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用联想法突破英语词汇系统的音形 义
1)音形联想: ? ink—think —thank—tank – rank—bank— sank ? ear—tear– pear – bear– fear—year –hear? beer– dear—deer—appear sound– round– pound—found—ground–

surround– around– bound-- wound bought– thought– brought– fought—naught –taught –caught

2)结构联想法 :掌握一些构词法能大大缩小生词 量。 A.词根联想 compose—composer—composition protect – protection– protective—protectiveness construct– constructor—construction— constructive

beauty—beautify—beautiful– beautifully

black– blacken– blackish —blackboard– black-browed – blackcap 莺 —black-market—– blacksmith—blacktea—blacklist 黑名单 —black-hearted— —nonblack— shoeblack 黑皮鞋油 – bootblack— —coal-black 墨黑的

colour –recolour—colourable—tricolour— colourless—multicoloured– colourful— discolour (使)褪色 colourist—uncoloured— coloury 多色彩的 —concolourous 同一色的 colourant 颜料 —self-coloured 本色的 —colourman— watercolour—colour-blind– colourfast不褪色的 —flesh-coloured 肉色的 —orange-coloured…

常用的前缀: ? pre-,dis-, re-, tele-, im-, in-, ir- , un-, nonout-,en- ; ? anti-, bi-,by-, co-, counter-, de-, fore-, inter-, micro-, mini-, multi-, over-, post-, ? self-, semi-, sub-, super-, trans-, tri-, ultra-,under-, vice-…

(前) predict预测,预知 precast 预铸的 preview— prewar—preschool– pre-liberation– prehistory 史前期 —preconference— precondition前提,先决条件 —pre-election— pre-battle– preexamination 预考 prebuilt 预建的,预制的 —prehuman 人类以前的 – prepay 预付 --premade 预先做的

dis—disappear—disappointed—dislike— disagree—disregard—disbelieve— dishonest—disorder—discontinue— disallow—discomfort—disunion… (不,相反) re—redo—rewrite—reread—rebuild—retell— recycling—rethink—remarry—reheat— restart—rediscover—rearm—renumber— rebroadcast—reuse--resell… (再,重)

im- impossible—impolite—impatient—impure, imperfect—immovable—impersonal— immoral—immeasurable—impractical…

in- invisible—informal—incorrect—inhuman— inglorious(不光彩的)—inactive—incurious— inequality—incontrollable—incomplete— incomparable…

ir- irregularly—irresponsible—irremovable— irrelative—irreplaceable…


un—unhappy , unofficial, unchanged, unequal,
unfriendly, unwelcome, un-English, unreal, uncertain, unlimited , unmanned, uncorrected, unartistic, unscientific, undecided, uneducated…

(非,无,不, 未) non—nonhuman, nonparty, nonsmoker,
非白种人 nonstop, nondrinker, nonwhite, nonreader 无阅读能力的人 , nonmusician, nonage 未成年



(使, 使成…)
enable—enrich—enlarge—encourage— endanger—encamp—encircle—ennoble— enslave—endear— ensky 使耸入天际,把…捧上天 —endamage..



outdoor—outside—outline 轮廓线 outlook 观点,看法;展望,前景 outlawed…

co- (共同的)
coaction (共同行动) co-founder (共同创立者) co-worker (共同工作者) cohabination (同居) co-flyer (副飞行员) comate (同伴,伙伴)


(反, 防)

antiwar (反战的), antitank (反坦克), antigas (防毒气的)

bi- (两, 双)
bicolour (两色的) bimonthly (双月刊) bisexual (两性的) bilingual (双语的) bipolar (两极的)

de- (除去,取消)
dewater (除去水分)desalt (除去盐分) decolour (使脱色) decontrol (取消管制) de-oil (脱除油脂) degas (排气) decode (解密码) decivilize (使丧失文明)

fore- (前,先)

forehead (前额) forearm (前臂) foretell (预言) foreword (前言,序言) foresee (先见,预见) foresight


microwave microworld microscope

microbus microelement microskirt


miniradio minipants minibus mini-mini-skirt

miniwar minipark minitrain miniskirt


mis- (误, 恶)
mishear misuse misread mislead misstep misdoing (恶行,坏事) missend (错送) mistranslate misunderstand misremember mistreat (虐待) multi(多) multiparty multyracial multilateral

