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过去分词作宾语补足语


过去分词作宾语补足语
概念引入 上个单元我们学习了过去分词作表语和定语的用法。现在我们继续学习过去分词作宾 语补足语。看这些句子: 1. Now when people refer to England you find Wales included as well. 2. Finally the English government tried in the earl

y twentieth century to form the United Kingdom by getting Ireland connected in the same peaceful government. 3. You find most of the population settled in the south. 4. They found the window broken. 5. ..., so Pingyu had a photo taken standing on either side of the line. 这些句子中的黑体部分都是过去分词作宾语补足语。
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用法讲解 宾语补足语是同学们学习英语的一个小难点,许多同学都弄不清到底什么是宾语补足 语,它的作用是什么,所以我们今天就从宾语补足语讲起,重点讲解过去分词作宾语补足 语的内容。 什么是宾语补足语 英语中一些动词除需要一个宾语外,还需有宾语补足语句子意义才完整,这样就构成 了英语的六种基本句型(见【补充】 )中的“主语+谓语+宾语+宾语补足语”句型。宾语与宾 语补足语之间在逻辑上是主谓关系。可作补足语的结构有名词、形容词、副词、介词短 语、动词-ing 形式、过去分词、不定式等。宾语和其宾语补足语也被称为复合结 构。 1. 作补足语的词语: 1)We consider him (to be) a good teacher. 我们认为他是一个好老师。 (名词短语作宾语补足语,相当于省略了 to be) 2)I find learning English difficult. 我发现学英语很难。 (形容词作宾语补足语) 3)I saw the kite up and down. 我看见风筝飞上飞下。 (副词作宾语补足语) 4)When he woke up, he found himself in a strange place. 他醒来时发现自己在一个陌生的地方。 (介词短语作宾语补足语) 5)Tom made the girl cry. 汤姆把女孩弄哭了。 (省略不定式符号 to 的动词不定式) 6)The father found his son playing in his room. 父亲发现儿子在房间里玩。 (动词-ing 形式做宾语补足语) 7)The soft music makes us relaxed. 这首柔美的音乐使我们放松了。 (过去分词作宾语补足语)

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【补充】英语的六种基本句型: 英语的最基本的句型有 6 种,其他的句子都是由这 6 种句型转换来的。 1)主语+谓语 Great changes have taken plac e in my hometown. 主语 谓语 2)主语+系动词+表语 The work seemed difficult to us. 主语 系动词 表语 3)主语+谓语+宾语 Farmers in our area grow lots of vegetables. 主语 谓语 宾语 4)主语+谓语+宾语+宾语 Our hotel serves you breakfast in your room. 主语 谓语 宾语 宾语 (间接) (直接) 5)主语+谓语+宾语+宾语补足语 They saw little Tom being punished by his parents. 主语 谓语 宾语 宾语补足语 6)There be 结构 There is a small village below the mountain. 谓语 主语 注意:没有划线的部分是定语或者状语,如“in my hometown”是地点状语,而 修饰名词“Farmers”后的“in our area”是定语。 2. 宾语补足语与宾语有逻辑上的主谓关系 1)They named the black dog Arrow. 他们命名这只黑狗“Arrow”。 (我们可以说“The little dog is Arrow.”,所以宾语 the little dog 和补足语 Arrow 是逻 辑上的主谓关系。 ) 2)I noticed a little girl drawing under the tree. 我注意到一个小女孩在树下画画。 (小女孩在画画,即宾语补足语的动作是女孩做的,宾语与补足语是逻辑上的主谓关 系,而且是主动的,用动词-ing 形式作宾语补足语) 3)We should keep him informed of what is going on here. 我们必须让他了解这里发生的事。 (他被告知某事,说明宾语 “ 他” 与补足语 “告知 ” 是被动的主谓关系,也称为“动宾关 系,即动词及其宾语的关系” ,用过去分词作宾语补足语) 3. 主语补足语

