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英语句型结构与句子成分划分


英语句子成分与句型结构划分
一、句子成分划分 <1> 句子成分的分类 1.Subject (主语) 2.Predicate.(谓语) 3. Object(宾语) 4. Predictive(表语) 5.Attributive/Attribute(定语) 6.Completement(补语) 7.Adverbial(状语) 8.Appositive(同位语) 9.Parenthesis(插入语) The sun rises in the east. We study English. We love China. We are Chinese. This is a difficult problem. We elected him monitor. He runs fast. This is Miss Zou, my teacher. To be frank, I don’t agree with you.

1. 主语: 主语表示句子要说明的人或事物。一般由名词、代词或相当于名词的 词或短语充当。如 1) The students study hard. 2) He usually goes to school at 7:30. 3) One and one make two. 4) To tell a lie is wrong. 5) Learning a foreign language takes a long time. 6) Who taught you English last year? 2. 谓语:说明主语的动作或状态。谓语和主语在“人称”和“数”两方面必须一致 (1) 由动词的各种时态语态表示。 1) He goes to school every day. 2) They are swimming. 3) She caught up with the others very quickly. 4) This kind of machine is made in China. (2) 由“情态动词+动词原形”表示。 We must work hard at English. The recorder can be repaired in two days. (3) 由“连系动词+表语”表示。My father is a doctor. He feels better today. 3. 表语: 表语和连系动词一起构成谓语,表示主语的性质、特征、身份等。一 般由名词、形容词或相当于名词、形容词的词或短语充当。如 1) Her uncle is a teacher. 2) He became angry. 3) The weather is getting warmer and warmer. 4. 宾语: 动作的承受者。如 1) The child needs help. 2) They all helped us. 3) I hope to see you again 4) Tom likes swimming 5) My mother bought a skirt for me. (双宾语) 6) I’ll lend it to you tomorrow.(双宾)7) He gave me a map of the world. 双宾
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有些及物动词需要两个宾语,一个指物,一个指人。指物的叫直接宾语, 指人的叫间接宾语。间接宾语一般放在直接宾语之前,但为了强调间接宾语, 可把间接宾语放在直接宾语之后,这时要在间接宾语前加介词 to 或 for. 5.宾语补足语:有些动词除需要一个宾语外,还得有一个宾语补足语,句子意义 才能完整。宾语和宾语补足语一起构成复合宾语。宾语和宾语补足语在逻辑上 有主谓关系,这是宾语和宾语补足语的主要依据。如 1) We found the story quite interesting. 2) We asked him to help us. 3) I saw a child playing on the grass. 6. 定语: 定语修饰名词或代词。如 1) Our classroom is clean and bright. 2) The book here is very interesting. 3) The man in a brown jacket is my father. 4) This is the house where I lived three years ago. 5) The students’ reading-room is on the second floor. 英语中放在被修饰词(中心词)前面的成为前置定语放在被修饰词后面的 称为后置定语。一般来说,当定语修饰 some, any, every, no 等所构成的复合不定 代词时,定语需后置。如 1) I have something important to tell you. 2) There is nothing wrong with the sentence. 7.状语: 修饰动词、形容词或副词,也可以修饰整 个句子。状语说明地点、时 间、目的、结果、条件、让步、方式、程度等。如果状语和地点状语同时出现, 一般是时间状语放在最后,地点状语放在时间状语之前。如 1)He was born in shanghai in 1970. 2)The meeting is to be held in Room 401 tomorrow evening. 8. 同位语 This is Mr.Zhou, our teacher. 9.插入语 To be honest, I don’t agree with you. 二. 句子类型 (1)简单句:只有一个主语(或并列主语)和一个谓语动词(或并列谓语动词) 构成的句子。 1) 简单句的类别 1.陈述句(肯定句、否定句) 2.疑问句(一般、特殊、选择、反意) 3.祈使句 4.感叹句(How + adj. ( +S + V) ! What + n. ( +S + V) ! 2) 简单句的基本词序 主语 谓语 宾语 状语
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I The children The taxi driver We The car A young girl

bought ran shouted at me ate stopped walked

a hat

our meal

yesterday. home. angrily. in silence. suddenly. confidently on the stage.

