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高考英语阅读理解------词义猜测题解题技巧


---猜测词义

考纲解读
猜测词义题: 词义猜测能力是英语高考阅

读理解能力的主要组成部分,是历年高考中 的必考题型,主要考查对文中关键词语(实 词、短语、指代关系等)的理解。而且,所 考查的词或短语的意义往往不停留在字面上, 要根据语境来判断。

命题角度
要求根据阅读材料所提供的信息,结合

中 学生应有的常识和经验,正确判断生词词 组的含义或成熟词在特定语境中表达的具 体含义以及一些句子的意思。 ? 要求猜测词义的词一般为实词及其词组, 通过构词、定义、对比、因果、联想、上 下文等线索确定词义的具体内容。 ? 代词复指理解题也是猜测词义的常考类型 。
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设问方式
词义猜测题常用的提问方式有:
1. The word “…” refers to / probably means / could best be replaced by _______. 2.The word “…” is most likely to mean ______. 3. What do you think the expression “…” stands for? 4. The underlined word “…” means ______. ......

应答技巧?

1. Definition 定义法

猜 测 词 义

2. Contrast 对比法 3. Similarity 相似法 4. Cause and effect 因果法 5. Example 例举法 6. Word Formation 构词法 7. Context 上下文 8. Common Sense 普通常识

1. Definition 定义法: 一般通过定义、定语 (从句)或同位语(从句)来确定词义。常 用逗号,破折号,冒号等。 It will be very hard but very brittle — that is , it will break easily.
(adj. 易碎的, 脆的)

The herdsman , who looks after sheep, earns about 650 yuan a year.
(n. 牧羊人)

2. Contrast 对比法:
利用文中的反义词以及表对比 关系的词(组)猜测词义。
表示对比的词有but、while、 however、 otherwise等。

Most of us agreed, however, Bill dissented.
(v. 不同意)

She is usually prompt for all her classes, but today she arrived in the middle of her first class.

A A. on time B. late C. slowly D. quickly

3. Similarity 相似法:利用同义 词、近义词或词组猜测词义。
Cleaning up waterways is an enormous task .The job is so large, in fact, that the government may not be able to save some of the rivers and lakes which have been polluted.
(adj. 巨大的;极大的)

4. Cause Effect 因果法:从原因推 测结果,从结果推测原因。
One who is destitute has a great need for food and clothing.
(adj. 贫穷的,穷困的)

That museum is so immense that it will be impossible to see all the exhibits in one day.
(adj. 大的)

5. Example 例举法:利用文中的举例 猜测词义。常见的举例的提示词有for instance, for example, such as等 。
Today young couples often spend lots of their money on appliances, for instance, washing machines, refrigerators and color televisions.
(n. 电器用具)

6. Word Formation 构词法:
英语单词大多是由词根、词头(前缀) 和词尾(后缀)所组成。词根是单词最基本 的部分,表达单词的基本含义。在词根前或 后加上前缀或后缀,可以用来引申或转变原 词的意义。只要我们掌握了各种词根、词头 和词尾的基本含义,那么就可以很容易猜测 出由其构成的新词的含义了。

中学英语中常见的前缀和后缀有:

super- (超) mini- (极小的, 微小的) micro-(极微小的) re- (再,反复) mis-(误,恶) im-(不) un-(不,非) in-(不,非) non-(不,非) -able(能…的 ) -less(不,无) -wards (向)

Can you guess the right meanings?
superman (超人) nonnatural (非自然的) homeless (无家可归的) rebuild (重建) microwave (微波) mispronouce (发错音) nonsmoker (非烟民) eastwards (向东)

Eg. I?m going to buy a microbus.
micro+bus 微型公共汽车

7. Context 上下文:利用语境及前后的提示来猜 测词义。 利用重述作为上下文猜词的线索。当作 者不能肯定读者能够理解他的意思时,他会用另 外一种方式陈述自己的观点。常见的用来表示重 述的词或短语有:

or.... 即,或者说 that is 也就是说 that is to say 也就是说 in other words 换句话说 to put it another way 换句话说

1)Tom saw an owl last night.
B.an animal C A.a bird B C. a star Tom saw an owl in a tree last night.

