独立主格结构是一个独立主格的名词或代词（作为逻 辑主语）加上一个分词、形容词、副词、不定式或介词短 语，其作用相当于状语从句，多用来表示行为方式或者伴 随情况，有时也用来表示时间、原因和条件。这种结构多 用于书面语中。 1 ．表示时间： 2 ．表示原因： 3 ．表示条件： 4．表示伴随情况或补充说明： Sp
ring coming on , him the treesand turned green. It being Sunday , library was closed. Time permitting , the we’ll visit the Summer Last night I followed here, climbed in,Palace. sword in hand. Our work permitting having been finished, went home. Thechildren weather being fine ,awe went for a walk. The were making snowman, hands red with cold. Weather , they willwe start at six the tomorrow The signal given , the There being no buses ,bus we had to being walk worn home. I have bought a new coat, the started. old one out. morning. The meeting (being) we left the room. The key having been over lost,, she could not enter the room.
注：这种表示伴随情况的独立结构，有时也可用“with +宾语+分 词（或形容词、介词短语）”构成的短语来代替。
with + 复合宾语
1．with + 名词（或代词）+ 现在分词 He fell asleep with the lamp burning. You can’t leave here with the machine running. With him taking charge of the task, I have no doubt of its success. With winter coming on, it’s time to buy warm clothes. 2．with + 名词（或代词）+ 过去分词 The old man was listening to the radio, with his eyes half closed. All the afternoon he worked with the door locked. With the work finished, all of us went out for a walk. He stood for an instant with his hand still raised.
3．with + 名词（或代词）+ 动词不定式 I can’t go out with all these dishes to wash. With so many books to read, I couldn’t go out with you. With only two minutes to go, they hurried to the station. With all this work to do, I don’t know if I’ll have time to go out. 4．with + 名词（或代词）+ 介词短语 He walked along with his hat on the back of his head. He was asleep with his head on his arms. She saw a brook（小溪） with red flowers and green grass on both sides.
5．with +名词（或代词）+形容词 The man was sleeping with the window open. The mother doesn’t allow her child to talk with his mouth full. 6．with +名词（或代词）+副词 With John away, we’ve got more room. The Emperor walked in the middle of the procession with nothing on. The student listened to his teacher with his head down. With the teacher there, he can’t write.