Introduction to Petroleum Industry
INTRODUCTION: Petroleum industry plays considerably roles in our daily lives and other industry. This industry can mainly be divided into upstream sect
or, midstream sector and downstream sector. Today, many giant oil companies, such as PetroChina, Sinopec and CNOOC, extract huge amount of oil from underground reservoirs in China. Most crude oil and natural gas originate from plant and animal life that thrived millions of years ago in swamps and oceans. These organic materials were depodited with mud and silt from streams and rivers. The sediments eventually hardende to form sedimentary rock. Heat and pressure transformed the soft parts of the plants and animals into solid, liquid or gaseous hydrocarbons known as fossil fuels-coal, crude oil or natural gas. With the industry booming both onshore and offshore, many concerns from the public are focused on the environmental protection in petroleum industry. Fortunately, technological innovation, extensive training and stringent regulations are used to minimize the impacts on people, animals, soil, air and water
Introduction to Petroleum Industry
Three Main Components of the Industry
Today, the upstream sector includes more than 1000 exploration and production companies as well as hundreds of associated business such as seismic and drilling contractors, service rig operators, engineering firms and various scienfic, technical, service and supply companies. The midstream sector includes oil and gas pipeline systems that connect producing and consuming areas. Other facilities extract sulphur and natural gas liquids, store oil and gas products and transport products by truck, rail
or tanker. The downstream sector consists of refineries, gas distribution utilities, oil product wholesalers, service stations and petrochemical companies.
Finding Oil and Natural Gas
Earth scientists in the petroleum industry, including geologists, geophysists, geochemists and paleontologists, study what has happened to rocks that may be buried thousands of meters below the surface, how those rocks were formed and affected by events stretching back millions of years, and how to identify traps where oil and gas have accumulated within rock formations. A trap requires three elements: ??a porous reservoir rock to accumulate the oil and gas—typically sandstones,? limestones and dolomites. ??an overlying impermeable rock to prevent the oil and gas from escaping.? ??a source for oil and gas—typically black waxy shales.? Seismic Surveys. In a seismic survey, the geophysical contractor’s crew lays out a line or several lines of sensitive receivers, called geophones or jugs, on the ground. Then explosions or mechanical vibrations are created on the surface. The geophones record the energy reflected back as seismic waves from rock layers at various depths. To reduce environmental impact, many contractors today use the mechanical vibroseis method to send energy waves from a heavy, vibrating vehicle into the earth. Like the rest of the petroleum industry, explorationists have adopted ever-higher environmental standards for seismic surveys. For example, improved methods for clearing and using narrower cutlines have reduced the impacts on soil, water, plants and wildlife in forested areas. In other sensitive areas such as mountainous terrain, seismic crews use helicopters or even packhorses to limit surface disturbance. In offshore exploration, “air guns”using compressed air have replaced dynamite as a better, safer energy source which also minimizes the impact on marine life. A marine vessel records the reflected energy from a towed array of hydrophones. In shallow waters, the hydrophones may be laid out on the seabed.
Exploration — The Search for Petroleum.
Drillers turn theory into hard economic reality. Even when a development well is located right between two producing wells, there is still a risk that nothing will be found and also the possibility of greater-than-expected success. The stakes are much higher when the well is a wildcat in unexplorated territory. The basic drilling process is simple. A revolving steel bit at the bottom of a string of pipe grinds a hole through the rock layers. There are many different types of rigs. The smallest are service rigs mounted on trucks, while the largest are installed on ships or offshore platforms. Some are specially equipped for sour gas exploration, slanted holes or horizontal drilling. As a general rule, the bigger the rig, the deeper it can drill. About 75 workers are directly employed in the drilling of one well, although only four to seven may be on duty at the rig at any given time. The actural number can vary considerably, depending on the type of well being drilled.
