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2016高考英语语法填空微技能专项学案


高考英语语法填空微技能专项学习第一课时学案
2015-11-18 语法填空是通过语篇在语境中考查学生对语法和词汇的运用能力, 语法填 空分两种形式:纯空格填空题和提示性填空题。这里先讲第一种情况:纯空格 填空题。 做此类题时, 首先, 分析句子结构, 确定填哪类词, 然后根据句子的意思, 确定具体填什么词,具体分析方法有: 一、限定词 若名词前是空格,且没有限定词,很可

能是填冠词、形容词性物主代词或 some、any、other、another 等限定词;有的名词前有限定词,比如:序数词, 形容词的最高级等,其前用定冠词。 例 1: 【2015 课标 II】 The adobe dwellings built by the Pueblo Indians of the American Southwest are admired by even ______ most modern of architects and engineers. 例 2: 【2015 广东】He owned ______ farm, which looked almost abandoned. 例 3: 【2010 广东】 After the student left, the teacher let ______ student taste the water.

二、代词 如果句子中缺少主语或宾语, 一定是填写代词。 代词可以代替人和事物的 名称。如果上文出现过某人或某事物,下文中再次提起时,可以不重复,用代 词代替人和事物的名称。 例 1: 【2014 广东】 Last year, my brother and I went to Miami for a vacation. Some of my friends who had been there before said ______ was a wonderful holiday destination. 例 2: 【2010 广东】He asked his teacher, “Sir, the water was awful. Why did you pretend to like ______?” 三、介词

如果名词或代词前是空格,而该名词或代词在句中不作主语、表语、或动 词的宾语,很可能是填介词。 例 1: 【2015 课标 I】 For those who fly to Guilin, it’s only an hour away ______ car and offers all the scenery of the better-known city. 例 2: 【2015 课标 II】 When a new day breaks, the walls have given up their heat and are now cold enough to cool the house during the hot day; ______ the same time, they warm up again for the night. 四、并列连词 若两个或几个单词、短语或句子之间没有连词,并且是并列的关系,可能 填写并列连词。 例 1: 【2014 课标 II】 There were many people waiting at the bus stop, ______ some of them looked very anxious and disappointed. 例 2: 【2014 课标 I】 But the river wasn’t changed in a few days ______ even a few months. 五、状语从句的连词 如果两个句子出现 (一套主谓关系算一个句子) , 其中一个句子前有空格, 就要考虑两个句子之间的关系。如果两个句子之间没有分号,也没有句号,很 可能前面带空格的句子就是一个从句。 根据句意判断其是什么样的从句, 从而 选择合适的从属连词。 例 1: 【2012 广东】 ______he thought he could escape attention by sitting at the back, he was wrong. 例 2: 【2011 广东】 My friends walked me to the bus stop and waited with me ______ the bus arrived. 六、名词性从句的连词 名词性从句的功能相当于名词词组, 它在复合句中能作主语、 宾语、 表语、 同位语等,名词性从句无论作什么成分,其前必须有连接词,连接词 that 有时 候可以省略。 例 1: 【2015 课标 II】As natural architects, the Pueblo Indians figured out exactly ______ thick the adobe walls needed to be to make the cycle work on most days.

例 2: 【2014 广东】 I didn’t understand ______ this would happen and my credit card had already been charged for the reservation. 七、定语从句的关系词 定语从句不同于单词作定语的情况,它需要放在被修饰的词(即先行词) 之后。因此当所填空前有一个名词时,且空指代的是名词,那么名词后的从句 前应该填写关系词。 例: 【2015 课标 I】 I’d skipped nearby Guilin, a dream place for tourists seeking the limestone mountain tops and dark waters of the Li River ______ are pictured by artists in so many Chinese paintings. 八、疑问代词、疑问副词等 判断句子是否用特殊疑问词时, 根据语境来确定, 并考虑用什么样的疑问 词。 例: 【2013 广东】 His son looked surprised, “I can understand why I shouldn’t pay too much, Father, but if I can pay less, not save a bit of money?” 九、it 的用法 It 可以作形式主语、形式宾语;虚义 it。 例: 【2009 广东】 She remembered how difficult was to choose a suitable Christmas present for her father. 十、强调结构、倒装句的功能词等 注意考查强调结构中的 that、 who 的一些固定结构, 倒装结构的功能词等。 若句子结构完整, 空格后的动词是原形, 很可能是填写情态动词或表示强调或 倒装的助动词。
例:

