approach may seem self-evident for a tradition commencing with spirituals and owing its early forms, rhythms, vocabulary, and evangelical fervor to Wesleyan hymnals. 【练习】 15 Being a scientist myself, I know that time travel is quite unlikely according to the laws of physics. For one thing, there would be a causality violation. If you could travel backward in time, you could alter a chain of events 20 with the knowledge of how they would have turned out. Cause would no longer always precede effect. For exam-ple, you could prevent your parents from ever meeting. Contemplating the consequences of that will give you a headache, and science fiction writers for decades have 25 delighted in the paradoxes that can arise from traveling through time. Physicists are, of course, horrified at the thought of causality violation. Differential equations for the way things should behave under a given set of forces and 30 initial conditions would no longer be valid, since what happens in one instant would not necessarily determine what happens in the next. Physicists do rely on a deterministic universe in which to operate, and time travel would almost certainly put them and most other 35 scientists permanently out of work. Q： discussing causality violations (lines16-35), the author addresses concerns about all In of he following EXCEPT (A) anticipatory knowledge of events (B) the belief in a deterministic universe (C) the mechanics of space travel (D) cause-and-effect relationships (E) differential equations based on known forces
常见的写作手法：parallel, analogy, contrast, metaphor, figurative, quotation, personification; anecdote, example, summary, hypothesis, exaggeration 题型：用了什么写作手法； 这些写作手法有什么作用：比喻排比引用的作用；比喻的喻体是什么；类比的点； 【练习】OG 391第7题
ID: The words/sentences/paragraph in line X serves mainly to _________ ? Solution:
① 词语作用→特征描述 Questions 13-24 are based on the following passage. This passage is adapted from a 1996 book on sleep research.
To conduct some forms of sleep research, we have to find a way to track sleepiness over the day. Some people might believe that measuring sleepiness is a fairly trivial task. Couldn't you, for instance, simply count the number of times a person yawns during any given hour or so? In most people's minds, yawning--that slow, exaggerated mouth opening with the long, deep inhalation of air, followed by a briefer exhalation--is the most obvious sign of sleepiness. It is a common behavior shared by many animals, including our pet dogs and cats but also crocodiles, snakes, birds, and even some fish. It is certainly true that sleepy people tend to yawn more than wide-awake people. It is also true that people who say they are bored by what is happening at the moment will tend to yawn more frequently. However, whether yawning is a sign that you are getting ready for sleep or that you are successfully fighting off sleep is not known. Simply stretching your body, as you might do if you have been sitting in the same position for a long period of time, will often trigger a yawn. Unfortunately, yawns don't just indicate sleepiness. In some animals, yawning is a sign of stress. When a dog trainer sees a dog yawning in a dog obedience class, it is usually a sign that the animal is under a good deal of pressure. Perhaps the handler is pushing too hard or moving too fast for the dog to feel in control of the situation. A moment or two of play and then turning to another activity is usually enough to banish yawning for quite a while. Yawning can also be a sign of stress in humans. Once, when observing airborne troops about to take their first parachute jump, I noticed that several of the soldiers were sitting in the plane and yawning. It was 10 A.M., just after a coffee break, and I doubted that they were tired; I knew for a fact that they were far too nervous to be bored. When I asked about this, the officer in charge laughed and said it was really quite a common behavior, especially on the first jump. There is also a social aspect to yawning. Psychologists have placed actors in crowded rooms and auditoriums and had them deliberately yawn. Within moments, there is usually an increase in yawning by everyone else in the room. Similarly, people who watch films or videos of others yawning are more likely to yawn. Even just reading about yawning tends to stimulate people to yawn. The truth of the matter is that we really don't know what purpose yawning serves. Scientists originally thought that the purpose of yawning was to increase the amount of oxygen in the blood or to release some accumulated carbon dioxide. We now know that this is not true, since increasing
the concentration of carbon dioxide in the air seems not to make people more likely to yawn but to make them breathe faster to try to bring in more oxygen. On the other hand, breathing 100 percent pure oxygen does not seem to reduce the likelihood of yawning. 55 Since yawning seems to be associated with a lot more than the need for sleep, we obviously have to find some other measure of sleepiness. Some researchers have simply tried to ask people how sleepy they feel at any time using some sort of self-rating scale. There are, however, 60 problems with getting people to make these types of judgments. Sometimes people simply lie to the researchers when asked about how sleepy they are. This occurs because in many areas of society admitting that one is fatigued and sleepy is considered a mark of weakness or lack of 65 ambition and drive. In other instances, people may admit they need four cups of coffee to make it through the morning, but it may never occur to them that this might be due to the fact that they are so sleepy that they need stimulation from caffeine to be able to do their required 70 tasks. For these reasons, many researchers have developed an alternate method to determine how sleepy a person is. It is based upon a simple definition of sleep need: The greater your sleep need, or the sleepier you are, the faster you will fall asleep if given the opportunity to do so. 16. The author mentions the "coffee break" (line 33) to emphasize that a (A) brief respite was sorely needed (B) given attitude was inappropriate (C) specific response was understandable (D) particular action was unnecessary (E) certain behavior was unexpected
②句子作用 陈述句 → 顺接解释；逆接反对；转移过渡 一般问句 →引起关注或思考 疑问句 反意问句 →强调观点或态度 文章示例： Questions 6-7 are based on the following passage.