(2)、并列句:由两个或两个以上等立而又 相互独立的简单句构成,两个简单句 由并列连词连在一起。 其结构是: 简单句+并列连词+简单句 1. I help him and he helps me . 2. He failed many times but he wasn’t discouraged. 3. We must hurry, or we shall miss the train. 4. Not only did he write to us but also he came here yesterday. 5. Either he didn’t speak clearly or I didn’t hear well. (3)、复合句:简单句中的某一个成分由一个句子来充当。 1.名词性丛句:主语从句、宾语从句、表语从句、同位语从句 1) What he said just now is right. 2) He said that he had seen the film. 3) This is why he didn’t go to school. 4) The news that he has passed the exam made me happy. 引导名词性从句的连词有: that, which, if, whether, who, whom, whose, when ,how, where, why, ever. 2.修饰性从句:定语从句 1) The man who is standing there is White. 2) The building which was built is a school. 3) This is the place where I lived. 引导定语从句的连词有: that, which, who, whom, whose, when, where, why. 3. 副词性从句:状语从句 (条件、时间、地点、原因、目的、结果、方式、比较、让步状语从句) when, while, as, as soon as, after, since, until, till, where, if, unless, because, in order that, so…that…, though, wherever, whenever, as …as, not so…as, than 三. 五种简单句的结构 1.主语+连系动词+表语 连系动词的类别: (1) be (2) 感官动词:look, seem, appear, smell, taste, sound, feel (3) 表持续的动词:remain, keep , stay, continue (4) 表变化的动词:get, become, turn, grow,go 例:1)The story sounds interesting. 2) Her dream has come true. 3)My books are on the desk. 4)The food seems(to be )nice.
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练习 1: 翻译下列句子: 1) 这种食物尝起来很糟糕。________________________________________ 2) 丝绸摸起来又软又滑。 3) 我们在任何时候都应该保持谦虚。 4).天气变得越来越暖和。 5) 这个事实证明是正确的。 6) 那种食物已经变质了。_______________________________.. 2.主语+谓语(不及物动词) (常+状语) 常见的动词有:appear, apologize,arrive, come, die, disappear, exist, fall, happen, rise,work 等等。 Tom died. The rain stopped . He smiled happily. The Second World War broke out in 1939. The old man walks in the park . 练习 2: 翻译下列句子: 7) 水开了. 8) 我们努力学习。 9) 火车就要开了。 10)昨天晚上发生了事故。 注:不及物动词与介词连用时,其后也可跟宾语。 例如:Peter is waiting for Kate at school gate. 3.主语+谓语(及物动词)+宾语 及物动词后需要一个动作的接受者(宾语) ,才能使句意表达完整、准确。作宾 语的成分是名词、代词、动词不定式、动名词或从句。 e.g. We study English. Do you know him ? Your radio needs repairing . She hopes to see her uncle. 11) 我昨天看了一部电影。____________ ___.12) 你戒烟了吗? 13) 他们想和我们融洽相处。 补充: 少数不及物动词后面能跟一个相同意义的名词作宾语,这个名词和前面的动词 在词根上相同的或者在意义上是相近的,这样的宾语就叫做同源宾语。 常见的能带同源宾语的动词有: lead, live, die, sleep, dream, breathe, smile, laugh, fight, run, sing 等。例如: The peasants lead a happy life. I dreamed a terrible dream last night. Our soldiers fought a wonderful fight against the floods last August. He died a glorious death. 练习 3: 翻译下列句子: 14) 他正在做功课。 15)不要嘲笑同学。 16)我不明白你在说什么。 17) 她每天晚上看电视。 18) 明天下午我们将进行英语考试。 19) 大多数人很喜欢轻音乐。
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4.主语+谓语(及物动词)+间宾+直宾 能跟双宾语的动词常见的(for)有: buy, make, cook, get, choose, sing, find, order(订购), do , play(演奏)等。 例如:Uncle Li bought me a birthday present. (=Uncle Li bought a birthday present for me.) 能跟双宾语的动词常见的(to)有: give, lend, teach, take, return, send, pass, tell,sell,write, show , bring, leave, offer, hand 等。例如: Please pass him a cup of tea.(=Please pass a cup of tea to him.) 注:若直接宾语是人称代词时,通常情况下将其置于间接宾语之前。例如: 误:Please give me them. 正:Please give them to me. 练习 4: 翻译下列句子: 20) 我给他一些钱. 21) 他给我买了一些书. 22) 请把你的画给我看一下。 23) 我会给你提供机会的。 ▲间接宾语可改成由 to 引起的短语,表示动作向谁。 ▲间接宾语可改成由 for 引起的短语,表示动作为谁 5.主语+及物动词+宾语+宾补 宾语补足语的作用是说明宾语的动作或状态。作宾语补足语的主要是名词、形 容词、动词不定式和分词即非谓语动词,副词和介词短语等也可以用作宾语补足 语。"宾语 + 宾语补足语",也可称之为复合宾语。 1 .后跟名词作宾语补足语的动词有 call, name, make, choose, think , elect, appoint 等。Eg. We call him Tom for short. 2.后跟形容词做宾语补足语的动词有 keep, make, find, get, think 等。 Eg. It’s very hot here. We’d better keep the windows open. 3.能接非谓语动词做宾补的动词有感官动词和使役动词 感官动词(see, watch, look at ,observe, notice, listen to , hear, find,feel, ..)+宾语 +宾补(do , v-ing, done ) Eg. We saw him playing in the playground. 使役动词(make, have, get, let, cause,…)+宾语+宾补(do / to do , v-ing, done ) 其中: make, have, let +宾语+宾补(do , v-ing, done ) get, cause+宾语+宾补(to do , v-ing, done ) 4.另外表愿望,命令,要求等意义的动词后可接 to do 来当宾语补足语,如 ask , want , wish ,expect, like, tell,order... He asked me to pass him the book.. Our headteacher wants us to keep the classroom clean. 如: We elected Liu Lei monitor. (elect,choose, appoint, make, call, name 等词后面跟表示职位的名词做宾语补足 语时,职位名词前不要冠词)
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The news made him unhappy. You shouldn't let him go there alone. I had the bike repaired. Please keep the classroom clean. She asked me to call him again. 练习 5: 翻译下列句子: 24) 我认为这工作容易。 25) 他把墙漆成白色。 26)Anne 叫她的日记 Kitty。 27) 那消息使我很高兴。 28) 他听见有人在敲门。 29) 那故事使我们笑了起来。 30) 我们发现他是一个诚实的人。 _____________________________________. ▲There …be/ stand/ lie/live 结构 1)There is a computer on the desk. 2)There will be thousands of visitor in Guangzhou next month. 3)There used to be a river here. 4)There stands a temple on the top of the mountain. 5)There lived an old fisherman here 10 years ago. 练习 6: 翻译下列句子: 31) 课室里有很多桌子。 32) 树下有一个漂亮的女孩。 33)Tom 在中国有许多朋友。 _________________________________________ 练习 7: 划分下列斜体字部分的句子成分: 1.The price is going down a bit in the car market abroad. 2.The young should respect the old. 3. Laying eggs is ant queen’s full-time job. 4. She was the first to win the Nobel Prize twice. 5.He returned a white-haired, wise old man. 6.To swim across the Channel is a wonderful experience. 7. There remains much to talk about. 8. How long did the Civil war last? 9. The dying is taken good care of in his hospital. 10.There is no need to have further discussion about it. 11. All has changed since the rules were made. 12. It doesn’t matter whether it rains or not. 13. It sounds like a train that is going under the house. 14. The man was found dead the next day.