【2014 课标 II】 Then the driver stood up and asked, “ anyone lose a suitcase at the last stop? ” 总之,以上讲解了语法填空题的部分微技能,例题都来自于高考真题,具 有代表性。无论试题如何变化,万变不离其宗,只要牢固掌握英语的语法和词 汇知识,就一定能做好语法填空题中的纯空格填空题。 书面表达 高考英语书面面表达半开放提问求助信 Lora 是一名高中生,她想在暑假期间做兼职, 但是她的父母不同意,给编辑 写了封信,内容如下 Dear Anna:

I’m a senior high school student and I want to work part-time this summer. I think it is good to do so. But my parents don't agree with me. They think I should concentrate my energy on independent study. They also worry about my personal safety. I just can't understand them. I need your advice. Lora 请你以报社编辑的身份给 Lora 写一封回信,提出建议,让她说服她的父 母并实现自己的愿望。 以下是回信的主要内容,根据所给提示,翻译下列勺子。 1.挣些钱供养自己,培养独立意识。 (a sense of independence) 2.你能获得工作技能,提高能力,应付各种挑战。 3.兼职工作可给你提供与他人合作的机会。 4.告诉父母你能设法处理好一切事情。 (properly)

1. Make some money to support yourself and develop a sense of independence. 2. You can learn working skills, improve your ability and deal with various challenges. 3. Part-time jobs provide you with a chance to cooperate with others. 4. Tell your parents that you can manage everything properly.

高考英语语法填空微技能专项学习第二课时学案
2015-11-18 ——真题分析:信息提示题真题分析

在做语法填空题时, 除了知道纯空格填空的解题技巧外, 也必须知道如何 做空格中有提示信息的填空题。以下是如何做此类题的具体方法: 一、名词 名词用单数还是复数, 应该看一下名词前面的修饰语, 或动词的单复数形 式。 例 1: 【2015 课标 I】 I’d skipped nearby Guilin, a dream place for tourists seeking the limestone mountain tops and dark waters of the Li River that are pictured by artists in so many Chinese ______ (painting). 例 2: 【2014 课标 I】While there are amazing stories of instant transformation, for most of us the ______ (change) are gradual and require a lot of effort and work, like cleaning up a polluted river. 二、形容词和副词的比较级和最高级 遇到空中有形容词或副词时, 要根据语境确定该词是否有比较的含义, 尤 其看看其后面有没有标志词 than。 例: 【2015 课标 I】 Finally, that hard work paid off and now the water in the river is ______ (clean) than ever.

三、词性转换 词性转换是指同一词根派生出的名词、形容词、副词、动词以及反义词等 词。可以根据该词在句子中的所作的成分,确定该词的转换形式。 例 1:【2015 课标 II】In addition to their simple beauty, what makes the adobe dwellings admirable is their ______ (able) to “air condition” a house without using electric equipment. 例 2: 【2015 课标 II】As ______ (nature) architects, the Pueblo Indians figured out exactly how thick the adobe walls needed to be to make the cycle work on most days. 例 3: 【2015 课标 II】 Walls made of adobe take in the heat from the sun on hot days and give out that heat ______ (slow) during cool nights, thus warming the house.

例 4.【2014 课标 I】Just be ______ (patience). 四、动词的单复数 当空格的提示词给的是动词原形时, 除了考虑它的时态和语态外, 还要考 虑它的单复数形式,在这种情况下,主要看主语。 例 1:【2015 课标 II】 This cycle ______ (go) day after day: The walls warm up during the day and cool off during the night and are thus always a timely offset(抵 消) for the outside temperatures. 例 2:【2015 课标 I】Yangshuo ______ (be) really beautiful.

