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?直接说明事物的性质或特征的形容词是性 质形容词,它有级的变化,可以用程度副 词修饰,在句中可作定语、表语和补语。 ?例如:hot
Today is very hot

. It?s a hot day.

?叙述形容词只能作表语,所以又称为表语形 容词。这类形容词没有级的变化,也不可用 程度副词修饰。大多数以a开头的形容词都 属于这一类。 ?如,afraid 错: He is an ill man. 对:The man is ill. 错: She is an afraid girl. 对:The girl is afraid. 这类词还有: well,unwell,ill,faint, afraid,alike,alive,alone,asleep, awake

? (一)作定语
? 1.前置定语 ? (1)形容词作定语一般需放在它所修饰的名 词之前并尽量靠近被修饰的词。在这种位置上 的定语叫前置定语。语序一般为“冠词(或其 他限定词)+形容词+名词”。 He is an honest boy.

? (2)若有多个形容修饰名词,它们的位置要由它们与

被修饰词的密切程度来决定。其排列顺序通常是:( 县官行令杀国材) ?限定词+描绘性形容词+大小+形状+新旧+颜色+国籍 、地区+表材料质地的形容词+名:
? 县,即“限”,指限定词,如:the; a/an; this; that; your; my; ? 官,即“观”,指观点或评价性词,如:lovely; interesting; cute ? 行,即“形”,指形状大小,如:large; big; small; little; round; ? 令,即“龄”,指年龄及新旧,如:new; old; ancient; old… ? 杀,即“色”,指颜色,如:red; green; orange; brown… ? 国,指国家或出处,如:Chinese; Japanese; home-made… ? 材,指材料,也就是用什么做的。如:glass; stone; wood

1.Chinese, glass, a, beautiful, table ? a beautiful Chinese glass table 2.wonderful, my, garden, new, large ? my wonderful large new garden 3. a, round, table, small ? a small round table 4. a, old, dirty, brown shirt ? a dirty old brown shirt

Tony is going camping with ______ boys. A. little two other B. two little other C. two other little D. little other two 答案:C. 由\“限定词--数词--描绘 One day they crossed the ____bridge behind the palace. A. old Chinese stone B. Chinese old stone C. old stone Chinese D. Chinese stone old



?(1)作不定代词的定语 ?修饰someone, something, anyone, anything, nobody everyone, nothing, no one, 等不定代词时, 要后置。 There is nothing new. She must have met something dangerous. ?(2)前缀以a-构成的形容词作定语时要求后置。 ? 常见的有afraid, alive, alike, asleep, awake等 The man awake at that time was Mr. Smith.

?(3)形容词短语作定语时要后置。这些形容词短语多 是由 “形容词+介词短语/不定式短语”构成。

It is a problem difficult to solve.
?(4)形容词成对使用时,由and/or连接的并列形容词 成对使用时后置。

Everyone, young or old, will do it.
?(5) 表示方位、时间和数量等习语、词组连用时后置

This is a river two hundred miles long. It is a bridge eight metres wide.

?1.在连系动词后要用形容词作表语:常见的 连系动词有:be,look,feel,smell,taste ,sound,get/become/grow,remain, 而 行为动词则要用副词修饰。
The cake tastes delicious. He looks very tired.

?2.只能用作表语的形容词:大多数形容词可 以用作定语或表语,但有些形容词只能用作 表语。
?(1)以“a-”开头的形容词和content, ill, drunk, sure, liable, unable, well等词。 She is asleep now. The film is worth seeing.

?(2)有些形容词是以-ly结尾的,我们容易把它们误 认为是副词,如lovely,friendly,orderly, motherly, lonely,likely,lively,ugly: (错) He spoke to me very friendly. (对) He spoke to me in a very friendly way. ?但有些以-ly 结尾既为形容词,也为副词,如daily, weekly,monthly,yearly,early等: The Times is a weekly paper. The Times is published weekly. ?(3)作表语但不用人做主语的形容词 convenient, possible, impossible, necessary, It is important to learn English well.

?在动词consider, find, believe, think, make, get, leave, set, keep等词后常用形 容词作主语补足语或宾语补足语。 ? ? ? ? Money was also thought important. The room was found empty. I consider Jim honest. I must get the breakfast ready.

