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突破高考英语词汇的几种记忆方法


用联想法突破英语词汇系统的音形 义
1)音形联想: ? ink—think —thank—tank – rank—bank— sank ? ear—tear– pear – bear– fear—year –hear? beer– dear—deer—appear sound– round– pound—found—ground–
?

s

urround– around– bound-- wound bought– thought– brought– fought—naught –taught –caught

2)结构联想法 :掌握一些构词法能大大缩小生词 量。 A.词根联想 compose—composer—composition protect – protection– protective—protectiveness construct– constructor—construction— constructive

beauty—beautify—beautiful– beautifully

black– blacken– blackish —blackboard– black-browed – blackcap 莺 —black-market—– blacksmith—blacktea—blacklist 黑名单 —black-hearted— —nonblack— shoeblack 黑皮鞋油 – bootblack— —coal-black 墨黑的

colour –recolour—colourable—tricolour— colourless—multicoloured– colourful— discolour (使)褪色 colourist—uncoloured— coloury 多色彩的 —concolourous 同一色的 colourant 颜料 —self-coloured 本色的 —colourman— watercolour—colour-blind– colourfast不褪色的 —flesh-coloured 肉色的 —orange-coloured…

2)前缀法
常用的前缀: ? pre-,dis-, re-, tele-, im-, in-, ir- , un-, nonout-,en- ; ? anti-, bi-,by-, co-, counter-, de-, fore-, inter-, micro-, mini-, multi-, over-, post-, ? self-, semi-, sub-, super-, trans-, tri-, ultra-,under-, vice-…
?

例如
(前) predict预测,预知 precast 预铸的 preview— prewar—preschool– pre-liberation– prehistory 史前期 —preconference— precondition前提,先决条件 —pre-election— pre-battle– preexamination 预考 prebuilt 预建的,预制的 —prehuman 人类以前的 – prepay 预付 --premade 预先做的
?pre-

dis—disappear—disappointed—dislike— disagree—disregard—disbelieve— dishonest—disorder—discontinue— disallow—discomfort—disunion… (不,相反) re—redo—rewrite—reread—rebuild—retell— recycling—rethink—remarry—reheat— restart—rediscover—rearm—renumber— rebroadcast—reuse--resell… (再,重)

im- impossible—impolite—impatient—impure, imperfect—immovable—impersonal— immoral—immeasurable—impractical…

(不,无,非)
in- invisible—informal—incorrect—inhuman— inglorious(不光彩的)—inactive—incurious— inequality—incontrollable—incomplete— incomparable…

(不,无,非)
ir- irregularly—irresponsible—irremovable— irrelative—irreplaceable…

(不,无,非)

un—unhappy , unofficial, unchanged, unequal,
unfriendly, unwelcome, un-English, unreal, uncertain, unlimited , unmanned, uncorrected, unartistic, unscientific, undecided, uneducated…

(非,无,不, 未) non—nonhuman, nonparty, nonsmoker,
非白种人 nonstop, nondrinker, nonwhite, nonreader 无阅读能力的人 , nonmusician, nonage 未成年

(非,无,不)

en-

(使, 使成…)
enable—enrich—enlarge—encourage— endanger—encamp—encircle—ennoble— enslave—endear— ensky 使耸入天际,把…捧上天 —endamage..

out-

(外)

outdoor—outside—outline 轮廓线 outlook 观点,看法;展望,前景 outlawed…

co- (共同的)
coaction (共同行动) co-founder (共同创立者) co-worker (共同工作者) cohabination (同居) co-flyer (副飞行员) comate (同伴,伙伴)

anti-

(反, 防)

antiwar (反战的), antitank (反坦克), antigas (防毒气的)

bi- (两, 双)
bicolour (两色的) bimonthly (双月刊) bisexual (两性的) bilingual (双语的) bipolar (两极的)

de- (除去,取消)
dewater (除去水分)desalt (除去盐分) decolour (使脱色) decontrol (取消管制) de-oil (脱除油脂) degas (排气) decode (解密码) decivilize (使丧失文明)

fore- (前,先)

forehead (前额) forearm (前臂) foretell (预言) foreword (前言,序言) foresee (先见,预见) foresight

micro-

(微)
microwave microworld microscope

microbus microelement microskirt

mini-

(小)
miniradio minipants minibus mini-mini-skirt

miniwar minipark minitrain miniskirt

微观世界

mis- (误, 恶)
mishear misuse misread mislead misstep misdoing (恶行,坏事) missend (错送) mistranslate misunderstand misremember mistreat (虐待) multi(多) multiparty multyracial multilateral