五、时态和语态 如果空中所给的信息词是动词, 空前是名词或代词, 比较复杂的时候是动 名词、不定式或者主语从句,那么这个空缺少谓语,所以要根据上下文判断动 词的时态和语态。 例: 【2015 课标 I】 It was raining lightly when I ______ (arrive) in Yangshuo just before dawn. 六、非谓语动词 如果句中(一套主谓结构)已有谓语动词,所给动词不是该谓语的并列谓 语, 那么该动词就是非谓语动词。 若是非谓语动词就要确定是 v.-ing 形式、 v.-ed 形式或不定式。用非谓语动词的形式一定要考虑它与其逻辑主语之间的关系。 例 1: 【2015 课标 II】 When a new day breaks, the walls have given up their heat and are now cold enough ______ (cool) the house during the hot day; at the same time, they warm up again for the night. 例 2: 【2015 课标 I】Abercrombie & Kent, a travel company in Hong Kong, says it regularly arranges quick getaways here for people ______ (live) in Shanghai and Hong Kong. 例 3: 【2015 课标 I】 A study of travelers ______ (conduct) by the website TripAdvisor names Yangshuo as one of the top 10 destinations in the world. 例 4: 【2010 广东】 He spit it out, ______ (say) it was awful. 总之, 做有提示词填空的题, 要注意动词的时态和语态及非谓语动词的填 写。因此建议教师在平时讲课的过程中加强学生对时态、语态、非谓语动词的 掌握,让学生多记忆词汇,这样就能轻松做好语法填空信息提示题。

一、考查介词后的动词用-ing 分词 根据英语语法,介词后接动词作宾语时,用作宾语的动词原则上要用动名词。 【典例】One morning,I was waiting at the bus stop, worried about____(be) late for school. (2014 年新课标 II 卷) 【练习】 阅读下面句子,用括号内单词的正确形式填空。 1. She rested for two weeks after____ (be) in the hospital. 2. I'm against____ (do) anything till the police arrive. 3. The only way to tell if you like something is by____ (try) it 4. The skill of ____ (speak) a foreign language takes time to acquire. 5. He stood in the door for several minutes before____ (decide) whether he’d stay.

二、考查习惯上后接-ing 分词做宾语的动词 有些动词后接另一动词作宾语时. 作宾语的动词习惯上要用动名词, 不能用不定式, 比较典型的有 admit, advise, allow, appreciate, avoid, consider, delay, dislike, enjoy, escape, finish ,forbid, give up, imagine, keep, mind, miss, permit, practice , suggest 等。 【典例】 【 Still, the boy kept ____ (ride). He was carrying something over his shoulder and shouting.(2014 年新课标 II 卷) 【练习】【阅读下面句子,用括号内单词的正确形式填空。 1. The teacher keeps ____ (tell) his students that the future belongs to the well-educated. 2 They shouldn’t allow____ (park) here; the street is too narrow. 3 Her illness just an excuse to avoid ____ (see) him. 4 It is one thing to enjoy ____ (listen) to good music, but it is quite another to play it well yourself. 5 I hate to ask you this, but would you mind____(give) me a lift home? 三、考查具有形容词性质的-ed 分词和-ing 分词的区别 有些动词的-ed 分词和-ing 分词具有形容词的性质,但由于它们用法区别很大.且同 学们在使用时常常用混.所它也是语法填空的考查点之一。 【典例】While there are____(amaze) stories of instant transformation, for most of us the changes are gradual and require a lot of effort and work, like cleaning up a polluted river. Just be patient(2014 年新课标Ⅰ卷) 【练习】1. This is a very____ (interest)book. I’ll buy it, however much it may cost. 2. I don't think this film is by far the most____ (bore). I have seen worse. 3. I don't really like the author, but I have to admit his books are very____ (excite). 4. The____ (shock) news made me realize what terrible problems we would face. 5. With on one to turn to in such a____ (frighten) situation, she felt very helpless. 四、考查-ing 分词派生词的用法 由动词派出来的-ing 分词有时可以名词化,变成名词——这也是高考英语语法填空 的考点之一。 【典例】One of my father's favorite____(say) as I was growing up was “Try it”(2014 年大纲 样卷) 【练习】 阅读下面句子,用括号内单词的正确形式填空。 1. We'll reach the sales targets in a month which we set at the____ (begin) of the year. 2. If you want to find the____ (mean) of the word, look it up in a dictionary. 3. Jenny nearly missed the flight as result of doing too much____ (shop).