? 在描绘性文字中,形容词(短语)或形容词化分词有 时起状语作用,说明主句所述的原因、时间或主语所处 境况或意义增补。 ?(1)表原因 ?表原因的形容词(短语)或形容词化分词多放在句首, 相当于原因状语从句,句子的主语亦是其逻辑主语。 ?Thirsty and hungry (=As he was thirsty and hungry), he went to the farmer’s cottage to ask for something to eat. ?Frightened (Because she was frightened), she asked me to go with her.

?(2)表时间 ?形容词(短语)表主句所发生的时间,放在句首。其作 用相当于一个时间状语从句。 ? Ripe(=When they are ripe), the oranges taste sweet. ?(3)说明主语的境况或意义增补 ?形容词(短语)表示主语所处境况或意义增补时,常放 在句末。相当于一个和主句并列的句子。 ?Holmes found the man lying on the floor, dead (=and he was dead). ?One woman was lying in bed, awake (=and she was awake).

?(1)某些形容词前加上the变成名词化的形容词, 相当于名词,表示一类人,在句子中做主、宾等。 the dead, the living, the rich, the poor, the blind The young should respect the old.

?(2)有关国家和民族的形容词加上定冠词指这个民 族的整体,与动词的复数连用,如the British,the English,the French,the Chinese等: The English have wonderful sense of humor.

?(1) whole与all: ?① the whole + 名词; ②all (of) the + 名词。 He was busy the whole morning. He can remember all the words he learns. ?(2) real与true: ?real一般指东西的真假,译为“真的”; ?true则指事情或消息的可靠性,译为“真实的”: This is a real diamond。 --Is that true? -- Yes. I heard it with my own ears.

?(3) tall与high: ? Tall 指身高的高度,用于人和动物, 反义词为short He is very short/tall.
?High 指物体的高度,另可形容价格,质量等, 反义词 为low

The kite is flying very high.
Tall和high都可用来指tree, building, tower等, 但mountain只能用high形容。

?(4) too much与much too:
? too much表示“太多的”,修饰事物数量; ? much too表示“太过,过分”,修饰形容词或副词: I am full because I have had too much rice. That coat is much too dear.

?(5) lonely与alone:
? lonely是表示心理活动的形容词,“孤独的,寂寞的”,作定语 或表语; ? alone “独自的,单独的”,指无人陪伴,仅作表语,(作为副词的 alone可作状语): He lives alone but he doesn?t feel lonely.

?(6) quick、fast与soon: ?quick往往指反应速度快, ?fast往往指运动速度快, ?soon则表示时间上很快即将发生: After a quick breakfast, he hurried to school. A train is much faster than a bus. His father will be back to China very soon.

?(7) other与else: ?other放在名词前; ?else修饰不定代词、疑问词、little、much后置,另 外,or else表示“否则”,是连词: The other students are on the playground Who else can work out this maths problem? Do you have anything else to say for yourself?

副词就是修饰或限制动词或形容词作用、表程度或范 围的词

? ⑴作状语:
1.程度副词:much, little, very, rather, so, too, still, quite, enough, almost, hardly. (1)程度副词一般放在被修饰的动词、形容词或副词的 前面,放在to be或第一个助动词和情态动词之后 I can hardly believe what he said. I am very happy to be with you. The last time I spoke to Bob, he seemed very sad.

?(2) too(that, this, as, so, how, however)+形容词 +a/an+名词 I?ve never seen that big an apple. This is too difficult a question. ?副词enough要放在形容词的后面,形容词enough 放在名词前后都可: If I had a long enough holiday I?d visit Europe. There is enough food for everyone to eat. = There is food enough for everyone to eat.

? 2.频度副词: often, sometimes, seldom, never, constantly, frequently, occasionally, usually等。 ? 通常在不需要强调时放在行为动词前,放在to be或第 一个助动词和情态动词之后。常用的这类词: I often saw her walk in the park. He is always talking in the class.

?3.方式副词carefully, properly, suddenly, normally, fast, well, politely, warmly, 方式副词一般放在动词后 The girl danced beautifully. She speaks English very well. ?被动语态中,方式副词一般放在be与谓语动词之间: The runner was badly hurt. English is widely spoken in the world today.

?4.时间副词,finally, yet, still, now, soon, lately, shortly, then, recently, already, before, early, late, today等。 ?时间副词, 尤其是表示具体时间的副词,一般放 在句首或句尾 He will be back tomorrow. They have already been to the UK twice.

?5.地点副词, away, abroad, everywhere, outside, around, here, anywhere, somewhere, near, far, up, down等。 ?通常置于句尾,有时置于句首,一般不置于句 中: The boys are playing outside. There you can see thousands of bikes flying.

