Designation: A 178/A 178M – 02
Standard Speci?cation for
Electric-Resistance-Welded Carbon Steel and CarbonManganese Steel Boiler and Superheater Tubes1
rd is issued under the ?xed designation A 178/A 178M; the number immediately following the designation indicates the year of original adoption or, in the case of revision, the year of last revision. A number in parentheses indicates the year of last reapproval. A superscript epsilon (e) indicates an editorial change since the last revision or reapproval. This standard has been approved for use by agencies of the Department of Defense.
1. Scope* 1.1 This speci?cation2 covers minimum-wall-thickness, electric-resistance-welded tubes made of carbon steel and carbon-manganese steel intended for use as boiler tubes, boiler ?ues, superheater ?ues, and safe ends.
NOTE 1—Type C and D tubes are not suitable for safe-ending for forge welding.
E 213 Practice for Ultrasonic Examination of Metal Pipe and Tubing4 E 273 Practice for Ultrasonic Examination of Longitudinal Welded Pipe and Tubing4 3. Ordering Information 3.1 Orders for material under this speci?cation should include the following, as required, to describe the desired material adequately: 3.1.1 Quantity (feet, metres, or number of lengths), 3.1.2 Name of material (electric-resistance-welded tubes), 3.1.3 Grade (A, C, or D, Table 1), 3.1.4 Size (outside diameter and minimum wall thickness), 3.1.5 Length (speci?c or random), 3.1.6 Optional requirements (product analysis, Section 7; crush test, Section 10; hydrostatic or nondestructive electric test, 11.6), 3.1.7 Test report required (Certi?cation Section of Speci?cation A 450/A 450M), 3.1.8 Speci?cation designation, 3.1.9 Individual supplementary requirements, if required, and 3.1.10 Special requirements. 4. Manufacture 4.1 The steel for Grade D shall be killed. 4.2 Tubes shall be made by electric-resistance welding. 5. Heat Treatment 5.1 After welding, all tubes shall be heat treated at a temperature of 1650°F [900°C] or higher and followed by cooling in air or in the cooling chamber of a controlledatmosphere furnace. Cold-drawn tubes shall be heat treated after the ?nal cold-draw pass at a temperature of 1200°F [650°C] or higher.
1.2 The tubing sizes and thicknesses usually furnished to this speci?cation are 1?2 to 5 in. [12.7 to 127 mm] in outside diameter and 0.035 to 0.360 in. [0.9 to 9.1 mm], inclusive, in minimum wall thickness. Tubing having other dimensions may be furnished, provided such tubes comply with all other requirements of this speci?cation. 1.3 Mechanical property requirements do not apply to tubing smaller than 1?8 in. [3.2 mm] in inside diameter or 0.015 in. [0.4 mm] in thickness. 1.4 Optional supplementary requirements are provided and when desired, shall be so stated in the order. 1.5 The values stated in either inch-pound units or SI units are to be regarded separately as standard. Within the text, the SI units are shown in brackets. The values stated in each system are not exact equivalents; therefore, each system must be used independently of the other. Combining values from the two systems may result in nonconformance with the speci?cation. The inch-pound units shall apply unless the “M” designation of this speci?cation is speci?ed in the order. 2. Referenced Documents 2.1 ASTM Standards: A 450/A 450M Speci?cation for General Requirements for Carbon, Ferritic Alloy, and Austenitic Alloy Steel Tubes3
1 This speci?cation is under the jurisdiction of ASTM Committee A01 on Steel, Stainless Steel and Related Alloys, and is the direct responsibility of Subcommittee A01.09 on Carbon Steel Tubular Products. Current edition approved Sept. 10, 2002 . Published November 2002. Originally published as A 178 – 35 T. Last previous edition A 178/A 178M –95 (2002). 2 For ASME Boiler and Pressure Vessel Code applications see related Speci?cation SA-178 in Section II of that Code. 3 Annual Book of ASTM Standards, Vol 01.01.
Annual Book of ASTM Standards, Vol 03.03.
*A Summary of Changes section appears at the end of this standard.
Copyright ? ASTM International, 100 Barr Harbor Drive, PO Box C700, West Conshohocken, PA 19428-2959, United States.
