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碎屑岩油气藏-第十四章气和凝析气藏-31-49


CHAPTER 14
? C & C Reservoirs. All Rights Reserved.

30

A

2°00'E
49/21-1

2°12'E 49/22 CONOCO 49/27 AMOCO

2°24'E

49/23 AMOCO 49/28 ARPET 53°10'N

49/25a SHELL/ESSO 49/21 CONOCO 48/30 PHILLIPS 49/26 SHELL/ESSO

48/30-4 49/26-4 G02 G10 G07 G04 G06 G12 C355 C350 C360 C320 C315 C365 C345 A09 C370 A07 C310 A14 C305 A20 C375 A10 A12 C300 A18 49/26-1 C340 A08 A13 C335 C330 A11 A22 A23 B215 A15 A17 C390 B220 C325 C385 C380 A21 A06 B235 B265 B270 L01 49/26-2

G11 F09 F12 F08 F13 49/26-2G F04 F07 F03

B260

B240 B210 B245 B250 B205 B255 B275

B295

E12 E03 B280 B290 E06 E09 E11 E05 E01 A11 A07 E02

E10 E08 A05 A06 A03 A04 A09 A02 A08 B09 A10 B10 B07 B08 B04 B06 B05 B12 F04 F10 F07 F09 F12 F03 G10 G03 G08 G07 G04 G06 G09 G05 G08 G11 49/27-3

E02 E06 E10 49/26-3 49/26-14

E03 E05 E08

E04 E04 J02

A01 E07

A12

F11 B02 B01 F06 B03 B11 F05

E07 J03 J01 J04 C06 C05 C03 D400 D435 D455 D450 D445 D440 D425 D410 D405 D415 H01 H02 53/2-1 H03 J05 C11 C07 C10 C01 C04 C13 C12 C02 C08 F02

F01

F06

G01

49/28-1

D12 D03 D10 D07 D02 D09 D04

D05 D08

C09

D01 D02 D02 D11

D06

53/5a PHILLIPS

53/1a MOBIL

53/2 MOBIL

53/3c OPEN

53°00'N

53/2-2

0

2

4Km

B

2°00'E

2°12'E 49/22 CONOCO 49/27 AMOCO

2°24'E 49/23 AMOCO 49/28 ARPET 53°10'N

49/25a SHELL/ESSO 49/21 CONOCO 48/30 PHILLIPS 49/26 SHELL/ESSO

53/5a PHILLIPS

53/1a MOBIL

53/2 MOBIL

53/3c OPEN

53°00'N

0

2

4Km

Figure 14.17 - (A) Well location map and (B) fault distribution map of the Leman Field (UK North Sea), illustrating clustering of wells at the field crest and in the more intensely faulted areas (Hillier, 1990) (see Volume 4 for details).

E & P SYNTHESIS

CLASTIC RESERVOIRS
? C & C Reservoirs. All Rights Reserved.

CHAPTER 14

31

? C & C Reservoirs. All Rights Reserved.

10,000 Actual data Analytical model AVERAGE FLOW RATE (MMSCF/D) C Yates 9 well Trinity interval

1000

100

k = 3.3 md A = 302 ac GIP = 2.1 Bscf Cumulative gas produced = 1.91 Bscf

10 10 100 DAYS
? ? ? ? GIIP: 2.96 TCFG Depletion drive Average viscosity: 0.71 cp Marine fan-delta reservoirs; strongly compartmentalised ? Average permeability: 1 mD

1000

10,000

Figure 14.18 - Production decline curve for a well in the Boonsville Field (Texas) (Hardage et al., 1995) (see Volume 23 for details).

E & P SYNTHESIS

CLASTIC RESERVOIRS
? C & C Reservoirs. All Rights Reserved.

CHAPTER 14

32

? C & C Reservoirs. All Rights Reserved.

1950's

1970's

1990's
"older wells" "newer wells"

Caddo

Caddo

Caddo

Bend Bend

Bend

Single or dual completions Fractured using lease oil and 10Mlb sand/zone

Uphole completions added

Zones commingled Artificial lift

Fractured using N2 foam and 30-70 Mb sand/zone

Figure 14.19 - History of typical well completion strategy in the Boonsville Field (Texas) (Hardage et al., 1995) (see Volume 23 for details).

E & P SYNTHESIS

CLASTIC RESERVOIRS
? C & C Reservoirs. All Rights Reserved.

CHAPTER 14
? C & C Reservoirs. All Rights Reserved.