?(2) 作表语:
?地点副词一般可以作表语,放在be等连系动词之 后,说明人物所处的位置: I’m very sorry he isn’t in at the moment. I have been away for nearly 20 years.

?时间副词(如now、then)以及许多地点副词都可以作名 词的定语,放在名词的后面: People now often have their dinners at restaurants. Women there were living a terrible life in the 1920s.

?地点副词一般可以作宾语补足语: Put your dirty socks away, Jim! ? [注意] “动词+副词”的宾语如果是代词,则该副词应该 放在代词之后: He wrote down the word. →He wrote it down.

?(1) close与closely close意思是“近”;closely 意思是“仔细地”。例如: He is sitting close to me. Watch him closely. ?(2) late 与lately late意思是“晚”;lately 意思是“最近”。例如: You have come too late. What have you been doing lately?

? (3) deep与deeply deep意思是"深",表示空间深度; deeply时常表示感情上的深度,"深深地"。 He pushed the stick deep into the mud. Even father was deeply moved by the film. ?(4) high与highly high表示空间高度; highly表示程度,相当于much: The plane was flying high. I think highly of your opinion.

?5) wide与widely wide表示空间宽度; widely意思是“广泛地”,“在许多地方”: He opened the door wide. English is widely used in the world. ? 6) free与freely free的意思是“免费”; freely 的意思是“无限制地”。 He gives out free candies in the park. You may speak freely; say what you like.

(1) ago、before的用法: ?①“时间段+later/ago” “(多久)以后/以前”, 用于过 去时 ?②“after/before+某个时刻” 表示“在某时刻之后/ 之前”,此时两个词是介词。 He had an accident a week ago. Some years later, the boy became a singer. ?③ago与before:ago只能用于过去时,before用于完 成时: Have you been there before? She told me that she had left for BJ 2 days ago.

(2) too、also、either、nor的用法: ?too(“也”)用于肯定句和疑问句的末尾,且用逗号隔开; ?also(“也”)用于肯定句句子谓语动词之前, be动词之后 ; ?either(“也”)用于否定句末尾,也用逗号隔开; ?nor(“也不”)用于倒装句句首: Are you American, too? I am also a student. He is not happy and I am not happy, either. He didn?t watch the football game. Nor did I.

(3) sometimes、 sometime、 some times 、some time的用法: ?sometimes(有时)用于一般现在时、 ?sometime(在将来某时)用于将来时、 ?some times(数次)表示次数、 ?some time(一些时间)表示一段时间 Sometimes they go hiking in the mountains. I will meet your father sometime. I will stay here some time. I have been to HK some times.

(4) already、yet的用法: ?在完成时中,already一般用于肯定句,yet一般用于否定 句和疑问句: Have you done it already? I have not had my breakfast yet. (5) hard与hardly的用法: ?hard作为副词意思是:“努力地,猛烈地”, ?hardly是否定词,意思是:“几乎不”,一般与情态动词 can/could连用: They study English very hard. You can hardly see a person in the street.

(6)“quite/ what+ a+形容词+名词”的用法: ?quite/such/what...+a+形容词+名词; ?so/too/how+形容词+a+名词; ?rather +a+形容词+名词 = a+ rather+形容词+名 词 I have never seen such a strange guy It is quite a nice day for a walk.

(7) rather与quite的用法区别:同very一样,两 个词都表示形容词或副词的程度,quite表示“不 到最高程度但是比预料的好”,rather比quite更 接近very的含义,含有令人惊讶的意思。见下图 对“nice”程度的描绘:

It?s quite a nice film (可能意味着不是一部最好的电影) It?s rather a nice film (意味着比大多数电影都好)

(8) farther与further的用法区别: ? 表示地点、方向或距离时两个词同义,意思为“ 更远、较远” ? further还表示“更多、进一步、额外”等意思, 此时不能换为farther They decided to go farther/further the next day. This problem will be further discussed. Every one of them had their further studies abroad.

(9) maybe、possibly、perhaps的区别: ? maybe“可能, 也许”,比另两个较不正式、可能 性不大; ? possibly“可能地, 或者, 也许”,可能性较大,在 否定句和疑问句中表示“无论如何”; ? perhaps“可能”,较为常用而且正式,可能性也 不大 Maybe you are right. I couldn?t possibly have finished this work in such a short time. I thought perhaps it was the dress you want.

