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HOW TO WRITE A SUMMARY

Definition(定义)

A summary is a short account giving the main points of something longer or detailed.

3 Styles of Passages
Styles(体裁) Functions(功能)

Narration (记叙文) Argumentation (议论文) Exposition (说明文)

describe a person or an event, with afterthoughts
show the writer’s point of view introduce something, eg. a phenomenon

Task 1: How to find the key sentences or key words?
体裁 记叙文 关键句 抓住who, what happened, 及the writer’s purpose

议论文

说明文

通常抓住首段和尾段 抓住首段或各段首句

Task 2:
Recognize the styles of 3 given passages and find out the key sentences or key words of each passage.

The Steps of Writing a Summary
(1)定时态:如果阅读材料是过去时,那 么基本时态用过去时;如果是现在的, 那么基本时态用现在时; (2)定人称:一般情况下采用第三人称来 写作,特殊如书信的,可能会使用第 一、二人称; (3)定技巧:结合相关技巧,重新组句。

2007年广东高考概括部分评分细则
1.完全糊涂地照抄原文,连人称都不改 的,得0分; 2. 机械死板地照抄原文,只改人称的,得 1分; 3. 稍微灵活地抄原文,改主语、宾语、原 文词序的,得2分; 4. 创造性地抄,改主语、宾语、原文词序 还有句子结构的,最多得3分; 5. 结构、用词、词性变化比较好的得4至5 分。

Task 3:
Rewrite the sentences according to the skills.

(1)Use words of similar meanings 同义替换法
I didn’t catch any fish owing to the fact that I was not patient. because I didn’t catch any fish_________ I was not patient.

(2)Adopt the opposite way when saying a sentence正话反说法
You will fail. not succeed You will ____________.

(3)Change the part of speech 词性转换法
Patience is very important. of great importance Patience is _____________________.

(4)Change the structure of a sentence句式变化法
语态变换: Parents should give children more praise. be given Children should__________more praise.

简单句变复合句:

Children should be encouraged more. This will help them learn faster. Children should be encouraged more, _______ will help them learn faster. which Children are given more praise. They will achieve more success. When _________________, children will given more praise achieve more success.

(5)Use the shortest possible transitions连词衔接法
注意使用一些短而精的连词,如but, and, so, while, however, then, thus, yet, for, therefore, including, instead of 等。

We should encourage children. We should not scold them. instead of We should encourage children__________ scolding them.

(6) Change the order of the words. 词序改变法 The secret of success was patience.

________ was ___________________. Patience the secret of success

(7) Omit the details细节省略法 Don’t always scold and give lots of praise instead.

Don’t scold and give praise instead. ———————————————

(8) Make use of the meaning of a sentence句意理解法
Shopping on the Internet is becoming increasingly popular. More and more people prefer ___________________________ Internet shopping. ___________________________

Some Summary Models for You
(1)Narration Summary Models (记叙文概要模板) (2)Argumentation Summary Models (议论文概要模板) (3)Exposition Summary Models (说明文概要模板)

(1) 记叙文概要模板
点明写作目的类: The writer tells us…(主题)by showing us an example of…, who/which…(故事情节). 作者经历类: In the passage, the writer mainly tells us his experience of doing sth, which…… 他人经历类: This passage is mainly about sb’s experience of doing sth…..

(2) 议论文概要模板
? The article gives the view that… should/shouldn’t…(主题). …..(补充论据). ? The passage highlights(强调) the importance of sth….. ? The author argues that…

(3) 说明文概要模板
? 现象揭示类: This article points out the common phenomenon -----…(主题), which…..(补充解释). ? 利弊对比类:

The article compares the disadvantages/ benefits of A and B. A…while B… The passage discusses the impact(影响)of sth. On the positive side…, but it may also….
? 研究显示类: The study reveals(揭露) that… The purpose of the report is to show that…

Task 4: Write a summary Passage 1

关键词 、句 (1)the writer, an old man, fishing, experience, teach sb. a lesson, (2)The secret of success was patience.
(1) 连词成句 __________had____________________ The writer a fishing experience with an old man __________who taught him a lesson _________________.

(2) 词序变化法 Patience was the secret of success.

The writer had a fishing experience with an old man who taught him a lesson. Patience was the secret of success. 句式变化法 The writer had a fishing experience with an old man who taught him a lesson that patience was the secret of success. The writer tells us…(主题)by showing us an example of…, who/which…(故事 情节).

Reference Key for Passage 1:
The writer tells us patience was very important and that it was the secret of success by showing us an example of his unforgettable fishing experience with an old man, who taught him a lesson. ( 35 words)
注意

Passage 2: 关键句
(1) Don’t always scold and give lots of praise instead.
细节省略法

Don’t scold and give praise instead.
词序变化法、连词衔接法

Give praise instead of scolding.
词性变换法

Praise children instead of scolding them.

(2) If you teach your children not to fear a mistake of failure, they will learn faster and achieve success at last. 同义替换法 句意理解法 词性转换法 细节省略法
Encourage your children and they will make more progress and succeed.

(1) Praise children instead of scolding them. (2) Encourage your children and they will make more progress and succeed. The article gives the view that when educating children, parents should praise and encourage them instead of scolding, which will help children to make progress and succeed.
注意

Passage 3: 关键词、句 (1) Internet shopping is a new way of shopping. (2) Shopping on the Internet is becoming increasingly popular. (3)People can shop for a variety of things on the Internet. (4) common products, information products, services

Reference Key for Passage 3:
This article points out the common phenomenon----Internet shopping, which offers great convenience. People can buy many things on the Internet including common products, information products and even services. ( 30 words )

注意事项:“五定三忌”
定体裁;定主题;定时态; 定人称;定技巧 忌照抄原文;忌私加观点; 忌不符字数。


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