A 178/A 178M – 02
TABLE 1 Chemical Requirements
Composition, % Element Grade A, Low-Carbon Steel 0.06–0.18 0.27–0.63 0.035 0.035 ... Grade C, MediumCarbon Steel 0.35 max 0.80 max 0.035 0.035 ... Grade D, CarbonManganese Steel 0.27 max 1.00–1.50 0.030 0.015 0.10 min
NOTE 3—Explanatory Note—For purposes of design the following tensile properties may be assumed for Grade A tubes:
Tensile strength, min, ksi [MPa] Yield Strength, min, ksi [MPa] Elongation in 2 in. or 50 mm, min, % 47  26  35
Carbon Manganese Phosphorus, max Sulfur, max Silicon
10. Crush Test 10.1 When required by the purchaser, crushing tests shall be made on sections of tube 21?2 in. [63 mm] in length which shall stand crushing longitudinally without cracking, splitting, or opening at the weld, as follows:
Wall Thickness of Tubes, in. [mm] 0.135 [3.43] and under Over 0.135 [3.43]
6. Chemical Composition 6.1 The steel shall conform to the requirements as to chemical composition prescribed in Table 1. 6.2 When a grade is ordered under this speci?cation, supplying an alloy grade that speci?cally requires the addition of any element other than those listed in Table 1 is not permitted. 7. Product Analysis 7.1 When requested on the purchase order, a product analysis shall be made by the manufacturer or supplier from one tube per 100 pieces for sizes over 3 in. [76.2 mm] and one tube per 250 pieces for sizes 3 in. [76.2 mm] and under; or when tubes are identi?ed by heat, one tube per heat shall be analyzed. The chemical composition thus determined shall conform to the requirements speci?ed. 7.2 If the original test for product analysis fails, retests of two additional lengths of ?at-rolled stock or tubes shall be made. Both retests, for the elements in question, shall meet the requirements of the speci?cation; otherwise all remaining material in the heat or lot (Note 2) shall be rejected or, at the option of the producer, each length of ?at-rolled stock or tube may be individually tested for acceptance. Lengths of ?atrolled stock or tubes which do not meet the requirements of the speci?cations shall be rejected.
NOTE 2—A lot consists of 250 tubes for sizes 3 in. [76.2 mm] and under and of 100 tubes for sizes over 3 in. [76.2 mm], prior to cutting to length.
Height of Crushed Section, in. [mm] Grade A Tubes Grade C and D Tubes ?  or until outside folds are in contact 11?4  Crush tests not required ...
10.2 Table 3 gives the computed minimum elongation values for each 1?32-in. [0.8 mm] decrease in wall thickness. Where the wall thickness lies between two values shown above, the minimum elongation value shall be determined by the following equation:
E 5 48t 1 15.00 @E 5 1.87t 1 15.00#
where: E = elongation in 2 in. or 50 mm, %, and, t = actual thickness of specimen, in. [mm].
10.3 For tubing less than 1 in. [25.4 mm] in outside diameter, the length of the specimen shall be 21?2 times the outside diameter of the tube. Slight surface checks shall not be cause for rejection. 11. Mechanical Tests Required 11.1 Flattening Test: 11.1.1 For Grade A, one ?attening test shall be made on specimens from each of two tubes from each lot (Note 2) or fraction thereof, and from each 2000 ft [600 m] or fraction thereof of safe-end material. 11.1.2 For Grades C and D, one ?attening test shall be made on specimens from each of two tubes from each lot (Note 2) or fraction thereof. 11.2 Flange Test: 11.2.1 For Grade A, one ?ange test shall be made on specimens from each of two tubes from each lot (Note 2) or
8. General Requirements 8.1 Material furnished under this speci?cation shall conform to the applicable requirements of the current edition of Speci?cation A 450/A 450M unless otherwise provided herein. 9. Tensile Requirements 9.1 Grade C and D tubes shall conform to the requirements as to tensile properties prescribed in Table 2.
TABLE 2 Tensile Requirements
Grade C Tensile strength, min, ksi [MPa] Yield strength, min, ksi [MPa] Elongation in 2 in. or 50 mm, min, % For longitudinal strip tests a deduction for each 1?32-in. [0.8 mm] decrease in wall thickness below 5?16 in. [8 mm] from the basic minimum elongation of the following percentage points shall be made.
TABLE 3 Minimum Elongation Values
Wall Thickness Grade D 70  40  30 1.50A ? 9?32 1?4 7?32 3?16 5?32 1?8 3?32 1?16
in. (0.312) (0.281) (0.250) (0.219) (0.188) (0.156) (0.125) (0.094) (0.062)
mm 8 7.2 6.4 5.6 4.8 4 3.2 2.4 1.6
Elongation in 2 in. or 50 mm, min, %A 30 29 27 26 24 22 21 20 18
60  37  30 1.50A
See Table 3 for the computed minimum values.
A Calculated elongation requirements shall be rounded to the nearest whole number.