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含有宾语补足语的句子变成被动句时,原来的宾语补足语就变成了主语补足语。 He was found sleeping under the tree. 他被发现正在树下睡觉。 (补充说明主语,与主语之间有逻辑上的主谓关系,是主语补足语) 4. 介词的宾语补足语 有些介词的宾语 有时也需有补足语,构成介词宾语的复合结构。 We were all excited, with the bonfire burning late into the night. 篝火一直烧到深夜,我们都很兴奋。 (burning 作介词 with 的宾语 the bonfire 的补足语) 过去分词作宾语补足语的意义: 过去分词作宾语补足语,说明宾语的状态或性质,宾语是其逻辑主语,一般是过去分 词动作的承受者,即逻辑上的被动关系。 1)I saw his eyes fixed on me with curiosity. 我看见他的眼睛盯着我,充满了好奇。 解析: 过去分词 fixed 的用法是易错处。fix 译成“盯着”,一些同学会误认为“眼睛正盯着”为 什么用 fixed,而不用 fixing 呢?实际上,应该是“I fixed my eyes on...”,即“我让我的眼睛 盯着 ......”,所以变成被动时应该是 “My eyes are fixed on...”,所以用过去分词作宾语补足 语,表示被动。另外,这里过去分词不表示完成的动作,而表示状态。再如: The glass is broken. 此句中 broken 表示 摔碎的状态。还要注意不能用 being fixed,因为 being f ixed 表示瞬 间的动作,而没有表示出过程。 2)We want the work finished by Saturday. 我们想要工作周六前完成。 解析:想要工作被完成,用 finished。要分析宾语与补足语间的主被动关系。 3)She heard the front door shut. 她听见前门被关上了。 解析:shut 的三个形式(原形、过去式、过去分词)一样,此处 shut 是过去分词, 因为是人关上了门。 4)We found the house deserted. 我们发现这所房子被废弃了。 解析: desert 意为 “ 抛弃、遗弃 ” , Somebody deserts the house. 因此是 ...the house deserted. 5)I felt myself called upon to do something to help. 我感觉我被召唤着要做点事情来帮忙。 叫”。■ 从上述的例子来看,作宾语补足语的过去分词大多数来自及物动词,强调被动或完 成。但也有少数来自不及物动词,强调动作完成后的状态。 What are you going to do with everyone gone? 大家都走了,你怎么办?
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解析:我感觉我自己被别人或者一种神秘的力量感召着,来做事情。因此是 “ 被

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能接过去分词作宾语补足语的动词 1. 表示感觉或心理状态的动词,如: see, hear, feel, watch, notice ; think (认为) , consider, find 等 We saw the thief caught by the police. 我看见小偷被警察抓住了。 We thought the game lost. 我们认为球赛输了。 2. 表示“致使”或“保持某状态”意义的动词,如: make, get, have, keep, leave 等。 Don’t leave such an important thing undone. 不要让这么重要的事没有人做。 He had his hat blown away on his way home. 在回家的路上他的帽子被吹掉了。 3. 表示“希望、要求、命令”等动词,如:want, wish, like, expect, order 等 I want the house white-washed before we move in. 我想要房子在我搬进去之前粉刷 完。 He won’t like such questions discussed at the meeting. 他不喜欢在会上讨论这样的问题。 过去分词、现在分词和不定式作宾语补足语的区别: 1)过去分词作宾补:与宾语之间是被动关系,其动作通常先于谓语动词完成。 2)现在分词作宾补:与宾语之间是主动关系,其动作与谓语动词同时进行。 3)不定式作宾补:表示一个完成的动作或看到、听到或感觉到的具体动作的过程。 I saw him opening the window. 我看见他正在开窗。 (强调正在,且宾语做了开窗的动 作) I saw the window opened. 我看见窗户被打开了。 (完成,被动) I saw him open the window. 我看见他打开了窗户。 (看到宾语开窗的全过程) 注意: 1. 有 些 动 词 后 必 须 接 to do sth. 作 宾 语 补 足 语 : 如 order, advise, persuade, warn, encourage, get, cause 等。 I encouraged her to work hard and to try for the examinations. 我鼓励她用功并为这次考试做出努力。 2. 感官动词(如 see,notice,watch, discover 等)和使役动词(make, have, let 等)一 般接省略 to 的不定式作宾语补足语,但是变成被动语态时,需带 to。 The girl was made to practise the piano for three hours every day. 这个女孩每天要练三个小时钢琴。 重点句型: 1. have +宾语+过去分词——have sth. done 1)表示“要别人做某事”,此时可以用 get 代替 have。

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You’d better have that tooth filled. 你最好把那颗牙补补。 We must have this note sent to them right today. 我们今天就得派人把这个通知送交给他们。 2)表示“遭遇某种(不幸的)事情”,不能用 get 代替 have。 Last week we had all our windows broken by the naughty boys. 上周我们所有的窗户都被淘气的孩子们打碎了。 I had my hand burned in the fire. 我的手被火烧伤了。 3)完成某事(自己也可能参与) I have had all my spelling mistakes corrected. 我把所有的拼写错误都改正了。 拓展:

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1) have sb. do sth. 让某人做某事 I had Mary clean my bedroom yesterday. 昨天我让玛丽打扫了我的卧室。 2)have sb./ sth. doing 让某人一直做某事, (否定句中)容忍某人做某事 He had us laughing during the lunchtime. 在午饭期间,他让我们一直笑个不停。 I won’t have you talking to your parents like this. 我不许你对父母这样讲话。 2. get +宾语+过去分词——get sb. done 表示“要别人做某事” ,可以与 have 互换。 We have had \ got the TV repaired. 我们已经请人把电视机修好了。 Let’s get this work done, and then we can go out.我们先把这工作做完,就可以出去了。 拓展:get sb. to do sth. 使某人做某事。注意不省略 to。 I got him to agree to the plan.我使他同意了这个计划。 3. “with +宾语+过去分词”结构——with sth. done 过去分词用作介词 with 的宾语补足语, 注意宾语与补足语之间是被动关系。 With all the things she needed bought, she went home happily. 买完所有需要的东西,她高兴地回家了。 With the matter settled, we all went home. 事情得到解决,我们都回家了。 拓展: “with/ without +宾语+宾语补足语”结构 with/ without 后面除了接过去分词作宾语补足语外,也可以接现在分词、不定式、形 容词、介词短语等作宾语补足语。这一结构通常在句中作时间、条件、原因、伴随等状语 或定语。例如: 1)She came into the room,with her nose red because of cold.(伴随状语)

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她走了进来,鼻子冻得红红的。 2)With the meal over,we all went home.(时间状语) 聚餐结束了,我们都回了家。 3)The teacher was wa lking up and dow n with the ruler in his hand.(伴随状语) 老师走来走去,手里拿着尺子。 4)He could not finish the work without me to help him.(条件状语) 如果我不去帮他,他不会完成工作。 5)She fell asleep with the light burning.(伴随状语) 他睡着了,灯还亮着。 6)Without anything left in the cupboard,she went out to get something to eat.(原因状 语) 柜橱里什么也没有剩下,她出去弄点东西吃。 7)A little boy with two of his front teeth missing ran into the house. (定语) 一个少了两颗门牙的男孩儿跑进屋里。 注意: 在 with/without 的复合结构中,不定式、现在分词作宾补,表示主动,但不定式表示 将要发生的动作,而现在分词表示正在发生的动作;过去分词表示被动或完成。如上面句 子中第 4)句,to help 的动作还未发生;第 5)句,他睡觉时灯正亮着;而第 6)句 left 表 示被剩下,而且强调“剩下”的动作已经发生。

巩固练习
Ⅰ. 用动词的正确形式填空: 1. Have you got a map to show me? I’m ________ (puzzle). 2. Did he have his wallet _______ (steal) last Friday? 3. When I got to the supermarket, I found it _______ (close). 4. He found his wife _______ (cook) in the kitchen when he woke up at five. 5. He watched the bed ______ (carry) out of the room. 6. She doesn’t want her daughter _______ (take) out after dark. 7. When will y ou have your eyes _______ (examine)? 8. My mother got me ________ (check) all the homework I did last night. 9. With the boy ______ ( lead) the way,we will find the house easily tomorrow. 10. I can hear the windows _______ (beat) by the heavy rain. 11. Tom has been away from home for two years, leaving his room _______ (cover) with dust. 12. Why do you leave the baby ________ (cry) there? 13. I have to leave my house early ______ (catch) the early bus. 14. A cook will be immediat ely fired if he is found ______ (smoke) in the kitchen.

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15. The managers discussed the plan that they would like to see _______ (carry) out the next year.

Ⅱ. 根据汉语意思,在空格处填入恰当的词。 1. 我将随时向你报告有关我们实验的重要的进展。
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I’ll ___________________ about the breakthrough in our experiment. 2. 他醒来结果发现他的汽车被偷了。 He woke up only to ________________. 3. 在这个发达的国家里,你很少听到有人讲脏话。 You seldom hear rude words __________ in this ___________country. 4. 他提高嗓音以便使别人能够听见他说话。 He raised his voice so as to ____________________. 5. 他匆忙离开家,留下很多事没做。 He left home in a hurry, _________ _ many things _____________. 6. 回来时,他很惊讶地发现房间被彻底的打扫了,一切都布置得井井有条。 On his return, he was very ________to find his room thoroughly __________and everything ___________in good order. 7. 明天我将请人把门油漆一下。 I’ll _________________ tomorrow. 8. 你会发现到处都在议论这个话题。 You’ll _________________ everywhere.

9. 据说这本书是他在 40 多岁时写的。 The book is said ________________ in his forties. 10. 在放学回家途中,她非常恐惧的看到路边有一条被打死的蛇。 On his way home from school, she was _______ to see a snake _______to death by the road.