(10) most、mostly的区别: ? most作为形容词和名词时意思是“大多数的、 大部分的”,作为副词时意思为“最,十分、很” ; ? mostly仅为副词,意为“主要地、多半地、大部 分”地: I was at home most of the time when I was free. Most children are naughty. She is mostly out on Sundays.

(11)(be) worth、(be) worthy of的区别: ? worth一般被看作是介词,后面接名词或者动名 词,用主动表示被动含义,还可以用副词well修饰 ; ? worthy of表示“值得的、配得上的”,后面跟 动名词的被动形式 The car is worth ¥3,000 This book is well worth reading several times. It is a thing worthy of being seen.

(12) almost、nearly的区别: 两个词意思相近,都表示“几乎、将近”,大多数 情况可以互换,与否定词连用时用almost不用 nearly. almost no 相当于hardly any(几乎没有)。 We are almost/nearly there. He had done almost nothing today.

(13) a bit与a little的区别: ? 这两个名词短语经常当作副词使用,修饰形容词或副词 的原级或比较级,可以互换,语气比rather弱。 This digital camera is a bit (a little) expensive. It is a little(a bit) colder than yesterday. ? 另外,a little可以直接加不可数名词,a bit 则采用“a bit + of +名词(不可数或可数名词复数)”的形式 I have got a bit of a cold. Go and get a little water for me, please ? [注意] not a bit(=not at all)意为“根本不”, ? 而 not a little则意为“非常,不是一点”。

(14) especially; specially; particular 特别地、尤其 地 ? (1)especially 常用于正式文体, 通常用来对前面所叙 述的事情作进一步补充或说明, “特别地、尤其地” 。 ? (2)specially常用于口语中,表示为了特别的目的、专 门的。 ? (3)particular含有“特有的”和“个别的”之意。指 从众多事例中选出一个 “个别的”,但有时也表示特 殊,意义与special相同。 I love this city, especially in winter. He come here specially to see you. Any particular places you want to see?

? 补充: ? 既是形容词也是副词的单词有:early, late, long, last, next, first, near, enough, much, all, hard, alone, fast, slow, high, low, straight等: It was a long holiday He stayed there very long. Think hard then you will find a way. He is a very hard(难对付的) person.

? 大多数形容词(性质形容词)和副词有比 较级和最高级的变化,即原级、比较级和 最高级,用来表示事物的等级差 ? 原级即形容词的原形,比较级和最高级有 规则变化和不规则变化两种。

构成法 一般单音节词未尾加-er,-est 以不发音的e结尾的单音词和少数 以- le结尾的双音节词只加-r,-st 原级 tall nice 比较级 最高级 taller tallest nicer nicest bigger biggest

big 以一个辅音字母结尾的闭音节单 音节词,双写结尾的辅音字母 ,再加-er,-est "以辅音字母+y"结尾的双音节词, busy 改y为i,再加-er,-est clever 少数以-er,-ow结尾的双音节词未 尾加-er,-est important 其他双音节词和多音节词,在前 面加more,most来构成比较级 和最高级



clevere clevere r st more most impo impor rtant tant

good well(健康的)

比较级 better


ill(有病的) old much/many little far



older/elder more less farther/further

oldest/eldest most least farthest/furthest

(1)有些形容词由于其本身涵义一般不用来比较。如: ? 表示“完全、特别”意义的形容词 final, hopeless, complete, excellent, perfect, total, whole, full, empty, impossible等 (2)表示“极限、主次”意义的形容词 chief, extreme, main, major, basic, first, most, wonderful (3)表示“处所、方位、时间”的形容词 ahead, daily, weekly, here, now, present, then, outside, future, once等

(4)表示“状态和强调”的形容词 asleep, ashamed, awake, aware, blind, deaf, dead, favorite, hardly, own, simple, very ? 表示“国籍、性质、材料”的形容词 American, economic, scientific, true, false, illegal, (5)表示“独一无二”的形容词 only, single,

? 1) a bit, a little, rather, much, far, by far, many, a lot, lots, a great deal, any, still, even等。 ? 2)还可以用表示倍数的词或度量名词作修饰语。 ? 3)以上词(除by far),必须置于比较级形容词或副 词的前面。

? ---- Are you feeling ____? ? ---- Yes,I\?m fine now. A. any well B. any better C. quite good D. quite better 答案:B. any 可修饰比较级,quite修饰原级,well的 比较级为better.