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答案 1) .The food tastes very terrible.2) .Silk feels soft and smooth. 3) We should keep modest any time. 4) It is getting warmer and warmer. 5). The fact prove right. 6) The food has gone bad. 7)The water boiled. 8) We study hard. 9) The train is starting/leaving.. 10) The accident took place last night. 11) I saw a film yesterday. 12) Do you stop smoking? 13) They want to get along well with us. 14)He is doing his lessons. 15) Don’t laugh at classmates. 16) I don’t understand what you are doing. 17) She watches TV every evening. 18) We will have an English exam tomorrow afternoon, 19) Most of people like soft music. 20) I gave him some money. = to him. 21) He bought me some books. = for me. 22) Please show me your picture. 23) I'll offer you a good chance. 24) I think the job easy. 25) He painted the wall white. 26) Ann called her diary Kitty. 27) The news made me happy. 28) He heard somebody knocking at the door. 29) The story made us laugh. 30) We found him an honest man. 31) There are many desks in the classroom. 32) There is a pretty girl under the tree.33)Tom has many friends in China.

1.The price is going down a bit in the car market abroad. 谓 定 adv. 2. The young should respect the old. 主 adj. 谓 vt. 3. Laying eggs is ant queen’s full-time job. 主 Ger 表 n. 4. She was the first to win the Nobel Prize twice. 表 num 5. He returned a white-haired, wise old man. 谓 vi. 定 par-/adj. 6. To swim across the Channel is a wonderful experience. 主 Inf 7. There remains much to talk about. 主 pron.定 Inf 8. How long did the Civil war last? 状 adv. 谓 vi. 9. The dying is taken good care of in his hospital. 主 adj. 状 prep. 10. There is no need to have further discussion about it. 定 Inf 11. All has changed since the rules were made. 主 pron. 状从 12. It doesn’t matter whether it rains or not. 谓 vi 主从 13. It sounds like a train that is going under the house. 表 prep. 定从 14. The man was found dead the next day. 谓 vi 补 adj.
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