4. When you finish reading this book, you will have a better____ (undertand) of life. 5. A number of high____ (build) have arisen where there was nothing a year ago but ruins. 五、考查-ing 分词派生词副词的用法 具有形容词性质的-ing 分词,原则上不能修饰形容词、副词或动词,遇此情况应考 虑将具有形容词性质的-ing 分词变成副词· 即在其后加上副词后缀-ly。 【典例】 When we were wondering what to do,the manager came out. She was ____ (surprise) helpful.(2014 年广东卷) 【练习】 阅读下面句子,用括号内单词的正确形式填空。 1. With online shopping ____ (increase) popular, the Internet is seen as an efficient way of reaching target customers. 2. One of his charms was his ability to talk____ (amuse) on any topic. 3. The World Wide Web is sometimes____ (joke) called the World Wide Wait because it can be very slow. 4 John's aunt died suddenly and left him a____ (surprise) large sum. 5 The report argues ____ (convince) that economic help should be given to these countries.

参考答案
高考英语语法填空微技能专项学习 2015-11-18 语法填空是通过语篇在语境中考查学生对语法和词汇的运用能力, 语法填 空分两种形式:纯空格填空题和提示性填空题。这里先讲第一种情况:纯空格 填空题。

做此类题时, 首先, 分析句子结构, 确定填哪类词, 然后根据句子的意思, 确定具体填什么词,具体分析方法有: 一、限定词 若名词前是空格,且没有限定词,很可能是填冠词、形容词性物主代词或 some、any、other、another 等限定词;有的名词前有限定词,比如:序数词, 形容词的最高级等,其前用定冠词。 例 1: 【2015 课标 II】 The adobe dwellings built by the Pueblo Indians of the American Southwest are admired by even ______ most modern of architects and engineers. 答案与分析:the。这里名词由形容词的最高级修饰,因此用定冠词。 例 2: 【2015 广东】He owned ______ farm, which looked almost abandoned. 答案与分析:a。名词 farm 前应该有冠词,因为在文章中第一次出现,所 以用不定冠词。 例 3: 【2010 广东】 After the student left, the teacher let ______ student taste the water. 答案与分析: another。 上文谈到一个学生让老师品尝他从沙漠里带了来的 泉水,当那个学生离开后,老师让另一个学生品尝这泉水的味道。根据语境这 里填写限定词 another。 二、代词 如果句子中缺少主语或宾语, 一定是填写代词。 代词可以代替人和事物的 名称。如果上文出现过某人或某事物,下文中再次提起时,可以不重复,用代 词代替人和事物的名称。 例 1: 【2014 广东】 Last year, my brother and I went to Miami for a vacation. Some of my friends who had been there before said ______ was a wonderful holiday destination. 答案与分析:it。第二个句子中的宾语从句缺主语,这里 it 代替前文提到 过的 Miami。 例 2:

【2010 广东】He asked his teacher, “Sir, the water was awful. Why did you pretend to like ______?” 答案与分析:it。这个句子缺宾语,用 it 代替前文提到过的物 water。 三、介词 如果名词或代词前是空格,而该名词或代词在句中不作主语、表语、或动 词的宾语,很可能是填介词。 例 1: 【2015 课标 I】 For those who fly to Guilin, it’s only an hour away ______ car and offers all the scenery of the better-known city. 答案与分析:by。这里的 car 不作主语、表语或动词的宾语,可以看出其 前面应该填写介词,这里的介词短语作状语。 例 2: 【2015 课标 II】 When a new day breaks, the walls have given up their heat and are now cold enough to cool the house during the hot day; ______ the same time, they warm up again for the night. 答案与分析:at。at the same time 是固定搭配。 四、并列连词 若两个或几个单词、短语或句子之间没有连词,并且是并列的关系,可能 填写并列连词。 例 1: 【2014 课标 II】 There were many people waiting at the bus stop, ______ some of them looked very anxious and disappointed. 答案与分析:and。“There were many people waiting at the bus stop”是个完 整的句子, “some of them looked very anxious and disappointed.”也是个完整的句 子,两句之间是并列关系。 例 2: 【2014 课标 I】 But the river wasn’t changed in a few days ______ even a few months. 答案与分析:or。a few days 和 a few months 是两个并列的短语。 五、状语从句的连词 如果两个句子出现 (一套主谓关系算一个句子) , 其中一个句子前有空格, 就要考虑两个句子之间的关系。如果两个句子之间没有分号,也没有句号,很 可能前面带空格的句子就是一个从句。 根据句意判断其是什么样的从句, 从而 选择合适的从属连词。 例 1:

【2012 广东】 ______he thought he could escape attention by sitting at the back, he was wrong. 答案与分析:Although/Though。这里有两个句子,“______ he thought he could escape attention by sitting at the back”和“he was wrong.”,且两个句子之间 没有分号或句号,根据句意可知,第一个句子是让步状语从句。 例 2: 【2011 广东】 My friends walked me to the bus stop and waited with me ______ the bus arrived. 答案与分析:until/till。这里有两个句子“My friends walked me to the bus stop and waited with me”和“______ the bus arrived.”第二个句子前有空,根据句 意可知,第二个句子是时间状语从句。

六、名词性从句的连词 名词性从句的功能相当于名词词组, 它在复合句中能作主语、 宾语、 表语、 同位语等,名词性从句无论作什么成分,其前必须有连接词,连接词 that 有时 候可以省略。 例 1: 【2015 课标 II】As natural architects, the Pueblo Indians figured out exactly ______ thick the adobe walls needed to be to make the cycle work on most days. 答案与分析:how。因为“...the Pueblo Indians figured out”和“...the adobe walls needed to be...”是两套主谓关系, 即两个句子, 它们之间没有句号或分号, 空格处必定是填连词;根据句意,确定填写连词 how。 例 2: 【2014 广东】 I didn’t understand ______ this would happen and my credit card had already been charged for the reservation. 答案与分析:why。“I didn’t understand”和“this would happen and my credit card had already been charged for the reservation.”是两套主谓关系, 即两个句子, 它们之间没有句号或分号,空格处必定是填连词;根据句意,确定填写连词 why。 七、定语从句的关系词 定语从句不同于单词作定语的情况,它需要放在被修饰的词(即先行词) 之后。因此当所填空前有一个名词时,且空指代的是名词,那么名词后的从句 前应该填写关系词。 例:

【2015 课标 I】 I’d skipped nearby Guilin, a dream place for tourists seeking the limestone mountain tops and dark waters of the Li River ______ are pictured by artists in so many Chinese paintings. 答案与分析:that/which。这里有两套主谓关系,“I’d skipped nearby Guilin...”和“are pictured...”, 两句之间没有句号或分号,空格处必定是填连词 或关系词;根据句子结构,第二个句子少主语,先行词是 Guilin,根据定语从 句中关系词的使用规则,这里填写 that/which。 八、疑问代词、疑问副词等 判断句子是否用特殊疑问词时, 根据语境来确定, 并考虑用什么样的疑问 词。 例: 【2013 广东】 His son looked surprised, “I can understand why I shouldn’t pay too much, Father, but if I can pay less, not save a bit of money?” 答案与分析:why。上文谈到父亲让儿子去买盐,告诉儿子付钱的时候不 可以多付。也不可以少付。儿子不解地问:“如果我能少付钱的话,为什么我 不省点钱呢?” 九、it 的用法 It 可以作形式主语、形式宾语;虚义 it。 例: 【2009 广东】 She remembered how difficult was to choose a suitable Christmas present for her father. 答案与分析:it。这里 it 在宾语从句中作形式主语,从句中真正的主语是 动词不定式“to choose...”。 十、强调结构、倒装句的功能词等 注意考查强调结构中的 that、 who 的一些固定结构, 倒装结构的功能词等。 若句子结构完整, 空格后的动词是原形, 很可能是填写情态动词或表示强调或 倒装的助动词。
例:

【2014 课标 II】 Then the driver stood up and asked, “ anyone lose a suitcase at the last stop? ” 答案与分析:Did。根据本句中 last stop 可知,句子的时态应该是过去时 态,因此一般疑问句的助动词是 did。 总之,以上讲解了语法填空题的部分微技能,例题都来自于高考真题,具 有代表性。无论试题如何变化,万变不离其宗,只要牢固掌握英语的语法和词 汇知识,就一定能做好语法填空题中的纯空格填空题。

——真题分析:信息提示题真题分析

在做语法填空题时, 除了知道纯空格填空的解题技巧外, 也必须知道如何 做空格中有提示信息的填空题。以下是如何做此类题的具体方法:

一、名词 名词用单数还是复数, 应该看一下名词前面的修饰语, 或动词的单复数形 式。 例 1: 【2015 课标 I】 I’d skipped nearby Guilin, a dream place for tourists seeking the limestone mountain tops and dark waters of the Li River that are pictured by artists in so many Chinese ______ (painting). 答案与分析:paintings。该词前面有限定词 many,因此用复数形式。 例 2: 【2014 课标 I】 While there are amazing stories of instant transformation, for most of us the ______ (change) are gradual and require a lot of effort and work, like cleaning up a polluted river. 答案与分析:changes。该词后面的动词是复数 形式,因此 change 用复数形式。 二、形容词和副词的比较级和最高级 遇到空中有形容词或副词时, 要根据语境确定该词是否有比较的含义, 尤 其看看其后面有没有标志词 than。 例: 【2015 课标 I】Finally, that hard work paid off and now the water in the river is ______ (clean) than ever. 答案与分析:cleaner。根据后面比较级的标志词 than,这里应该使用比较 级。 三、词性转换 词性转换是指同一词根派生出的名词、形容词、副词、动词以及反义词等 词。可以根据该词在句子中的所作的成分,确定该词的转换形式。 例 1: 【2015 课标 II】In addition to their simple beauty, what makes the adobe dwellings admirable is their ______ (able) to “air condition” a house without using electric equipment. 答案与分析:ability。their 后接名词。

例 2: 【2015 课标 II】As ______ (nature) architects, the Pueblo Indians figured out exactly how thick the adobe walls needed to be to make the cycle work on most days. 答案与分析:natural。名词前用形容词修饰。 例 3: 【2015 课标 II】 Walls made of adobe take in the heat from the sun on hot days and give out that heat ______ (slow) during cool nights, thus warming the house. 答案与分析:slowly。这里需要副词修饰动词短语 give out。 例 4. 【2014 课标 I】Just be ______ (patience). 答案与分析:patient。这里应该是形容词作表语。 四、动词的单复数 当空格的提示词给的是动词原形时, 除了考虑它的时态和语态外, 还要考 虑它的单复数形式,在这种情况下,主要看主语。 例 1: 【2015 课标 II】 This cycle ______ (go) day after day: The walls warm up during the day and cool off during the night and are thus always a timely offset(抵 消) for the outside temperatures. 答案与分析: goes。根据句中的时间状语 day after day 和后面的句子中使 用的时态,可以确定该动词用一般现在时态形式,主语是单数,因此动词用数 三人称单数形式。 例 2: 【2015 课标 I】Yangshuo ______ (be) really beautiful. 答案与分析:is。主语是单三人称,因此用 is。 五、时态和语态 如果空中所给的信息词是动词, 空前是名词或代词, 比较复杂的时候是动 名词、不定式或者主语从句,那么这个空缺少谓语,所以要根据上下文判断动 词的时态和语态。 例: 【2015 课标 I】It was raining lightly when I ______ (arrive) in Yangshuo just before dawn. 答案与分析:arrived。所给动词 arrive 前是代词 I,这里应该是谓语动词, 因为主句的时态是过去时态,因此这里用过去时态。 六、非谓语动词

