GENERAL MECHANICAL / NDT
1) What information is contained within a WPS – Welding Procedure Specification? 焊接接头型式，母材的材料牌号，焊接方法，坡口型式及焊接参数等等
Why is Post Weld Heat T
reatment (PWHT) required for some weldments? 为了消除焊接残余应力和改善焊接接头的组织和性能
What type of defects would you expect to find during a visual examination of a completed weld? 飞溅，表面气孔，咬边，未焊满，裂纹等
You find peaking in a pipe, how can the manufacturer remove the peaking to make a rounder pipe? 打磨或者修磨
What is a Weld Procedure Qualification Record (WPQR)?
List minimum five essential variables in a welding procedure.
7) What testing methods would you use to measure the toughness of a material? Surface profile anchor pattern anchor profile
What is the purpose of a penetrameter or IQI? To provide an overall assessment of radiographic quality 评定底片的质量是否合格
What is the difference between a DIN and ASME penetrameter? 材质的表示不同 丝型像质计上面丝的数量也有所不同（DIN 每个像质计上面有 7 根丝，ASME 只有 6 根丝） 数值和线径相反 the wire diameter and the wire identity is totally opposite
What are the limitations of MPI and DP inspection techniques? DP 只能检测表面开口缺陷，only can detect the surface breaking defect. MPI 只能检测铁磁性材料表面和近表面缺陷，深度最大也只能 1~2mm。only can detect surface and near surface defect of ferromagnetic material. 11) What information normally appears on a radiograph? 焊缝编号，母材的材料，母材的厚度，拍片日期等等。 Welds No, material of the product, radiographic date, thickness etc.
What is a film defect or film artifact? 底片缺陷是被拍摄的物体本身具有的缺陷。比如气孔，夹渣，裂纹等等； Film defect is the defect which belongs to the sample being tested, such as pore, slag inclusion, crack, etc. 底片上面的伪缺陷是操作者的不当行为引起的，比如划伤，指纹，静电斑纹，水迹等等。 Film artifice is just in the film which caused by wrong operation by the operator, such as mechanical, chemical, or other blemishes and scratch, finger mark, etc.
What would you use a calibrated density strip for? 用来检验和校准黑度计是否准确。 Use to calibrate the densitometer Where would you use shims for in Radiography and why?
T-277.3 Shims Under Hole IQIs. For welds, a shim of material radiographically similar to the weld metal shall be placed between the part and the IQI, if needed, so that the radiographic density throughout the area of interest is no more than minus 15% from (lighter than) the radiographic density through the IQI. The shim dimensions shall exceed the IQI dimensions such that the outline of at least three sides of the IQI image shall be visible in the radiograph. 15) A lead letter ―B‖ is attached to the back of film cassette when taking Rx shots according ASME V T223. Why is this done? 用来检测射线照相时背散射是否达标。To check in the backscatter radiation are acceptable or
not If a light image of the ―B‖ appears on the radiograph against a darker background does this mean that protection from backscatter is acceptable or not acceptable? Not acceptable
What is Radioscopy? Examination of the inner structure of optically opaque objects by x-rays or other penetrating radiation（放射检验：用 X 射线或其它穿透性的辐射对不透光的物体的内部构造进行的检查）
In radiography - What is meant by the term sensitivity? 射线照相灵敏度是指在射线照相底片上所能发现的沿射线穿透方向最小缺陷的尺寸。有绝对灵敏度 和相对灵敏度之分。 Is an overall assessment of quality which relates to the radiographic technique ’s ability to detect fine defect on a radiograph In radiography – What type of defects would you expect to locate in a casting? 气孔，夹渣，疏松，缩孔，冷隔，裂纹等等 Pore, slag inclusion, pipe shrinkage, shrinkage, cold shut, hot tears (cracks) MPI Testing – If you find a weak crack pattern where would you place the prods to amplify the indication or indications? 使磁力线和缺陷相垂直即可增强显示状况。 Make the direction of the crack perpendicular to the magnetic field In MPI testing which method of magnetisation is better for detecting near surface discontinuities? 整流电和直流电磁化，最好是半波整流和干粉的组合。 Using rectified current and direct current for magnetising