A .a bird B.an animal C. a star
Tom saw an owl in a tree last night but it flew away when he got near. (n. 猫头鹰) A .a bird B.an animal C. a star

2)The children are looking at an ape.

A.a kind of monkey B B.a kind of tree C. C.a kind of bird

The children are looking at an ape at the zoo.
A.a kind of monkey B.a kind of tree
C .a kind of bird
The children are looking at a large, hairy ape at the zoo. (n. 猿) A.a kind of monkey B.a kind of tree C.a kind of bird

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In some countries where there is very little rain, the farmers have to irrigate, or water, their fields.
逗号后的or water给出了irrigate的准确含义,即“灌溉” 的意思。

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They traveled a long way, at last got to a castle, a large building in old times.
逗号后的a large building in old times同位语部分重述castle 的确切词义,即古时候的“城堡”。

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We are on the night shift—from midnight to 8 a.m.— this week.
两个破折号之间的短语重述了night shift的含义,很清楚 地表明night shift 是“夜班”的意思。

根据上下文指代关系猜测代词
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文章中的代词it, that, this, he, him 或 them可以指上文提到的人或物,其中it 和that还可以指一件事。有时代词指代的 对象相隔较远,要认真查找;也有时需 要对前面提到的内容进行总结,才能得 出代词所指代的事。

Like Schmid, the editors of several self-published art magazines also champion (捍卫) found photographs. One of them, called simply Found, was born one snowy night in Chicago… ? them指的是前面出现的self-published art magazines ? However, the question that “moon people” asked is still an interesting one. A growing number of scientists are seriously thinking about it. ? it指的是月球人(moon people)所问的问题(the question)。
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8. Common sense 普通常识:根据普通常识和 生活经验来猜测词义。
在阅读的过程中,如遇到生词,有时可以根据 自身的直接或间接的经验,或运用自己已有的常识 将其推测出来。比如了解一些英美国家的天文地理、 风俗习惯、宗教信仰、政治结构、社会制度等,可 以帮助加深对文章的理解,遇到生词时,猜测词义 的能力自然就会增强。 When a doctor performs an operation on a patient, he usually gives an anesthetic to make him unconscious,because he does not want his patient to feel pain or to know what is happening to him. n. 麻醉剂(药)

It?s said that Bill Gates is the most affluent person in the world. ? 说明:根据常识,Bill Gates 为世界首富, 所以 affluent 可能是“富有的”。 ? As a scientist, Edison is very famous for his contrivances. ? 说明:根据常识,Edison为发明大王,他 应因“发明物”而闻名于世。
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Inquiry-based Activities (I)

探究活动 (1)

Can you guess the correct meanings of the following words?

---------------------------------------------------1. There are some glaciers moving down the mountain valleys. A glacier is a river of ice. C 冰河 D. 冰 A. 雪山 B. 树枝 C. 2. He is a resolute man. Once he made up his mind to do something, he won?t give it up halfway. A. weak B. B firm C. kind D. clever
3. Mr. Brown is now working at Princeton University far away from home. For this reason he has to rent a room near the office where he works.

A. A 租用 B. 借出 C. 购买 D. 参观

4. The official asked the man what his occupation was. The man told him that he worked as an engineer. A work B. study C. name D. interest A. 5. The old woman has a strange habit to keep over 100 cats in her house. Her neighbor all call her an eccentric lady. A. 爱猫的 B. B 古怪的 C. 闲不住 D. 动物保护主义者 6. In many countries there are two financial extremes, from penury to great wealth. C 非常贫困 D. 虚弱 A. 便士 B. 温饱 C.

7. Mrs. Smith is loquacious while her husband is the silent type. A. 活泼的 B. 好动的 C. C 多嘴多舌的 D. 可爱的 8. Those new comers were not used to the life in the suburbs which was so different from that inside the city. A. town B. capital C C. countryside D. house 9. This boy is not stupid, on the contrary, no one could be more intelligent. A. 勤奋的 B. 愚蠢的 C. D. 情报 C 聪明的

10. Children are always boasting. They say things like “My Dad?s car is bigger than your Dad?s,” “My Mom is smarter than yours.” and “My family has more money than yours.” The word “boasting” means _____.
A. 骄傲 B B. 吹牛 C. 顽皮 D. 幼稚

Inquiry-based Activities (II)

探究活动 (2)

Passage 1

(NMET2002,E篇) A child?s birthday party doesn?t have to be a hassle; it can be a basket of fun, according to Beth Anaclerio, an Evaston mother of two, ages 4 and 18 months.
74.What does the under lined word ?hassle? probably mean? A. a party designed by specialists B. a plan requiring careful thought C. a situation causing difficulty or trouble D. a demand made by guests.