? 2)The experiment was____ easier than we had expected. A. more B. much more C. much D. more much 答案:C. much可修饰比较级,B,C都说得通,但 easier本身已是比较级,不需more

? 3)If there were no examinations, we should have ___ at school. A. the happiest time B. a more happier time C. much happiest time D. a much happier time 答案:D

? (1) 表示两者之间没有差别时,使用句型: 主语1 + 谓动 + as + 形/副原级 + as + 主语2 +…. He is as excited as his younger sister. They picked as many apples as the farmers. 主语1 + 谓动 (否) + as / so + 形/副原级 + as + 主语2+… He is not so excited as his younger sister. They didn?t pick as many apples as the farmers.

? (2)讲述两者有差异, 使用句型: ? 主语1+谓动+(much/less ) +形/副比较级+than+主语2… A modern train is much faster than a car. I think English is less difficult than math. ? (3) 讲述某人/物是最突出的一个时,用最高级: 主语(sb./ sth) + 谓动 +(the) +形/副最高级 +in / of …. ? 注意: 形容词最高级前一般需加定冠词the;副词最高 级前用或不用定冠词the都可。 The Changjiang River is the longest in China. He jumped (the) highest of the three (boys).

? (4)比较级+and+比较级 ? 常用“比较级+and+比较级”来表达“越来越” His voice got weaker and weaker. Take some medicine and you?ll get better and better.

? (5)“the+比较级…, the+比较级…”来表达“越 …,(就)越…” The more clothes you wear, the warmer you will feel.

? (6)“the +比较级+of the two”来表示“两个中 最…” ? 表示两者中较突出者,且比较级后又有名词, 这时的比较级前一定要加定冠词the: Joan is the taller of the two girls. ? (7)“more A than B”表示“与其说是B,不如 说是A” He is more diligent than clever.

? (8)“not+比较级+than”结构,意为“前者不如后者…” ,表示两者都具有该形容词的属性,但前者不如后者 ? 而“no+比较级+than”结构意为“ 和……一样不…… ”表示两个人都含有与该形容词相反的属性
His English is not better than mine. 他的英语不如我的英语好。 His English is no better than mine. 他的英语同我的英语一样不好。(即一样差) You are not more careful than he is. 你不如他仔细。 You are no more careful than he is. 你和他一样不仔细。 (即一样粗心)

(9)表示倍数 ? ① 倍数+形容词 (或副词)的比较级+than This rope is twice longer than that one. ? ② 倍数+as+形容词(或much)或副词原级+as This big stone is three times as heavy as that one. ? ③ 倍数+the size(length, width, height)of This street is four times the length of that one. ? 注意:如果形容词是修饰名词的,要把名词放在形容 词后面。即:①倍数+more+名词 (可数,不可数 )+than②倍数+as many(或much)+名词+其他+as

? (1) 比较的对象必须是属于同一性质(范畴)内的人或物: [误]The weather of Shanghai is finer than Beijing. ? 这句表达的是上海的天气与北京相比,比较对象不一 致。应改为: The weather of Shanghai is finer than that of Beijing. 注意:在从句中常用the one 代替单数可数名词,用those 代替复数名词,用that 代替不可数名词和某些可数名 词。

? (2) 要避免比较级中自身与自身比较。如: [误]Joan studies harder than any student in her class. Joan属于any student中的一位,没有排除自身比较。 应改为: Joan studies harder than any other student in her class. Joan studies harder than any of the other students in her class. Joan studies harder than anyone else in her class.
上述三个正确的句子可分别用下列结构表示: ? any other+单数可数名词 ? …比较级 + than + any of the other+复数可数名词 ? anyone else

? 但是,不同范围的同类人或物进行比较时,则than引 导的从句中不用other。 如: China is larger than any country in Europe.

? (3) 要避免重复比较。 ? 如: [误] Mary runs more faster than Lucy.
? more是many/ much的比较级,它只能构成比较级而 不能修饰比较级, 应改为: Mary runs faster than Lucy.

? (4) “most+形容词”可表达一种程度上非常高的特 性和品质,表示“非常”或“在很大程度上”,但 却 不表示比较,这时most前一般无the。 What he said is most interesting. Don't you know it is a most important question? ? (5)形容词、副词递减的比较等级的构成 ? 在形容词、副词前加less和least,表示“较不”和 “最不” ? Interesting? less interesting? least interesting ? Important? less important? least important

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