33

A

10,000 8000

Daily 6000 Gas Production (Mscf) 4000 2000 0

1988

1989

1990 Year

1991

1992

B

3000

2000 Daily Gas Production (Mscf) 1000

? GIIP: 0.628 TCF ? Depletion drive ? Mixed wave/fluvial-influenced delta reservoirs ? Average permeability: 0.2 mD ? Ultimate recovery factor: 35-82% (average: 50%)

0

1988

1989

1990 Year

1991

1992

C

2000

1500 Daily Gas Production (Mscf) 1000

500

0

1990

1991 Year

1992

Figure 14.20 - Performance of three wells in the McAllen Ranch Field (Texas), which have received (A) commingling of production from multiple reservoirs; (B) fracturing; and (C) coiled tubing cleanout (Durrani et al., 1994) (see Volume 25 for details).

E & P SYNTHESIS

CLASTIC RESERVOIRS
? C & C Reservoirs. All Rights Reserved.

CHAPTER 14
? C & C Reservoirs. All Rights Reserved.

34

A
100

80

Annual production (Bcf)

60

Primary development Increased E41 and F11 production Infield reserve growth

40

20

0 1950

1960

1970

1980

1990

Year

B
100,000

? ? ? ? ? ?

GIIP: unknown Depletion drive Meandering-fluvial reservoirs Average permeability: 2.6 mD Gas injection to miscibly recover oil rims Ultimate recovery factor: 70%

Average Daily Production Rate (Mcfd)

10,000

Reserve Additions Post 1978

Reserve Additions 1970-1978

Pre-1970 Developed Reserves

1,000 1970 1975 1980 1985 1990

Year

Figure 14.21 - (A) Gas production history of the Stratton Field, 1950-91. (B) Production history of the Stratton Field, 1970-89, showing how offtakes have been replaced by infield reservoir growth (Level et al., 1994) (see Volume 25 for details).

E & P SYNTHESIS

CLASTIC RESERVOIRS
? C & C Reservoirs. All Rights Reserved.

CHAPTER 14
? C & C Reservoirs. All Rights Reserved.

35

A
0 0

N2 injection wells in simulation area Contour interval : 500 ft 1 MILE 1.6 KM

R8E

UTAH

WYOMING

R 121 W
8 9

N
DISCOVERY WELL AMOCO NO.1 BOUNTIFUL LIVESTOCK
18 17

23

24

C

16

EAST LOBE DISCOVERY ANSCHUTZ CORP. 12-26W
T/A

R7E

EAST LOBE
25

WEST LOBE
-6 5

T/A
0'

00

T/A

-6 0

-5

24

-50 00 '

19

50

00

'

20
-7 5

21
00 '

T 4 N

B
3D Simulation Area
25 26 27

-45 00 '

C'
35 36

CHAMPLIN 404"A"NO.1

-7 0

28

00

'

2

-7 5

'

00

26

T 13 N

'

35

36

37

B'

33

T 12 N
11

G

W

C

-6

47

0'

-5

50

0'

6

5

4

2

1

-60

00

R 121 W
UTAH (SUMMIT CO.) WYOMING (UINTA CO.)

T 3 N

'

7

-65

00

11

12

'

R8E
B
14 13
W30-06 -2000 W30-06A

B
W30-10 W30-16 W32-04

B'
SE

NW ANSCHUTZ RANCH EAST - WEST LOBE UNIT

-3000

SUBSEA DEPTH (ft)

R7E

-4000

SA

LT IN TWEEK CR
1 NE ZO 2 NE ZO E3 N ZO

-5000

-6000
GAS WATER CONTACT

NU

GG

ET

AN

KA

RE

H

-7000

-8000

Figure 14.22 - (A) Structure map and (B) cross-section of the Anschutz Ranch East Field (UtahWyoming), showing development well locations (White et al., 1990; Cox et al., 1994) (see Volume 20 for details).

E & P SYNTHESIS

CLASTIC RESERVOIRS
? C & C Reservoirs. All Rights Reserved.

? C & C Reservoirs. All Rights Reserved.

GAS PRODUCTION (MCFGPD)

105,000 90,000 75,000 60,000 45,000 30,000 15,000 0

OIL PRODUCTION (BOPD)

50 GOR (MCF/STB) 45 40 35 30 25 20 15 10 5 0

GAS INJECTION (MCFGPD)

E & P SYNTHESIS
? C & C Reservoirs. All Rights Reserved.

CHAPTER 14

150,000 135,000 120,000

A

150,000 135,000 120,000 105,000 90,000 75,000 60,000 45,000 30,000 15,000 0

B

1980

1982

1984

1986

1988

1990

1992

1980

1982

1984

1986

1988

1990

1992

? ? ? ? ?