Drilling. Producing Oil and Natural Gas
After drilling has located a reservoir of oil or natural gas, the operating company’s production department takes over the task of bringing the resource to the surface. Petroleum is not produced from underground lakes. Rather, oil and gas are contained in the pores and fractures of certain sedimentary rocks in the same way that water is held in a sponage. In mature producing areas, recovering more oil and gas from old wells is an important job. Getting the most petroleum, at the least cost, is also a key challenge in new production areas. Oil Recovery Methods. In primary recovery—the initial approach to produce oil— natural reservoir pressure or simple mechanical pumps are used to raise oil to the surface. Most oil wells in the world today have to be pumped. A number of methods can improve primary recovery. The most common is infill drilling, which involves drilling more wells into the same pool so the oil does not have to travel as far through the rock to reach a wellbore. Directional wells are often used for infill drilling. More than one directional well can be drilled from a common platform. Horizontal drilling, which extends the wellbore into a much large portion of the oil-bearing formation, has been employed since the late 1980s to improve production and enhance recovery. Further oil production can be obtained by injecting water(“waterflooding”) or natural gas to maintain reservoir pressure and push oil out of the rock. This is called secondary recovery. More advanced methods are referred to as tertiary recovery. The most common tertiary recovery method for light and medium crude oil is miscible flooding. In this procedure, natural gas liquids(ethan, propane and butane) are injected into special injection wells. When dissolved, these liquids reduce surface tension and
viscosity to help release the oil from the reservoir rock. Carbon dioxide has also been used for miscible floods. Even with all these techniques, the average recovery in the light oil fields is a little more than 30 percent of the original oil in place(OOIP). The remaining resource represents billions of cubic meters of oil that has been discovered in the world but cannot be produced economically with existing technology.
Processing—Making Marketable Commodities
Most crude oil and natural gas requires some processing to remove undesirable components before the commodity goes to market. Some processing facilities are basically just settling tanks for removing sand and water, while others are billion-dollar plants treating large volumes of sour gas or bitumen. Processing facilities separate the raw petroleum into the major products sold by the upstream sector: ?crude oil, a mixture of liquid hydrocarbons.? ?market-ready natural gas, composed mainly of methane, the simplest hydrocarbon? molecule. ?natural gas liquids(NGLs), the heavier gaseous hydrocarbons, including ethane,? propane and butane. ?condensate, liquid hydrocarbons obtained from processing natural gas for market.? ?sulphur, obtained from processing natural gas and transported by truck or train as? liquid, pellets or cakes. Gas Processing. The natural gas purchased by consumers consists almost entirely of methane, the simplest hydrocarbon. In gas reservoirs, however, methane is typically found in mixtures with heavier hydrocarbons, such as ethan, propane, butane and pentanes, as well as water vapor, hydrogen sulphide(H2S), which is found in sour gas, carbon dioxide, nitrogen and other gases. Almost all of these substances are removed from the gas stream at processing plants located near production areas.
Moving Oil and Natural Gas Transportation—Moving and Selling Products.
Oil and natural gas supplies are mainly located in rural and remote areas. Supply and demand are linked together by pipelines. Some are massive steel conduits more than a meter in diameter, while others are plastic tubes a few centimeters across. They form delivery systems as vast and complex as the railroads, highways or electric utilities. However, pipelines are largely invisible, buried a meter or more underground. Pipelines fall into four general categories: ?gathering lines move raw oil and gas from wellheads to processing plants and transmission facilities. ?trunk lines transport crude oil, natural gas liquids and refined petroleum products to refineries and petrochemical plants, and some trunk lines transport refine products to consumer areas. ?gas transmission systems carry natural gas at high pressure from producing areas to consuming areas. ?local distribution companies deliver natural gas at low pressure to homes and businesses. Crude oil, gas liquids and refined products are also transported by tanker, barge,
railway and truck. Pipelines are the only method used to deliver natural gas today.
Using Oil and Natural Gas
Refining and petrochemicala—Manufacturing molecules. Petroleum molecules come in a wide variety of sizes and shapes—strings and rings of carbon and hydrogen atoms. The methane in natural gas is the simplest and smallest. By comparison, the molecules in paraffin wax and asphalt are complex and enormous. These hydrocarbon molecules are sorted, split apart, reassembled and blended at refineries and petrochemical plants. There, they become part of multitude of products, from gasoline to synthetic rubber.