multinational multi-purpose multidirectional

over- (过度)
overtalk (过分多言) overwork (劳累过度) overproduction overvalue overpeopled overquick overpay (多付) oversize overweight overcrowd post- (后) postwar postcript 编后记 postoperative

post-liberation postgraduate postatomic

self- (自己, 自我)
self-defence self-help self-taught self-blinded self-control self-support self-criticism self-giving self-seeker self-importance

semi- (半)
semiofficial semiskilled semicircle semimonthlys semi-colony semiautomatic

sub-

(下)

subway subrtructure subsurface substandard subcloud subaverage

super-

(超)
superstate supertrain supernatural superweapon superhighway

supercountry supermarket supercity supercarrier supersized

tri-

(三)
tricolour trilingual triunity (三位一体)

tricar triangle trilateral

under- (下,内, 不足)
underground underwear underline underthings underfoot 在脚下,碍事 underworld 下层社会 underskirt underweight

vice- (副)
vice-chairman vice-president vice-premier vice-minister vice-principal vice-manager vice-chancellor 副大法官 vice-governor副总督

3)后缀法
-able, -al, -an, -ful, -ive, -er, -or, -ese, ? -ist, -ment, -ness, -tion, -fy, -ian, -ing, ? -ise/ize, -ly, -teen, -ty, -th, -y…
?

? -er:
? ?

(表示人或者物)…的人

teenager, manager, explorer, fighter, cleaner, ruler, owner…

? -or:
? ?

…的人

doctor, inventor, operator, investor,投资者 conductor, actor , sailor…

? -tion:
?

表示行为,情况,养成

education, dictation, reaction foundation, construction, operation, reflection… -ment: 表示行为,行为的过程或结果 movement, establishment, ? shipment, achievement, arrangement, improvement, development, amusement, measurement, management, judgment, ? agreement, argument, contentment… ,满意 知足

构成名词 -ness: ? brightness, seriousness, wideness, ? protectiveness, carelessness, illness, greatness, coldness, friendliness, badness, tiredness, willingness, coolness, goodness, slowness, sharpness, darkness…
?

?

-en: 使变成…
shorten, fatten, sharpen, strengthen, widen, deepen, redden, straighten, 使变小,使减少 lessen…

-ful:

有…的, …的

careful, useful, wonderful, 感激的,感谢的 grateful, thankful…

-less: homeless, hopeless, moneyless, 无精打彩的 brotherless, listless…

(没有…的, 无…的)
-ish: foolish, selfish, childish, babyish, girlish, piggish, shortish, bookish , greenish…

(如…的, 略…的)
-able: eatable, talkable, changeable , drinkable, useable, movable, teachable, supportable, comfortable, comparable…

(可……的, 有……性质的)

-al

…的
educational continental exceptional 例外的 invitational

personal natural governmental emotional

-ive

…的
creative 创造性的 preventive 预防的 amusive 娱乐的

progressive active attractive

-ian 表示人
musician comedian politician grammarian tragedian electrician 电工

-ist

表示人
progressist 进步分子 artist tobacconist naturalist extremist

communist novelist violinist revolutionist copyist

-th 表示行为,性质,状态,情况 growth coolth depth truth width breath strength

-ty

表示性质,状态,情况的名词
surety royalty

safety certainty entirety specialty cruelty loyalty

多…的,有…的, 如…的 -y cloudy windy sleepy rainy homey hilly earthy sunny stony smoky hairy silvery noisy bloody wordy watery greeny woody silky wintery

-ly

表示状态,程度,性质,方式,…地 的副词

truly really greatly newly lately recently quickly badly usually largely clearly fearfully specially totally wonderfully

-fy …化, 使成为 beautify uglify glorify citify falsify ladify gasify justify purify electrify solidify simplify rarefy classify Frenchify -ise/ ize …化, 使成为…(与 相对应) modernize industralize realize equalize nationalize revolutionize normalize motorize mechanize commercialize organize popularize centralize civilize

-ed 有…的, 已…的, …的 (形容词)
coloured aged liberated bearded moneyed returned educated retired failed fixed booted oiled

winged limited skilled gifted

-some

…的(形容词)
laboursome playsome fearsome gamesome awesome lonesome tiresome

troublesome toothsome quarrelsome

-scape 景色,图景
landscape nightscape streetscape cloudscape moonscape dreamscape airscape icescape seascape cityscape

-ous …的
dangerous courageous victorious famous poisonous mountainous advantageous

3)合成法
playground, shortcoming, whatever, wellcut, waterfall, teammate, treetop, waistcoat, warm-hearted, warm-blood, sun-down, somehow, sawmill, riverside, half-hibernate, gunpowder, funny-looking, ? fresh-face, footmark, forehead, downward, ? birdcage, bookseller, back-yard…
?