Ⅲ. 单项选择。 1. The murderer was brought in, with his hands ________ behind his back. A. being tied A. lying B. having tied C. lay C. to be tied D. laying D. tied 2. The next morning she found the man ________ in bed, dead. B. lie

3. John received an invitation to dinner, and with his work ______, he gladly accepted it. A. finished
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B. finishing

C. having finished

D. was finished

4. —Did Peter fix the computer himself? —He __________, because he doesn’t know much about computers. A. has it fixed B. had fixed it C. had it fixed D. fixed it

5. Jenny hopes that Mr. Smith will suggest a good way to have her written English _______ in a short period. A. improved B. improving C. to improve D. improve

6. Even the best writers someti mes found themselves ______ for words. A. lose B. lost C. to lose D. having lost

7. A good story does not necessarily have to have a happy ending, but the reader must not be left __________. A. unsatisfied B. unsatisfying C. to be unsatisfying D. being unsatisfied

8. Mrs. Brown was much disappointed to see the washing machine she had had ____ went wrong again. A. it B. it repaired C. repaired D. to be repaired

9. —Excuse me, sir, where is Room 301? —Just a minute . I’ll have Bob __________ you to your room. A. show B. shows C. to show D. showing
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10. When asked why he went there, he said he was sent there __________ for a space flight. A. training B. being trained C. to have trained D. to be trained

11. —Come on, please give me some ideas about the project. —Sorry. With so much work __________ my mind, I almost break down. A. filled B. filling C. to fill D. being filled

12. The glass doors have taken the place of the wooden ones at the entrance, __________ in the natural light during the day. A. to let B. letting C. let D. having let

13. My parents have always made me _______ about myself, even when I was twelve. A. feeling well B. feeling good C. feel well D. feel good

14. With a lot of difficult problems _____, the newly-elected president is having a hard time. A. settled B. settling C. to settle D. being settled

15. —Why did you go back to the shop? —I left my friend ________ there. A. waiting B. to wait C. wait D. waits

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16. At last, we found ourselves in a pleasant park with trees providing shade and ______ down to eat our picnic lunch. A.sitting B. having sat C. to sit D. sat

17. He is very popular among his students as he always tries to make them __________ in his lectures. A. interested B. interesting C. interest D. to interest

18. Helen had to shout ________ above the sound of music. A. making herself hear C. making herself heard B. to make herself hear D. to make herself heard
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19. After watching those young boys’ thrilling performances of bicycle s, I found myself _______.
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A. astonishing

B. astonished

C. to be astonished D. having astonished

20. He looked around and caught a man ________ his hand into the pocket of a passenger. A. put B. to be putting C. to put D. putting

21. The result of the entrance exams was not made ______ to the public until last Thursday. A. knowing B. known C. to know D. to be known

22. You must get the work ______ before Friday. A. do B. to do C. doing D. done

23. They woke up _______ everything around ________. A. to find; changed B. to find; changing C. found; changed D. finding; changing

24. If you think hard, you won’t have the puzzle ________ you. A. puzzle B. puzzles C. puzzled D. to puzzle

25. The mother told her little son not to leave his stomach _______, saying that it might cause him a stomachache. A. expose B. exposed C. being exposed D. exposing

答案与解析: Ⅰ. 用动词的正确形式填空: 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6.
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puzzled。表示内心感觉,用过去分词作表语。 stolen。have sth. done 遭受某事。 closed。门是被关上的,用过去分词。 cooking。妻子做饭,主动且正在进行,用-ing 形式。 carried taken

7. 8. 9.

examined to check。get sb. to do sth. 使某人做某事。 to lead

10. beaten 11. covered 。 leave 表示“使 ...... 处于某种状态而不理” ,灰尘落满了房间, the room 和 cover 是被动的,所以用 covered。 12. crying。 “女孩哭” ,宾语与宾语补足语是主动关系,所以用 crying。 13. to catch。表示目的用不定式。 14. smoking。此句是 find sb. doing 的被动形式。 15. carried。注意宾语补足语 carried out 的宾语是定语从句修饰的 plan。句意:经理们讨论 了他们希望下一年将执行的计划。 Ⅱ. 根据汉语意思,在空格处填入恰当的词。 1. keep you informed 4. make himself heard arranged 7. get/have my door painted 10. scared/ frightened, beaten 8. find the topic being discussed 9. to have been written 2. find his car stolen 5. leaving, undone
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3. spoken, developed 6. surprised, cleaned,