multinational multi-purpose multidirectional

over- (过度)
overtalk (过分多言) overwork (劳累过度) overproduction overvalue overpeopled overquick overpay (多付) oversize overweight overcrowd post- (后) postwar postcript 编后记 postoperative

post-liberation postgraduate postatomic

self- (自己, 自我)
self-defence self-help self-taught self-blinded self-control self-support self-criticism self-giving self-seeker self-importance

semi- (半)
semiofficial semiskilled semicircle semimonthlys semi-colony semiautomatic



subway subrtructure subsurface substandard subcloud subaverage


superstate supertrain supernatural superweapon superhighway

supercountry supermarket supercity supercarrier supersized


tricolour trilingual triunity (三位一体)

tricar triangle trilateral

under- (下,内, 不足)
underground underwear underline underthings underfoot 在脚下,碍事 underworld 下层社会 underskirt underweight

vice- (副)
vice-chairman vice-president vice-premier vice-minister vice-principal vice-manager vice-chancellor 副大法官 vice-governor副总督

-able, -al, -an, -ful, -ive, -er, -or, -ese, ? -ist, -ment, -ness, -tion, -fy, -ian, -ing, ? -ise/ize, -ly, -teen, -ty, -th, -y…

? -er:
? ?


teenager, manager, explorer, fighter, cleaner, ruler, owner…

? -or:
? ?


doctor, inventor, operator, investor,投资者 conductor, actor , sailor…

? -tion:


education, dictation, reaction foundation, construction, operation, reflection… -ment: 表示行为,行为的过程或结果 movement, establishment, ? shipment, achievement, arrangement, improvement, development, amusement, measurement, management, judgment, ? agreement, argument, contentment… ,满意 知足

构成名词 -ness: ? brightness, seriousness, wideness, ? protectiveness, carelessness, illness, greatness, coldness, friendliness, badness, tiredness, willingness, coolness, goodness, slowness, sharpness, darkness…


-en: 使变成…
shorten, fatten, sharpen, strengthen, widen, deepen, redden, straighten, 使变小,使减少 lessen…


有…的, …的

careful, useful, wonderful, 感激的,感谢的 grateful, thankful…

-less: homeless, hopeless, moneyless, 无精打彩的 brotherless, listless…

(没有…的, 无…的)
-ish: foolish, selfish, childish, babyish, girlish, piggish, shortish, bookish , greenish…

(如…的, 略…的)
-able: eatable, talkable, changeable , drinkable, useable, movable, teachable, supportable, comfortable, comparable…

(可……的, 有……性质的)


educational continental exceptional 例外的 invitational

personal natural governmental emotional


creative 创造性的 preventive 预防的 amusive 娱乐的

progressive active attractive

-ian 表示人
musician comedian politician grammarian tragedian electrician 电工


progressist 进步分子 artist tobacconist naturalist extremist

communist novelist violinist revolutionist copyist

-th 表示行为,性质,状态,情况 growth coolth depth truth width breath strength


surety royalty

safety certainty entirety specialty cruelty loyalty

多…的,有…的, 如…的 -y cloudy windy sleepy rainy homey hilly earthy sunny stony smoky hairy silvery noisy bloody wordy watery greeny woody silky wintery


表示状态,程度,性质,方式,…地 的副词

truly really greatly newly lately recently quickly badly usually largely clearly fearfully specially totally wonderfully

-fy …化, 使成为 beautify uglify glorify citify falsify ladify gasify justify purify electrify solidify simplify rarefy classify Frenchify -ise/ ize …化, 使成为…(与 相对应) modernize industralize realize equalize nationalize revolutionize normalize motorize mechanize commercialize organize popularize centralize civilize

-ed 有…的, 已…的, …的 (形容词)
coloured aged liberated bearded moneyed returned educated retired failed fixed booted oiled

winged limited skilled gifted


laboursome playsome fearsome gamesome awesome lonesome tiresome

troublesome toothsome quarrelsome

-scape 景色,图景
landscape nightscape streetscape cloudscape moonscape dreamscape airscape icescape seascape cityscape