A 178/A 178M – 02
fraction thereof, and from each 2000 ft [600 m] or fraction thereof of safe-end material. 11.2.2 For Grades C and D, one ?ange test shall be made on specimens from each of two tubes from each lot (Note 2) or fraction thereof. The width of the ?ange shall not be less than 75 % of that speci?ed in Speci?cation A 450/A 450M. 11.3 Crush Test—For Grade A, when required by the purchaser, one crush test shall be made on specimens from each of two tubes from each lot (Note 2) or fraction thereof, and from each 2000 ft [600 m] or fraction thereof of safe-end material. 11.4 Tension Test—For Grades C and D, one tension test shall be made on specimens from each of two tubes from each lot. The term lot for tension test requirements applies to all tubes prior to cutting, of the same nominal diameter and wall thickness, which are produced from the same heat of steel. When ?nal heat treatment is in a batch-type furnace, a lot shall include only those tubes of the same size and the same heat which are heat treated in the same furnace charge. When the ?nal heat treatment is in a continuous furnace, a lot shall include all tubes of the same size and heat, heat treated in the same furnace, at the same temperature, time at heat, and furnace speed. 11.5 Reverse Flattening Test—One reverse ?attening test shall be made on each 1500 ft [450 m] of ?nished tubing. 11.6 Hydrostatic or Nondestructive Electric Test—Each tube shall be subjected to either the hydrostatic or the nondestructive electric test. The purchaser may specify which test is to be used. 12. Forming Operations 12.1 When inserted in the boiler, tubes shall withstand expanding and beading without showing cracks or ?aws, or opening at the weld. When properly manipulated, superheater tubes shall withstand all forging, welding, and bending operations necessary for application without developing defects. 13. Product Marking 13.1 In addition to the marking prescribed in Speci?cation A 450/A 450M, the letters “ERW” shall be legibly stenciled on each tube, or marked on a tag attached to the bundle or box in which the tubes are shipped. 13.2 The manufacturer’s name or symbol may be placed permanently on each tube by rolling or light stamping before normalizing. If a single stamp is placed on the tube by hand, this mark should not be less than 8 in. [200 mm] from one end of the tube. 14. Keywords 14.1 boiler tube; resistance welded steel tube; steel tube, carbon; welded steel tube
SUPPLEMENTARY REQUIREMENTS The following supplementary requirements may become a part of the speci?cation when speci?ed in the inquiry or invitation to bid, and production order or contract. These requirements shall not be considered, unless speci?ed in the order and the necessary tests shall be made at the mill. S1. Additional Testing of Welded Tubing for ASME Requirements S1.1 The weld seam of each tube shall be subjected to an ultrasonic inspection employing Practices E 273 or E 213 with the rejection criteria referenced in Speci?cation A 450/ A 450M. S1.2 If Practice E 273 is employed, a 100 % volumetric inspection of the entire length of each tube shall also be performed using one of the nondestructive electric tests permitted by Speci?cation A 450/A 450M. S1.3 The test methods described in the supplement may not be capable of inspecting the end portions of tubes. This condition is referred to as end effect. This portion, as determined by the manufacturer, shall be removed and discarded. S1.4 In addition to the marking prescribed in Speci?cation A 450/A 450M, “S1” shall be added after the grade designation.
A 178/A 178M – 02
SUMMARY OF CHANGES This section identi?es the location of selected changes to this speci?cation that have been incorporated since the last edition, A 178/A 178M-95 (2002), as follows: (1) Paragraph 1.4 was deleted and the subsequent subsections were renumbered. (2) Paragraph 2.1 was revised to delete the reference to Speci?cation A 520. (3) Speci?cation A 226/A 226M was deleted from Section 2.
ASTM International takes no position respecting the validity of any patent rights asserted in connection with any item mentioned in this standard. Users of this standard are expressly advised that determination of the validity of any such patent rights, and the risk of infringement of such rights, are entirely their own responsibility. This standard is subject to revision at any time by the responsible technical committee and must be reviewed every ?ve years and if not revised, either reapproved or withdrawn. Your comments are invited either for revision of this standard or for additional standards and should be addressed to ASTM International Headquarters. Your comments will receive careful consideration at a meeting of the responsible technical committee, which you may attend. If you feel that your comments have not received a fair hearing you should make your views known to the ASTM Committee on Standards, at the address shown below. This standard is copyrighted by ASTM International, 100 Barr Harbor Drive, PO Box C700, West Conshohocken, PA 19428-2959, United States. Individual reprints (single or multiple copies) of this standard may be obtained by contacting ASTM at the above address or at 610-832-9585 (phone), 610-832-9555 (fax), or firstname.lastname@example.org (e-mail); or through the ASTM website (www.astm.org).