A Versatile Energy Source
The petroleum industry exists because people have become accustomed to the benefits oil products and natural gas provides—benefits like convenient, affordable transportation, warm homes and thousands of synthetic materials. The production and use of petroleum have altered the way in which we live. Petroleum and products derived from it show up everywhere in our daily lives Introduction：
石油工业同其他工业业一样， 在我们的日常生活中扮演着相当重要的角色， 包括上游部 门，中游部门和下游部门。如今，许多像中国石油，中国石化，中国海洋石油公司这样的龙 头企业都是从中国的地下油田钻取大量石油。 大部分原油和天然气源于数万年前蓬勃发展的湿地生物和海洋生物。 这些有机材料全都 储存在溪流和河流的淤泥里，而这些沉积物最终固化成岩石。另外，高温高压将动植物的软 组织转变为固态、液态或气态的碳氢化合物，即化石、原油或天然气。 随着工业在海陆两个领域的蓬勃发展， 公众关心的问题都集中在发展石油工业过程中的 环境保护上。幸好，通过工艺的革新， 广泛的训练和严格的规管来减小对人类、动物、 土壤、 空气和水源的影响。
Introduction to petroleum industry 石油工业的三个主要部分
今天，上游部门包括 1000 多个勘探与生产公司和几百家相关业务公司，例如，地震和 钻井承包商，服务平台运营商，工程公司和各种科技服务公司。中游部门主要负责衔接生产 和使用石油和天然气地区的运输管道系统。 其他设施将提炼硫和液态天然气， 储存石油和天 然气产品，并用卡车、铁路和油罐车运输产品。下游部门由炼油厂，天然气分配单元，服务 站，石化公司组成。 石油和天然气的勘察 勘探—石油的勘探 石油工业领域的勘探专家有地质学家， 地球物理学家， 地球化学家 和古生物学家， 他们研究的是埋在地下可能上千年的岩石发生了什么， 几十万年以前受到什 么影响形成的，怎样辨别暗色岩的岩层是否储存有石油和天然气，A trap requires three
●多孔藏油岩来储存石油和天然气，典型的岩石有砂岩、石灰岩和白云石。 ●上面覆盖有不透水岩来防止石油和天然气的流失 ●油气的生油岩，最具代表的是黑蜡质页岩 地震勘探 地球物理勘探队在地面铺设了一条或多条金属的敏感接收器， 也就是震波接收仪， 然后在地面制造爆炸或机械振动。 而震波接收仪将接受并记录从不同深度岩石夹层反射回来
的地震波能力，同时，为了降低对环境的不良影响，许多承包商现在都使用机械可控震源的 方法传递来自重型振动机械发射能量波到地下。 正如石油工业的其他部门一样，勘探专家采用更高的环保标准进行地震勘探，例如，通 过不使用或者使用更窄的金属截线来降低对森林、土壤、水、植物和野生动物的不良影响。 在其它像山地这样的敏感地带， 地震勘探队通常会使用直升机甚至驮马来限制地表干扰； 在 海域勘探中，空气枪作为一个更好也更安全的能量源，已经取代了炸药，同时，也降低了对 海洋生物的的不良影响，海上的船舰空将记录来自水听器/海洋检波器拖曳阵反射的能量； 在浅水区域，水听器/海洋检波器可以铺设在海床上。 钻井 钻井工程师将理论转化成硬经济现实。当一口井正好位于两口生产井之间，而此时存 在什么也勘测的风险，但也有可能出现超乎预期的成功，尤其在未开发领域的初探井/野猫 井，赌注显得更明显。 基本的钻孔过程是相当简单的， 一个附着在钻柱底部的旋转金属钻头， 将在岩石上钻一 个孔。钻机/钻探设备的种类也不尽相同，最小的是安装在卡车上的修井机，而最大的则是 安装在船上或海上平台的，还有一些是专门酸气钻探，斜井和水平井配备的。常规情况下， 钻探设备/钻井越大，钻井的深度也就越深。一口井直接雇佣的钻工大约有 75 人，即使只有 4 至 7 人随时在值班。钻井的实际人数可以在相当大的范围变化，这取决于油井的类型。 Producing oil and natural gas
Production—Recovering Resources. 当确定了油藏的位置后，承包商的生产部门会接