如果句中(一套主谓结构)已有谓语动词,所给动词不是该谓语的并列谓 语, 那么该动词就是非谓语动词。 若是非谓语动词就要确定是 v.-ing 形式、 v.-ed 形式或不定式。用非谓语动词的形式一定要考虑它与其逻辑主语之间的关系。 例 1: 【2015 课标 II】 When a new day breaks, the walls have given up their heat and are now cold enough ______ (cool) the house during the hot day; at the same time, they warm up again for the night. 答案与分析:to cool。句子“the walls have given up their heat and are now cold enough ______ (cool) the house during the hot day”中的谓语动词 have given up 和 are 并列,所给动词前面没有其他连词,cool 表示结果,因此用 to cool。 例 2: 【2015 课标 I】Abercrombie & Kent, a travel company in Hong Kong, says it regularly arranges quick getaways here for people ______ (live) in Shanghai and Hong Kong. 答案与分析:living。live 与前面的 people 不能形成主谓关系,又因为 live 与 people 的关系是主动关系,因此用现在分词 living 作定语,修饰中心词 people。 例 3: 【2015 课标 I】 A study of travelers ______ (conduct) by the website TripAdvisor names Yangshuo as one of the top 10 destinations in the world. 答案与分析:conducted。因为这个句子里有谓语动词 names,所给动词不 是 names 的并列谓语,它与前面名词的关系是被动关系,因此用过去分词作 定语。 例 4: 【2010 广东】 He spit it out, ______ (say) it was awful. 答案与分析:saying。在这里 say 前没有并列连词,因此可以推断不是并 列谓语,是非谓语动词,又因为 say 与主语 he 的关系是主动关系,因此用现 在分词。 总之, 做有提示词填空的题, 要注意动词的时态和语态及非谓语动词的填 写。因此建议教师在平时讲课的过程中加强学生对时态、语态、非谓语动词的 掌握,让学生多记忆词汇,这样就能轻松做好语法填空信息提示题。

一、考查介词后的动词用-ing 分词
根据英语语法, 介词后接动词作宾语时, 用作宾语的动词原则上要用动名 词。

【典例】
One morning,I was waiting at the bus stop, worried about____(be) late for school.(2014 年新课标 II 卷) 【分析】由于是用于介词 about 后作宾语.故用动名词形式 being。

【练习】
阅读下面句子,用括号内单词的正确形式填空。 1. She rested for two weeks after____ (be) in the hospital. 2. I'm against____ (do) anything till the police arrive. 3. The only way to tell if you like something is by____ (try) it 4. The skill of ____ (speak) a foreign language takes time to acquire. 5. He stood in the door for several minutes before____ (decide) whether he’d stay.