GIIP: unknown Depletion drive Aeolian erg reservoirs Average permeability: 2.5 mD Gas injection (nitrogen) to prevent gas-condensate fall-out ? Ultimate recovery factor: 60%
70 65 60 55 200,000 175,000 150,000 125,000 100,000 75,000 50,000 25,000 0

C

250,000 225,000

D

CLASTIC RESERVOIRS

1980

1982

1984

1986

1988

1990

1992

1980

1982

1984

1986

1988

1990

1992

Figure 14.23 - Production performance of the sixteen-well simulation area of the Anschutz Ranch East Field (UtahWyoming), showing: (A) gas production rate; (B) liquid production rate; (C) gas/oil ratio; and (D) gas injection (Cox et al., 1994) (see Volume 20 for details).

36

? C & C Reservoirs. All Rights Reserved.

1.2 MMCFPD (million) 1.0 0.8 0.6 0.4 0.2 0 0 5 10 15 YEARS 20 25 30

ROCK PRESSURE (thousand)

MEAN ROCK PRESSURE PER WELL (thousand)

CUMULATIVE PRODUCTION (Bcf)

E & P SYNTHESIS
? C & C Reservoirs. All Rights Reserved.

CHAPTER 14

A
1.0 1.6 1.4 0.8

B

0.6

0.4

0.2

0 0 5 10 15 YEARS 20 25 30

C
1.0 0.8 3.2 2.8 2.4 2.0 1.6 1.2 0.8 0.4 0 0.2 0.4 0.6 0.8 1.0 MEAN CUMULATIVE PRODUCTION PER WELL (Bcf) TIME 0

D

0.6

0.4

0.2

0

4

8 12 16 INITIAL POTENTIAL (MMcf)

20

24

? ? ? ? ?

GIIP: 1.15 TCF Depletion drive with supplementary aquifer drive Shoreface-shelf reservoirs Average permeability: 27.5 mD Ultimate recovery factor: 92%

CLASTIC RESERVOIRS

Figure 14.24 - Simulated production performance of the Elk-Poca Field (West Virginia), showing: (A) production decline; (B) pressure; (C) mean well pressure against cumulative production per well; and (D) cumulative production against initial production (Patchen et al., 1992) (see Volume 21 for details).

37

CHAPTER 14

38

? C & C Reservoirs. All Rights Reserved.

100 90

MAX. HOURLY PEAK PER MONTH

Yearly Production (10 9 m 3)

80 70 60

350

300

250 50 200 40 150 30 20 YEARLY PRODUCTION 10 0 1964 1966 1968 1970 1972 1974 1976 1978 1980 1982 1984 1986 1988 100

50

0

Figure 14.25 - Production history of the Groningen Field (Netherlands) (van Nieuwland, 1990) (see Volume 4 for details).

E & P SYNTHESIS

CLASTIC RESERVOIRS
? C & C Reservoirs. All Rights Reserved.

Hourly Production (10 6 m 3/day)

? GIIP: 101 TCF ? Depletion drive with supplemantary aquifer drive ? Mixed aeolian/fluvial-playa reservoirs ? Average permeability: 750 mD ? Ultimate recovery factor: 90%+

450

400

CHAPTER 14

39

? C & C Reservoirs. All Rights Reserved.
SW
Depth m (MSL)

NE
PRODUCTION WELLS OBSERVATION WELL
Depth m (MSL)

1800

FRIGG
SHALE GOC 1947.4 m (MSL)

1800

NORTH-EAST FRIGG
GOC 1980 m (MSL) WOC 1984 m (MSL)

2000

WOC 1956 m (MSL) FRIGG FORMATION

2000

2200

TUFF AND SHALE BARRIER SELE/LISTA FORMATIONS STRONG AQUIFER DRIVE IN SELE/LISTA FORMATIONS

2200

2400

2400

Figure 14.26 - Highly simplified geological model of the Frigg Field (North Sea) (Maritvold, 1990) (see Volume 2 for details).

TROLL WEST OIL PROVINCE

TROLL WEST GAS PROVINCE

TROLL EAST

GAS

?

?WATER

?

?

?

? ?
?

?
?

?

Major gas offtake

?

OGOC OOWC

?

WATER

?

?

?

?

?

OU

?

S

SA

?

ND

S

?

?

?

?

Figure 14.27 - Conceptual model of the inter-relationships of the drive mechanisms in the Troll Field (Norwegian North Sea) (Osborne and Evans, 1987) (see Volume 2 for details).