Properly speaking, a movement is a continuous, collective effort to bring about fundamental social reform. It is a collaborative rather than an individualistic enterprise. No matter how many factions are involved, there is always a common objective~ The Black freedom struggle of the 1960's was such an effort. Its objective was to transform the manner in which Black Americans in the United States were viewed and treated~ And Black writers and artists, as a vital sector of the movement, sought to transform the manner in which Black Americans were represented or portrayed in literature and the arts. 6. The first sentence of the passage ("Properly speaking ~.. reform") primarily serves to (A) present a controversial opinion (B) question the effectiveness of a process
(C) provide an example of an abstract idea (D) define the meaning of a term (E) offer a solution to a problem Questions 10-15 are based on the following passage. This passage was adapted from a 1995 book about astronomy. Apart from the Moon and occasional comets and asteroids, Venus is often our nearest neighbor. Its orbit brings it closer to Earth than any other planet--only Line 26 million miles away at certain times. Despite that s proximity, for a long time it was generally termed "the planet of mystery." This is because the atmosphere of Venus is so dense and so cloud-laden that its surface is permanently hidden from sight. The first attempt to learn more about Venus was to lO analyze its upper atmosphere using spectroscopic methods. In size and mass, Venus is almost the equal of Earth, and its gravitational field is only slightly weaker than ours, so that logically it might be expected to have the same kind of atmosphere--but this is emphatically not so. Scientists 15 found that the main constituent of its atmosphere is carbon dioxide. Since this is a heavy gas that would be expected to sink, it was reasonable to assume that carbon dioxide made up most of the atmosphere down to ground level. Carbon dioxide acts in the manner of a greenhouse, trapping 20 the Sun's heat, so it followed that Venus was likely to be a very torrid sort of world. Yet opinions differed. According to one theory, the clouds contained a great deal of water. It was even claimed that the surface might be largely ocean covered, in which 25 case the atmospheric carbon dioxide would have fouled the water and produced seas of soda water. Another intriguing theory made Venus very similar to the Earth of over 200 million years ago. There would be marshes, luxuriant vegetation of the fern and horsetail variety, and primitive 30 life-forms such as giant dragonflies. If so, then Venus might presumably evolve the same way Earth has done. In 1962 the American probe Mariner 2 bypassed Venus at less than 22,000 miles and gave us our first reliable information. The surface proved to be very hot 35 indeed; we now know that the maximum temperature is almost 500~C. The atmosphere really is almost pure carbon dioxide, and those shining clouds are rich in sulfuric acid. All ideas 0f a pleasant, oceanic Venus had to be abandoned. In 1975 Venera 9, a Russian automatic lander, visited Venus 40 and sent back pictures direct from the surface. The scene-a rocky, scorched landscape--could hardly be more hostile. Subsequent probes have confirmed this impression. Why is Venus so unlike Earth? The answer can only lie in its lesser dis~nce from the Sun. It seems that in the early 45 days of the solar system the Sun was less luminous than it is now, in which case Venus and Earth may have started to evolve along the same lines, but when the Sun became more powerful the whole situation changed. Earth, at 93 million miles, was just out of harm's way, but Venus, 50 at 67 million, was not. The water in oceans vaporized, the carbonates were driven out of the rocks, and in a relatively short time on the cosmic scale, Venus was transformed from a potentially life-bearing world into the inferno of today.
11. The statement in lines 11-14 ("In size.., so") functions primarily to (A) dismiss a plausible supposition (B) mock an outrageous claim (C) bolster an accepted opinion (D) summarize a particular experiment (E) undermine a controversial hypothesis
ID: P1 is similar/ analogous/ parallel /akin to P2 in that_______________ Which of the following statement is shared by P1 & P2? Both passages__________ X in P1 is most like ________ in P2? What do P1& P2 have in common?
