Unit 1 Great scientists
1. Which scientist discovered that objects in water are lifted up by a force that helps them float?
Archimedes 2. Who wrote a book explaining ho
w animals and plants developed as the environment changed? Charles Darwin
3. Who invented the first steam engine? Thomas Newcomen 4. Who used peas to show how physical characteristics are passed from parents to their children?
5. Who discovered radium? Marie Curie 6. Who invented the way of giving electricity to everybody in large cities? Thomas Edison 7. Who was the painter that studied dead bodies to improve his painting of people? Leonardo da Vinci
8. Who invented a lamp to keep miners safe underground?
Sir Humphry Davy
9. Who invented the earliest instrument to tell people where earthquakes happened? Zhang Heng 10. Who put forward a theory about black holes? Stephen Hawking
Go through Para 1 and answer the following questions.
1. Who was John Snow?
He was a famous doctor in London and he attended Queen Victoria as her personal physician.
2. What is cholera? A. a doctor B. a patient
C. a disease
D. a battle
Cholera is the illness caused by a bacterium called Vibria cholerae. It infects people’s intestines(肠), causing diarrhea(腹泻), vomiting(呕吐) and leg cramps(小腿抽筋). The victims die very quickly from a loss of liquid after severe vomiting (呕吐) and diarrhea (腹泻).
Choose the best answer.
1. Why was cholera called “King Cholera” in the text? A. Because cholera caused many deaths.
B. Because it got its name from Queen Victoria.
C. Because cholera was the most deadly disease of its day.
D. Because it was defeated with the help of the king.
2. John Snow became inspired when __________.
A. he became a well-known doctor in London
B. he attended Queen Victoria to ease the birth of her babies C. he thought about helping ordinary people exposed to cholera
D. he found the cause of cholera and defeated “King Cholera”
3. John Snow finally proved the theory he believed by ________. A. gathering information with the help of a map
B. looking into the source of the water for Broad Street and Cambridge Street C. separating those who suffered cholera from those who didn’t
D. both A and B
4. Which of the following is TRUE according to the text? A. John Snow became famous after cholera hit England in the 19th century.
B. John Snow began to collect information before cholera hit England in the 19th century.
C. The mother and her daughter mentioned in the text both lived in Broad Street. D. John Snow felt unsure about the cause of cholera after he finished the map.
5. The following measures should be taken to prevent cholera from happening again except __________. A. always drinking beer
B. instructing the water companies not to expose people to polluted water any more C. examining all water supplies D. finding new methods of dealing with polluted water
If you want to prove a new idea in scientific research, usually the following 7 stages are needed. Read the passage carefully, fill in the blanks and try to learn how John Snow proved his idea.
A large number of people died of Find a cholera, but neither its __________ cause Stage 1 problem cure nor its __________ was understood. What causes cholera? Theory 1: Cholera multiplied in the air ___________________________. Theory 2: People absorbed Cholera Make a into their bodies with Stage 2 question __________________. their meals (John Snow suspected that the ____________ theory was correct second but he needed evidence.)
Think John Snow gathered information when a cholera outbreak hit London in Stage 3 of a method __________. 1854
map He marked on a __________ where the dead people had lived and found that many of the deaths were ___________________________ in near the water pump Collect Broad Street. He also discovered some Stage 4 results houses had had no deaths and these people had not ___________________ drunk the water from the pump ___________________. → It seemed that ______________ was the water to blame.
Then he looked into the source of the water and __________ Analyse the found that it came from Stage 5 results the river polluted by the __________________________ _________________________. dirty water from London In another part of London, a Find woman and her daughter died of Stage 6 supporting cholera after _______________ drinking the evidence water ________. Polluted water Draw a ____________________ carried Stage 7 conclusion the virus.
Read the last Para and answer the following question.
In order to prevent cholera from happening again, what did John Snow suggest?
John Snow suggested that the source of all the water supplies be examined.
The water companies were instructed not to expose people to polluted water anymore.
Finish EX 1 on P3.
____ 2 John Snow began to test two theories.
1 An outbreak of cholera hit London in 1854. ____ 4 John Snow marked the deaths on a map. ____
____ 7 He announced that the water carried the disease.
3 John Snow investigated two streets where the outbreak ____
was very severe.
8 King Cholera was defeated. ____
____ 5 He found that most of the deaths were near a water pump. ____ 6 He had the handle removed from the water pump.
Sum up the main idea of the whole passage.
The passage mainly tells us John Snow gathered information and proved polluted water caused cholera. He suggested that people should not be exposed to polluted water and finally “King Cholera” was defeated.
What should we pay attention to in our daily life to prevent ourselves from getting infected with infectious diseases? 1. Eat cooked food. / Avoid eating raw food, especially seafood. 2. Boil water thoroughly(完全) before drinking. 3. Wash hands with soap and water before preparing food and eating.
八大行星： 水星 木星 金星 土星 地球 天王星 火星 海王星
Venus Saturn Earth Jupiter Mercury Uranus
Who was Copernicus? (Note 11 on Page 78) Nicolaus Copernicus 尼古拉· 哥白尼（1473— 1543）， 伟大的波兰天文学家，日心说的创立者， 近代天文学的奠基人。 哥白尼以毕生的精力写成《天体运行论》一书， 以日心说解释所观测到的天体运动，体现了宇宙 是简单的、和谐的哲学思想，从而建立起新的宇 宙体系。
1. What was Copernicus’ revolutionary theory? The sun the centre of the solar system. ◆ _________is ◆ The planets go round the sun, including the earth. ◆The ___________ moon goes round the earth. ◆The ___________ earth is spinning as it goes round the sun.
2. What was the old theory and what was the problem?
Old theory: ___________ The earth was the centre of the solar system. Problem: With this theory, some planets in the stop, move backward sky seemed to ___________________________ and then go forward in a loop _______________________________________.
3. Why did Copernicus only publish his revolutionary theory as he lay dying in 1543?
(He showed it privately to his friends in 1514.) Because he did not want to be attacked by the Christian Church.
4. What do people think of his theory now? Copernicus’ theory is now the basis on which all our ideas of the universe are built.