合成形容词
skin-deep, age-old, dark-blue, man-made, ? English-speaking, underwater, offshore, ? one-way, five-year, wide-open, easy-going, long-distance, ill-equipped, one-eyed, fourlegged, white-haired...
?

合成动词
ill-treat, uphold, safeguard, whitewash, ? typewrite, …
?

合成副词
beforehand, underfoot, hotfoot, someday, ? somehow , anywhere…
?

合成名词: moonlight, highland, pickpocket, daybreak, sleeping-car, outbreak, downpour, well-being, book-keeping, afternoon, betweenmaid, townspeople, editor-in-chief, brother-in-low

4) 转义法
hand ? book ? master, ? train, ? will, ? wind, ? step ,
?

3.用法联想
1)同义词联想:根据一个单词的意义,想到另 一个与它意义相近或相似的词. ? 如:select—choose, sneer—smile—laugh, gather—collect—round up, ? look (at)—see—watch—notice ? observe—glance at—stare at—neglect— look through, ? hurt—damage—destroy—ruin—harm— injure—wound
?

2)反义联想:由一个词联想到与它意 思相反的词.
如: black—white, ? shallow—deep, ? empty—full, ? in charge of—in the charge of
?

3)一词多义,多词一义:
?

see—notice– watch—look at--obverve

4) 相同语法结构用法联想:
后接动名词的有: ? look forward to, stick to, devoted oneself to, lead to, pay attention to, see to… ? 后接不定式做宾补或主补, 或接动名词作宾 语的有: ? allow, permit, consider, forbid, advise…
?

4. 搭配联想:以某一词为中心构成的 短语.
如: run into, run after, run out , run over… ? Get along, get back , get down, get in, get off, get on , get on with, get through, get together… ? Be responsible for , be ready for, known for, be anxious for , necessary for, famous for, proper for, suitable for, sorry for short for, late for, eager for, suitable for , impatient for, grateful for thirsty for …
?

5. 上下联想:将属于某一类的单词集 合归纳一起记忆.
fruit—apple, orange, banana, peach, pear, water-melon… ? furniture—table, chair, bench, desk, bed, cupboard, armchair, sofa… ? traffic—accident, bus, truck, container truck, garbage-truck, timetable, traffic jam, rush hour…
?

6. 趣味联想:
1)不同词性,词形,用法. ? That that is not that that. ? I saw a saw sawing a saw. ? A can can can another can.
?

2) 利用汉语词义编记忆口诀
?

如:小偷(thief) 和他的妻子(wife),拿着一把刀 子(knife),把狼(wolf)砍成两半(half),放在架 子(shelf)上,用树叶(leaf)盖好,坐下来吃块面 包(loaf).

?

提出(offer)学习(learn, study)的打算(plan, intend, want, expect, decide, wish, desire), 要求(ask, beg, demand)答应(promise, agree)来帮忙(help),准备(prepare)担负 (afford)遭拒绝(refuse),敢于(dare)设法(try, manage)有希望(hope, long),未能做到(fail) 莫,假装(pretend)。

3)利用文化背景联系:特殊的文化背 景的英汉相通的文化背景.
black(黑色的,黑人); ? black humour(黑色幽默) ; ? black horse (黑马); ? black coffee(黑咖啡); ? blue(兰色的,沮丧的); ? blue film(色情电影)
?

科学安排复习时间,强化记忆效果
1)及时复习 ? 利用“四小”:小时间,小卡片, ? 小循环,小测验。 ? 小时间:一天中零碎的时间; ? 小卡片:将要记忆的单词写在小卡片上, ? 随身携带,随时复习。
?

?

小循环:经常把小卡片上已经记忆过的单 词 和尚未记会的单词定期和不定期地及时 地进行小规模的循环复习。
小测验:对记忆单词效果进行检测。

?

2)定好记忆和复习计划
?

时间的安排和内容的分配。

三、广泛的联系加大词汇记忆信息 的强度
few/little ? a few/ a little ? advice / advise ? practice / practise
?


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