ID: P1 differs from P2 in that________________ Unlike P1, P2_________________________ The contrast/difference between P1& P2 is that _____ X in P1& P2 respectively ________________ Compared to P1, P2____________________ _____________________is in P1, but not in P2?
ID: ① Which best describes the relationship between the two passages? ② ____ in one passage would most likely + VERB +___ in another passage? TYPES OF VERBS: ↑support/ exemplify/agree with/espouse/strengthen ↓weaken/undermine/discredit/criticize/damage ？respond to/react to/ claim/assert/argue/ contend /suggest/consider/ interpret /view/regard
解题方法 取同和取非： 读双篇对比阅读， 读完之后一定要总结一下， 两篇文章是针对什么
共同的话题发表了什么相同或者不同的看法。 交叉题：P1 对P2 的某个句子或短语，扣P1 的中心；反之，扣P2 的中心。
正确选项是定位句的改写（两大原则）： 1、 词性的变换（动词变名词、形容词变副词等） 2、 关键词可能不变（重要的名词） 3、 语序的变换（因果、转折倒置；主动、被动变换） 错误选项的特点： 1、 与原文主旨及分论点不一致 2、 增加原文没有的新内容 3、 定位点的主要内容有缺失或者错误，比如偷梁换柱现象。 4、 程度和范围的改变 5、 细节题中出现非本定位段落中的（即其他段落中的）细节。 6、 定位段落的细枝末节（小列举结构） 7、 极端词汇的出现
①Positive attitude: 喜：delight, please, excite, exhilarate, cheerful, ebullient, enthusiasm, 赞：appreciate, admire, celebrate, espouse, champion, commend, endorse 同情: sympathetic, compassion, 诙谐：humorous, witty, amusing, jocular 客观：detached, objective, impartial, analytical, 其他：enlightening, cautious, reflective, nostalgic ②Negative attitude: 嘲： deride, derision , jeer, mock, scorn, sarcasm, irony, satire, scoff, ridiculous, ludicrous, comical, facetious, 悲：sorrow, wrench, bitterness, grief, distress 惊：amaze, astonish, astound, surprise, 忧：anxiety, insecurity, apprehensive, somber, gloomy, depressing, dreary, melancholy, glum, sullen, wistful, distress, uneasy, upset, sentimental, annoying, 疑：distrust, doubt/dubious/doubtful, skeptical, incredulous, suspicious, disbelief, 斥：criticize, condemn, reject, disapprove, reprove, admonish, deny, denounce, repudiate, refute, 贬：disparage, disdain, disrespect, contempt, devalue, defy/defiance, depreciate, despise, 窘：embarrass, abash, humiliate, mortify
沮：frustrated, disappointed, dismay, 惧：fear, alarm, trepid, panic 恩赐：condescending, patronizing， 惑：puzzle, baffle, confuse, perplex, dumbfounded 妒：cynicism, begrudge, 傲：arrogant, insolent, haughty, impertinent, 怪：whimsical, capricious, 贪：greedy, avaricious, grasping, 冷：indifferent, lukewarm, unsympathetic, nonchalant, apathetic, callousness 怒：rage, outrage, wrath, exasperation, irritation, indignation, resentment, vexation, irate, 其他：indulgent, paranoia, hostile, resigned, begrudging, mischievous, moralistic, attack ③Complex attitude: 矛盾：bittersweet, ambivalent 其他：intrigued, curiosity, apologetic, awesome
过正评价词汇：superior 过负评价词汇：shocked, apologetic, condescending, lighthearted, jocular,facetious, derision, ridicule, scornful, ironic, cynical, offensive, envious, indignation, angry, defiance, condemn, dogmatic, deprecating, stilted, hostility, argumentative, contentious, pedantic, insincere, incredulity 模糊矛盾不关心：conciliatory, tender, ambivalence, neutrality, uncertainty, ambiguous, resigned, indifference，speculative（哲学式的思辨） 修饰态度词的：sharp, unmitigated, unquestioning, complete, unqualified, categorical, strong 极端词汇：primary, equally, exactly, most, least, only, extremely, totally, absolutely, unrestrained, unmitigated, unchecked
讲义→真题→OG→巴郎 3500→其他 SAT is a prison, and only vocabulary can open its doors.
?做全套模拟（至少 12 套）并分析
真 12→OG10→OC6→普 11 Practice may not make perfect, but it definitely makes progress!