-ous …的
dangerous courageous victorious famous poisonous mountainous advantageous

playground, shortcoming, whatever, wellcut, waterfall, teammate, treetop, waistcoat, warm-hearted, warm-blood, sun-down, somehow, sawmill, riverside, half-hibernate, gunpowder, funny-looking, ? fresh-face, footmark, forehead, downward, ? birdcage, bookseller, back-yard…

skin-deep, age-old, dark-blue, man-made, ? English-speaking, underwater, offshore, ? one-way, five-year, wide-open, easy-going, long-distance, ill-equipped, one-eyed, fourlegged, white-haired...

ill-treat, uphold, safeguard, whitewash, ? typewrite, …

beforehand, underfoot, hotfoot, someday, ? somehow , anywhere…

合成名词: moonlight, highland, pickpocket, daybreak, sleeping-car, outbreak, downpour, well-being, book-keeping, afternoon, betweenmaid, townspeople, editor-in-chief, brother-in-low

4) 转义法
hand ? book ? master, ? train, ? will, ? wind, ? step ,

1)同义词联想:根据一个单词的意义,想到另 一个与它意义相近或相似的词. ? 如:select—choose, sneer—smile—laugh, gather—collect—round up, ? look (at)—see—watch—notice ? observe—glance at—stare at—neglect— look through, ? hurt—damage—destroy—ruin—harm— injure—wound

2)反义联想:由一个词联想到与它意 思相反的词.
如: black—white, ? shallow—deep, ? empty—full, ? in charge of—in the charge of


see—notice– watch—look at--obverve

4) 相同语法结构用法联想:
后接动名词的有: ? look forward to, stick to, devoted oneself to, lead to, pay attention to, see to… ? 后接不定式做宾补或主补, 或接动名词作宾 语的有: ? allow, permit, consider, forbid, advise…

4. 搭配联想:以某一词为中心构成的 短语.
如: run into, run after, run out , run over… ? Get along, get back , get down, get in, get off, get on , get on with, get through, get together… ? Be responsible for , be ready for, known for, be anxious for , necessary for, famous for, proper for, suitable for, sorry for short for, late for, eager for, suitable for , impatient for, grateful for thirsty for …

5. 上下联想:将属于某一类的单词集 合归纳一起记忆.
fruit—apple, orange, banana, peach, pear, water-melon… ? furniture—table, chair, bench, desk, bed, cupboard, armchair, sofa… ? traffic—accident, bus, truck, container truck, garbage-truck, timetable, traffic jam, rush hour…

6. 趣味联想:
1)不同词性,词形,用法. ? That that is not that that. ? I saw a saw sawing a saw. ? A can can can another can.

2) 利用汉语词义编记忆口诀

如:小偷(thief) 和他的妻子(wife),拿着一把刀 子(knife),把狼(wolf)砍成两半(half),放在架 子(shelf)上,用树叶(leaf)盖好,坐下来吃块面 包(loaf).


提出(offer)学习(learn, study)的打算(plan, intend, want, expect, decide, wish, desire), 要求(ask, beg, demand)答应(promise, agree)来帮忙(help),准备(prepare)担负 (afford)遭拒绝(refuse),敢于(dare)设法(try, manage)有希望(hope, long),未能做到(fail) 莫,假装(pretend)。

3)利用文化背景联系:特殊的文化背 景的英汉相通的文化背景.
black(黑色的,黑人); ? black humour(黑色幽默) ; ? black horse (黑马); ? black coffee(黑咖啡); ? blue(兰色的,沮丧的); ? blue film(色情电影)

1)及时复习 ? 利用“四小”:小时间,小卡片, ? 小循环,小测验。 ? 小时间:一天中零碎的时间; ? 小卡片:将要记忆的单词写在小卡片上, ? 随身携带,随时复习。


小循环:经常把小卡片上已经记忆过的单 词 和尚未记会的单词定期和不定期地及时 地进行小规模的循环复习。




三、广泛的联系加大词汇记忆信息 的强度
few/little ? a few/ a little ? advice / advise ? practice / practise

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