【答案】
1 being 2 doing 3 trying 4 speaking 5 deciding

二、考查习惯上后接-ing 分词做宾语的动词
有些动词后接另一动词作宾语时. 作宾语的动词习惯上要用动名词, 不能 用不定式,比较典型的有 admit, advise, allow, appreciate, avoid, consider, delay, dislike, enjoy, escape, finish ,forbid, give up, imagine, keep, mind, miss, permit, practice , suggest 等。

【典例】
【 Still, the boy kept ____ (ride). He was carrying something over his shoulder and shouting.(2014 年新课标 II 卷)

【分析】
动词 keep 后接动词作宾语时.作宾语的动词习惯上要用动名词,所以填 riding。

【练习】
【阅读下面句子,用括号内单词的正确形式填空。 1. The teacher keeps ____ (tell) his students that the future belongs to the well-educated. 2 They shouldn’t allow____ (park) here; the street is too narrow. 3 Her illness just an excuse to avoid ____ (see) him. 4 It is one thing to enjoy ____ (listen) to good music, but it is quite another to play it well yourself. 5 I hate to ask you this, but would you mind____(give) me a lift home?

【答案】
1 telling 2 parking 3 seeing 4listening 5 giving

三、考查具有形容词性质的-ed 分词和-ing 分词的区别
有些动词的-ed 分词和-ing 分词具有形容词的性质,但由于它们用法区别 很大.且同学们在使用时常常用混.所它也是语法填空的考查点之一。

【典例】
While there are____(amaze) stories of instant transformation, for most of us the changes are gradual and require a lot of effort and work, like cleaning up a polluted river. Just be patient(2014 年新课标Ⅰ卷)

【分析】
由于是用以说明 stories 的性质或特征.故要用-ing 分词,即填 amazing。

【练习】
1. This is a very____ (interest)book. I’ll buy it, however much it may cost. 2. I don't think this film is by far the most____ (bore). I have seen worse. 3. I don't really like the author, but I have to admit his books are very____ (excite). 4. The____ (shock) news made me realize what terrible problems we would face. 5. With on one to turn to in such a____ (frighten) situation, she felt very helpless.

【答案】

1 interesting 2 boring 3 exciting 4shocking 5 frightening

四、考查-ing 分词派生词的用法
由动词派出来的-ing 分词有时可以名词化, 变成名词——这也是高考英语 语法填空的考点之一。

【典例】
One of my father's favorite____(say) as I was growing up was “Try it”(2014 年大纲样卷)

【分析】
由于所填之词前面有所有格和形容词的修饰. 说明此词具有名词性质. 所 以考虑填 saying; 再根据句首的 one of 可知.此处的 saying 应用复数形式 sayings。

【练习】
阅读下面句子,用括号内单词的正确形式填空。 1. We'll reach the sales targets in a month which we set at the____ (begin) of the year. 2. If you want to find the____ (mean) of the word, look it up in a dictionary. 3. Jenny nearly missed the flight as result of doing too much____ (shop). 4. When you finish reading this book, you will have a better____ (undertand) of life. 5. A number of high____ (build) have arisen where there was nothing a year ago but ruins.

【答案】
1 beginning 2 meaning 3shopping 4 undertanding 5 buildings

五、考查-ing 分词派生词副词的用法
具有形容词性质的-ing 分词,原则上不能修饰形容词、副词或动词,遇此 情况应考虑将具有形容词性质的-ing 分词变成副词· 即在其后加上副词后缀 -ly。

【典例】

When we were wondering what to do,the manager came out. She was ____ (surprise) helpful.(2014 年广东卷)

【分析】
helpful 为形容词,故其前应由副词来修饰.所以做本题.先要将 surprise 变成具有形容词性质的-ing 分析. 然后再在其后添加副词后缀-ly, 所以答案为 surprisingly。

【练习】
阅读下面句子,用括号内单词的正确形式填空。 1. With online shopping ____ (increase) popular, the Internet is seen as an efficient way of reaching target customers. 2. One of his charms was his ability to talk____ (amuse) on any topic. 3. The World Wide Web is sometimes____ (joke) called the World Wide Wait because it can be very slow. 4 John's aunt died suddenly and left him a____ (surprise) large sum. 5 The report argues ____ (convince) that economic help should be given to these countries.

【答案】
1. increasingly 2.amusingly 3.jokingly 4.surprisingly 5.convincingly


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