Ⅲ. 单项选择。 1. D。考查非谓语动词在 with 复合结构中的使用。宾语“his hands”与动词 tie(绑)是被 动关系,用过去分词作宾语补足语表示状态。注意不能用 being tied,现在分词表示 正在进行的动作,此句中如果用 being tied,就表示谋杀犯在走着的时候,一个人正 在绑他的手,这种可能性几乎没有。 2. A。这个人正躺着,是主动关系,所以用 lie(躺着)的现在分词 lying。lay 是 lie(躺 着)的过去式,也是及物动词 lay(放置)的原形,都是谓语形式;laying 是 lay(放 置)的现在分词形式。
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3. A。因“工作”与“完成”之间为被动关系,故 finish 要用过去分词作宾语补足语。 4. C 。根据对话的最后一句话可知“他对电脑了解不多” ,所以他需要请人修理,故用 “have sth. done” ,再根据问句的时态,选 C。 5. A。指英语水平得到提高,故要用过去分词表示被动意义,选 A。 6. B。be lost for words 说不出话来,因为作 found 的宾语补足语,去掉 be,用法相 当于形 容词。 7. A。but 后是被动句,所以空中要填的是主语补足语,即要看主语与 unsatisfy 的关系;表 示人的内心感觉,应用 unsatisfied,意为“ (人)感到不满意” 。 leave sb. unsatisfied
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使某人处于不满意的状态而置之不理。 8. C。have sth done 表示“让别人做某事” 。注意 she had had 是定语从句,被修饰的先行词 the washing machi ne 是 have 的宾语,而要填的词是其补足语,所以不能用 B,否则 it 与先行词 the washing machine 重复。不是定语从句时的正常语序是“ had had the washing machine repaired” 。 9. A。 “have sb d o sth”意思是“叫某人做某事” 。句意:我让 Bob 带你去房间。 10. D。由于“他”与“训练”之间为被动关系,故可排除 A 和 C。另外,由于被训练进行 航空飞行是他被派 往那儿的目的,所以宜用不定式,故选 D。 11. B。考查“with+宾语+非谓语动词”结构。宾语 so much work 与补足语 fill(充满)是 主动关系,要注意 fill 后有宾语,是“主谓宾”结构,所以是主动关系,选 B。 12. B。let in (使进入) ,此处用 let 的现在分词表示结果,与其逻辑主语 the glass doors 是 主动关系。 又如:It rained heavily, causing severe flooding in that place. 大雨滂沱, 造成了那个地方洪水泛滥。 13. D。根据情况,使役动词 make 后可接动词原形(不带 to 的不定式)或过去分词作宾语补 足语,但不能接现在分词,故可排除选项 A 和 B; feel 作为连系动词,其后要接形 容词作表语。 14. C。With a lot of difficult problems to settle 表示“现在或将来有很多难题需要解决” ;虽 然 with 的宾语 problems 与 settle 是被动关系,但是句子的主语 the president 是 settle 动作的执行者,所以可以不用被动形式。 15. A。leave sb. waiting 表示“使??正在等” ,waiting 作宾补。 16. D。注意连词 and 在这里连接了两个谓语动词 found 和 sat,表示并列的两个动作。句 意:最后我们发现我们来到了一个令人愉悦的、浓荫覆盖的公园,就坐下来开始野 餐。 17. A。及物动词 interest 意思是“使(某人)感兴趣” ,与“them”之间是动宾关系(被动 关系) ,用过去分词 interested 作宾语补足语,interested in 意为“对??感兴趣” 。 18. D。考查 make oneself heard 表示“使自己被听到” ;喊的目的是被别人听见,make 用不 定式形式作目的状语。 19. B。astonish。astonish 使(某人)惊讶,与宾语 myself 是被动关系,用过去分词表示内 心的感觉。句意:看了那些年轻人的惊心动魄的自行车表演,我大为惊讶。 20. D。caught 的宾语“a man”与“put”之间是主动关系,而且与 caught 同时发生,所以 用现在分词作宾语补足语,表示“抓住某人正在放” 。 21. B。句子是被动句,要填的词是主语的补足语,使“结果”被“知道” ,所以用过去分

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词作主语补足语。主动语序是:... made the result... known...。句意:入学考试的结 果直到上周四才向公众公布。 22. D。get sth. done 使某事被做。 23. A。第一空用 find 的不定式表示出乎意料地结果;第二空用过去分词表示完成,change 此处是不及物动词,不表示被动。 24. A。puzzle 作名词时,意为“难题” ,作动词时意为“使(某人)迷惑” 。have sb./ sth. do 让某人做某事。have 后用省略 to 的不定式作宾语补足语,表示宾语做的主动的动 作。 25. B。stomach(胃,腹部)是被曝露出来的,所以用过去分词作宾语补足语表示被“露 出”的状态。不能用 being exposed,因 为不需强调 expose 的动作正在进行。

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