解析:对比法.由前句的否定doesn’t与 后句的肯定can be这一对比关系,可以推 断出, hassle的意思应该与fun相反,而与 difficulty, trouble等相近。故答案为C。

Passage 2

A man?s position among the black-tent people depends on his ancestors, relatives, and fellow tribesmen. If they are honored, he is also honored. If they are disgraced, he too is disgraced. Therefore one carefully guards the honor of his family, his lineage(宗系), and his tribe.
The word “disgrace” means _________ in this text. A. honor B. endanger C. proud D. D shame

Passage 3
The ruler had been so cruel and dishonest that after the revolution he was banished. A few members of the Senate(参议院) opposed this decision, but the majority voted that the ruler should leave the country for ever.

The underlined word “banished” mean_______. B sent away A. killed by stoning B. C. imprisoned D. punished by whipping

Passage 4 Although he often had the chance, Mr. Brown was never able to steal money from a customer. This would endangered his position at the bank, and he did not want to jeopardize his future. The word “jeopardize” means _____ in this text. A. protect B B. endanger C. continue D. stop

Passage 5 After a four-year relationship with a major fortune 100 company beginning as a sales trainee and ending as a regional sales manager, I left the company at the height of my career. Many people were astounded that I would leave after earning a six-figure income. And they asked why I would risk everything for a dream. The underlined word “astounded” means ____. A. very sad B. very sorry D C. very pleased D. greatly surprised

Passage 6

(NMET2004全国,广东卷)When some kind of pain killer was brought out recently, researchers found that the colors turned the customers off because they made the product look weak and ineffective. Eventually, it came on the market in a dark blue and white packageblue because we think of it as safe, and white as calm.

The underlined part “the colors turned the customers off” (in Para.3) means that the colors_____. A. had weak effects on the customers B. tricked the customers into shopping C. caused the customers to lose interest D.attracted the customers strongly

通过因果法可知答案为C

Passage 7
(NMET2003,C篇,65) Fermat?s Last Theorem(定理). First put forward by the French mathematician Pierrede Fermat in the seventeenth century, the theorem had baffled and beaten the finest mathematical minds, including a French woman scientist who made a major advance in working out the problem, and who had to dress like a man in order to be able to study at the Ecole Polytechnique.

Which of the following best explains the meaning of the word “baffle” as it is used in the text? A. To encourage people to raise questions.

B. To cause difficulty in understanding.
C. To provide a person with an explanation.

D. To limit people?s imagination. 解析:相似法.由句中不难看出Fermat的定理使得 最具数学头脑的科学家绞尽脑汁(beat),并且在 句中beaten和baffled处于同等并列关系,据此 推断出baffle为使困惑、难倒、难以理解的意思。 故答案为B。

教师点评
同学们在做词义猜测题时注意不要脱离 语境。有些常用词在特定的上下文中,或专 业性文章中,具有特殊的或专门的词义。在 解这类题时,必须仔细地研读划线部分的上 下文,有时阅读的视线还要扩大一些。如果 离开特定的语言环境来理解生词意义,必然 会理解错误。

Summary

1. Definition 定义法
2. Contrast 对比法 3. Similarity 相似法 4. Cause and effect 因果法 5. Example 例举法 6. Word Formation 构词法 7. Context 上下文 8. Common Sense 普通常识

猜 测 词 义

特别提醒
①不管这个词多超纲,根据上下文都能 得出其意思。 ? ②不管这个词多熟悉,都要通过上下文 得出其在特定语境中的意思。
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Assignment
Finish the reading passages in the papers. ? 完成《步步高 》限时训练10阅读理解题 中的猜测词义题。
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