管将资源运送到地上的任务。石油并不是像地下湖那样储存在地下，而是像海绵里的水，储 存在某一沉积岩的岩孔和岩层中的。 在成熟的产油区域， 从一口老井开采更多油和天然气是 一项重要的工作，同样，在一个新的产油区域，以尽可能低的成本获取更大量的油是一个巨 大的挑战。
Oil recovery method 在一次采油过程中，最初的采油途径是通过油藏压力或简单的机械
泵将油升至地面。现在，世界上大多数油井都是用的泵举。 许多方法可以提高一次采油率，最常用的是钻加密井，这样，在一个油藏区域就会有更 多的井，因此，原油到达井筒之前就不会在岩石间流动更远的距离，定向井通常用来钻加密 井，一般在一个平台就可以钻多口定向井。水平井可以让井筒暴露在很大面积的含油层中， 早在 19 世纪 80 年代末，水平井就被用来提高产油量和采收率。 更进一步产油可以通过注水或天然气来增加压力， 从而讲油压出岩层， 这也就是二次开 采。第三次开采则需要更多先进的设备及方法，最常用的是开采轻中质原油的混相驱油法/ 气体混相驱法。这一步，天然气液（含乙烷，丙烷，丁烷）将会被注入到一个特别的注入井， 被液化后， 降低这些液体表面张力和粘度有助于储油岩将石油释放出来。 二氧化碳也可以用 于混相驱油法/气体混相驱法。 即使用尽所有的技术， 轻质油的采收率也仅仅占原始石油地质储量的百分之三十几。 全 世界已经发现石油有几十亿立方米用现有的技术是根本无法经济地开采出来的。 Processing—making marketable commodities 大多数原油和天然气在推向市场前都会将不需要的成分提取出来。 一些加工设备仅仅只 是沉淀出沙和水。While````````````sour gas or bitumen. 在上游部分，炼油设备将原油分为一 下几中主要销售产品： ●原油，液态碳氢化合物
●可销售的天然气，主要由最简单的碳氢化合物甲烷组成 ●液态天然气，稍重的碳氢化合物，包括乙烷、丙烷和丁烷 ●凝析油，液态碳氢化合物，来自炼制天然气的过程 ●硫，来自炼制天然气的过程，一般呈液态、颗粒或饼状，用卡车或铁路运输 Gas processing 消费者购买的天然气几乎全是由最简单的碳氢化合物甲烷罪城。在气藏中， 甲烷通常是和其他一些较重的碳氢化合物混合在一起的，例如乙烷、丙烷、丁烷和戊烷，还 有水蒸气、在酸气中的硫化氢、二氧化碳、氮气和其他气体。几乎所有的这些物质都来自位 于生产区附近的炼油厂的气流。
Moving oil and natural gas
Transportation—moving and selling products 石油和天然气的供应猪妖来自偏远的乡村地区， 供应方个和需求方则是通过管道联系在一起的。 有些管道是直径大于一米的钢铁金属道， 而 有些是直径几十厘米的塑料管道。 他们的传送系统像公路， 高速路和电力设备一样巨大复杂。 而大多管道是看不见的，，被埋在地下一米左右。管道主要分为以下四种： ●集油管将原油和天然气从油桶运输至炼油厂和传输设备 ●输油干线将原油、 天然气和炼制的石油产品运送到炼油厂和石化企业， 一些输油干线将炼 制产品送到消费者 ●气体传输系统将高压天然气从生产区域送到消费区域 ●地方传输公司将低压天然气传送到家庭用户和商业用户 原油、气液和炼制产品也会用飞机、油船、铁路和卡车来运输，管道是想在唯一用来运动天 然气的途径。 Using oil and natural gas Refining and ``````` 石油分子是有不同大小和尺寸的碳氢链组成的，其中乙烷是天然气中 结构最简单，碳氢链最小的。相比之下，固体石蜡和沥青中的颗粒的结构是复杂的，碳氢链 也是巨大的。这些碳氢化合物在炼油厂被归类、分离、重排和混合，在那里，它们将变成众 多产品的一部分，从汽油到橡胶。 A versatile ````` 石油工业的存在是因为人们习惯了石油和天然气带来的众多好处，例如，使用方便，运输廉 价，warm homes，和成千上万的合成采莲。石油的生产和使用已经改变了我们的生活方式， 石油个石油的其他副产品在我们的日常生活中随处可见。 综合英语：90；英语语音：92；计算机应用基础实验：95；国际经济法：90；市场营销学： 81；经贸英语基础：90；国际贸易基础：81；会计学原理：61；汽车英语：85；会计英语： 94 普通话实训专用周：93；思想道德修养与法律基础：90；日语：73；世界遗产概况：优 秀； 综合英语：90；英语语音：92；计算机应用基础实验：95；国际经济法：90；市场营销学： 81；经贸英语基础：90；国际贸易基础：81；会计学原理：61；普通话实训专用周：93；思 想道德修养与法律基础：90；日语：73；