E & P SYNTHESIS

CLASTIC RESERVOIRS
? C & C Reservoirs. All Rights Reserved.

?

?

?

?
WATER

GAS

?

?
?

?

GAS

?

?

?
M IC AC E

ZONE I

?

ZONE II

ZONE III

CHAPTER 14

40

? C & C Reservoirs. All Rights Reserved.
Hatter's Pond Unit 2-6 #1
GRID BLOCK PRESSURE OF TOP PERF. (PSIA) GRID BLOCK PRESSURE OF TOP PERF. (PSIA) 10000 25000 GAS PRODUCTION RATE (MSCF / DAY) 10000

Hatter's Pond Unit 3-14 #1
25000 GAS PRODUCTION RATE (MSCF / DAY) GAS PRODUCTION RATE (MSCF / DAY)

8000

20000

8000

20000

6000

15000

6000

15000

4000

10000

4000

10000

2000

5000

2000

5000

0 1975

79

83 YEAR

87

91

0 1995

0 1975 Gas production rate Simulation pressure Observed

79

83 YEAR

87

91

0 1995

Hatter's Pond Unit 10-11 #3
GRID BLOCK PRESSURE OF TOP PERF. (PSIA) GRID BLOCK PRESSURE OF TOP PERF. (PSIA) 10000 25000 GAS PRODUCTION RATE (MSCF / DAY) 10000

Hatter's Pond Unit 15-6 #1
25000

8000

20000

8000

20000

6000

15000

6000

15000

4000

10000

4000

10000

2000

5000

2000

5000

0 1975

79

83 YEAR

87

91

0 1995

0 1975

79

83 YEAR

87

91

0 1995

? ? ? ? ? ?

GIIP: 0.8 TCF Depletion drive Aeolian erg reservoirs Average permeability: 0.5 mD Gas injection to inhibit in-situ condensation Ultimate recovery factor: 55%

Figure 14.28 - Gas production and pressure history match for four wells in the Hatter’s Pond Field (Alabama) (Ginger et al., 1995) (see Volume 24 for details).

E & P SYNTHESIS

CLASTIC RESERVOIRS
? C & C Reservoirs. All Rights Reserved.

CHAPTER 14

41

? C & C Reservoirs. All Rights Reserved.

1000

1000

100

100

10 1960 1961 1962 1963 1964 1965 1966 1967 1968 1969 1970 1971 1972 1973 1974 1975

10

YEAR

Figure 14.29 - Typical well performance of the U Sand, Turtle Bayou Field (Louisiana), showing rapid rise in watercut beginning in 1971 (Cronquist, 1983) (see Volume 25 for details).

E & P SYNTHESIS

CLASTIC RESERVOIRS
? C & C Reservoirs. All Rights Reserved.

Barrells Water/MMSCF Gas

? GIIP: 1.2 TCF ? Depletion drive with supplementary aquifer drive ? Fluvial-dominated river-delta reservoirs ? Average permeability: 20 mD ? Ultimate recovery factor: unknown

MMSCF

CHAPTER 14

42

? C & C Reservoirs. All Rights Reserved.

A

1200 ? ? ? ? ? GIIP: 2.8 TCF (including gas-hydrates) Depletion drive Deltaic reservoirs Average permeability: 125 mD Ultimate recovery factor: 25%

1000

Production (103m3 /day)

800

600

400

200

0 0 20 40 60 80 100

Percentage of Perforation in Hydrate Zone

B
Normalized Production (103m3 /day/per meter perforation)

50

40

30
r= -0.9 2

20

10

0 0 20 40 60 80 100

Percentage of Perforation in Hydrate Zone

Figure 14.30 - Cross-plots illustrating the effects on production rates from the gas-hydrate zone in the Messoyakh Field (Russia), showing (A) actual production rates; and (B) normalised production rates, against percentage of well perforations within the hydrate zone (Krasona and Finley, 1993) (see Volume 16 for details).

E & P SYNTHESIS

CLASTIC RESERVOIRS
? C & C Reservoirs. All Rights Reserved.

CHAPTER 14

43

? C & C Reservoirs. All Rights Reserved.