What are the disadvantages of using prods for inducing a magnetic field? 容易烧伤工件表面，需要两个人同时操作等 Will burn the surface of the tested surface, and it needs 2 operators at the same time when
What devices could you use to verify magnetic field strength & orientation? 磁场指示器 Magnetic field indicator
Can you detect sub surface defects with Liquid (dye) Penetrant testing? No
In penetrant testing what is the dwell time? Time that a penetrant is in contact with a part’s surface.（渗透剂直接与被检表面接触的时间， 包括渗透剂施加时间和滴落时间）
In penetrant testing why is it important to throughly clean the surface under test? 使观察缺陷时没有背景污染，以便获得最大的对比度，提高缺陷的检出率。 Make sure there is no background pollution when you viewing the indications to gain the best contrast In penetrant testing – when cleaning off the penetrant with a hose(rinsing), why is water pressure and temperature important? 水压小和温度过低，容易造成清洗不足，水压大和温度过高，容易造成过清洗。都使得缺陷的检出 If pressure and temperature are too low, it will make insufficient clean, vice versa 28) In UT testing what factors determine the echo height of a flaw? 缺陷的类型以及缺陷的与入射超声波的夹角。 The type of defect and if the incidence ultrasonic beam perpendicular to the defect
In UT testing what are the 6dB & 20db drop methods? 6dB drop 是指将探头从获得最大回波幅度位置移动至回波幅度降至其一半，以此移动范围作为缺 陷的指示长度。 Method of defect size assessment (length, height and width), where the probe is moved from a position showing maximum reflection amplitude until the echo has decreased to its half-value (by 6 dB). 20db drop 是指将探头从获得最大回波幅度位置移动至回波幅度降至其 1/10，以此移动范围作为缺 陷的指示长度。 Method of defect size assessment (length, height and width), where the probe is moved from a position showing maximum reflection amplitude until the echo has decreased to its 1/10 value (by 20 dB) 30) In UT testing name one of the well known standard calibration blocks? IIW V1
In UT testing what does DAC mean? 距离波幅曲线：尺寸相同的反射体在离探头不同距离的回波幅度所做出来的曲线 DAC: (distance amplitude correction curve) Reference curve constructed on the basis of peak echo amplitudes from a reference reflector at varying distances from the probe.
What is the difference between an imperfection and a defect? Imperfection 是指合格的缺陷，不会影响工件使用寿命的不连续。 Imperfection, n—a departure of a quality characteristic from its intended condition. Defect 是指不合格的缺陷，完全会影响工件使用寿命的不连续。 Defect, n—one or more flaws whose aggregate size, shape, orientation, location, or properties do not meet specified acceptance criteria and are rejectable.
If you do a lamination check of a plate what type of defects are you likely to find? Lamination 分层
If you make a shear wave (angle wave) check of a weld what type of defects are you likely to detect? 气孔，夹渣，未焊透，未熔合，裂纹等 Pore, slag inclusion, lack of penetration, lack of fusion, crack, etc. Impact testing – as a result of this test results can be expressed in two different values, detail the two values? 不知道 What is the decimal equivalent of 1 mil? 1000, 1”, 0.001” or 1/10”? 0.001”
What does a bend test evaluate? Hardness, tensile strength or ductility? Ductility
What does CTOD stand for? CTOD （Crack Tip Opening Displacement 裂纹尖端张开位移），是一种评价材料和焊接接头抗断 裂性能的有效方法
What mechanical test is normally made to establish the suitability of steel or a weldment for sour service conditions? 拉伸，冲击，弯曲，硬度 The ―skin effect‖ in MPI is associated with what type of magnetising current? AC, DC, half wave rectified AC or Fill wave rectified alternating current? AC