A
Contour units : m, TVSS

N

2 km

C D B
0 -74

B' C' D'

-760
0 -78 4 -80
Wells Depth to top of Dolgan, m Gas hydrate/free gas contact

B
690 Depth (m) 730 770 810

151 135

130

131

B'

C
690 Depth (m)

121

109

150

135

142

C'

730 770

810 2 km Gas hydrate in sandstone Free gas in sandstone Shale Base of hydrate stability field

Figure 14.31 - (A) Structural contour map; (B) and (C) cross-sections of the Messoyakh Field (Russia), showing the distribution of gas and gas-hydrates (Collett, 1993; Collett and Ginsburg, 1997) (see Volume 16 for details).

E & P SYNTHESIS

CLASTIC RESERVOIRS
? C & C Reservoirs. All Rights Reserved.

CHAPTER 14

44

? C & C Reservoirs. All Rights Reserved.
Average ultimate recovery factor (%)
0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90

Fluvial

N=3

Depositional environment

Desert

N = 10

Coastal

N = 10

Deep-marine

N=2

Figure 14.32 - Bar-chart showing the average ultimate recovery factors of the main depositional environments of the gas and gas-condensate reservoirs. The data excludes the gas-hydrate Messoyakh Field.

E & P SYNTHESIS

CLASTIC RESERVOIRS
? C & C Reservoirs. All Rights Reserved.

CHAPTER 14

45

? C & C Reservoirs. All Rights Reserved.

A

100 R2 = 5E-05 90

80

70

Recovery factor (%)

60

50

40

30

20

10

0 0.01

0.1

1 GIIP (TCF)

10

100

1000

B

100 R2 = 0.0535 90

80

70

Recovery factor (%)

60

50

40

30

20

10

0 0 2000 4000 6000 8000 10000 12000 14000 Initial reservoir pressure (psi)

Figure 14.33 - Cross-plots of ultimate recovery factor against (A) in-place volumes, (B) initial reservoir pressure for the gas and gas-condensate fields.

E & P SYNTHESIS

CLASTIC RESERVOIRS
? C & C Reservoirs. All Rights Reserved.

CHAPTER 14

46

? C & C Reservoirs. All Rights Reserved.

C

100 R2 = 0.0286 90

80

70

Recovery factor (%)

60

50

40

30

20

10

0 0 5000 10000 15000 20000 25000 Mid-reservoir depth (ft)

D

100 R2 = 0.1945 90

80

70

Recovery factor (%)

60

50

40

30

20

10

0 0 200 400 600 Water depth (ft) 800 1000 1200

Figure 14.33 (cont.) - Cross-plots of ultimate recovery factor against (C) mid-reservoir depth and (D) water depth for the gas and gas-condensate fields.

E & P SYNTHESIS

CLASTIC RESERVOIRS
? C & C Reservoirs. All Rights Reserved.

CHAPTER 14

47

? C & C Reservoirs. All Rights Reserved.

A

100 R2 = 0.0149 90

80

70

Recovery factor (%)

60

50

40

30

20

10

0 0.00

0.10

0.20

0.30

0.40

0.50 Net/gross ratio

0.60

0.70

0.80

0.90

1.00

B

100
<20mD RESERVOIRS ONLY Elk-Poca

R2 = 0.2097
Groningen Victor

90
Viking Leman

Indefatigable

Taglu Bravo Dome

Badak S. Morecambe

80

Yacheng 13-1 Troll N. Rankin Urengoy

ALL RESERVOIRS

E. Clinton Stratton L. Mobile Bay

Hassi R'Mel

Frigg

70

Recovery factor (%)

60
Anschutz Ranch E. Hatter's Pond

Maui

50

McAllen Ranch

40
Lake Creek

30

Red Oak Messoyakh

20 Normal text: gas fields Italic text : gas-condensate fields

10

0 0.1 1 10 100 1000 10000 Average permeability (mD)

Figure 14.34 - Cross-plots of ultimate recovery factor against (A) average N/G ratio, (B) average permeability per well for the gas and gas-condensate fields.

E & P SYNTHESIS

CLASTIC RESERVOIRS
? C & C Reservoirs. All Rights Reserved.

CHAPTER 14

48

? C & C Reservoirs. All Rights Reserved.

C

100 R2 = 0.0009 90

80

70

Recovery factor (%)

60

50

40

30

20

10

0 10.00

100.00 Well spacing (acres)

1,000.00

10,000.00

D

100 R2 = 0.0635 90

80

70

Recovery factor (%)

60

50

40

30

20

10

0 10 100 Field average acres/well 1,000 10,000

Figure 14.34 (cont.) - Cross-plots of ultimate recovery factor against (C) average well spacing and (D) field average acres per well for the gas and gas-condensate fields.

E & P SYNTHESIS

CLASTIC RESERVOIRS
? C & C Reservoirs. All Rights Reserved.


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