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高中虚拟语气讲解与练习


虚拟语气
虚拟语气表示动作或状态与事实相反,或不可能发生的情况。 (一)虚拟语气在非真实条件句中
虚拟条件句 与现在事 实相反的 假设 与过去事 实相反的 假设 与将来事 实相反的 假设 ①if+主语+动词过去式 ②if+主语+were to+动 词原形 ③ if+ 主 语 +should+ 动 词原形 使用虚拟条件句时要注意以下几点: 1 条件状语从句表示的行为和主句的行为所发生的时间不一致时,被称为“错综时间条件句” ,动词的形式要根据它所表示的时间作出 相应的调整。如: If you had followed my advice just now, you would be better now. If you had studied hard before, you would be a college student now. 2 if 省略句 在条件句中可省略 if,把 were, had, should 提到句首,变为倒装句。如: If I were at school again, I would study harder. = Were I at school again, I would study harder. If you had come earlier, you would catch the bus.= Had you come earlier, you would catch the bus. If it should rain tomorrow, we would not go climbing. = Should it rain tomorrow, we would not go climbing. 注意:若省略条件句中的谓语动词是否定形式时,不能用动词的缩略形式。如我们可以说:Were it not for the expense, I would go abroad now. 但不能说:Weren’t it for the expense, I would go abroad now. 3 用介词短语代替条件状语从句。常用的介词有 with, without, but for. What would you do with a million dollars? (= if you had a million dollars) We couldn’t have finished the work ahead of time without your help.(=if we hadn’t got your help) Without your help, we couldn’t have finished the work ahead of time.(= But for your help, ? = If it had not been for your help,? = Had it not been for your help,?) 4 含蓄条件句 有时为了表达的需要,在虚拟语气中并不总是出现 if 引导的条件句,而通过其他的形式来代替条件句。如: I was ill that day. Otherwise, I would have taken part in the sports meet. (副词) He telephoned to inform me of your birthday, or I would have known nothing about it.(连词) A man who stopped drinking water would be dead in about seven days.(定语从句) I might have given you more help, but I was too busy.(连词) Everything taken into consideration, they would have raised output quickly.(独立主格结构) 5 even if, even though 也可用于虚拟语气,其形式与 if 从句在虚拟语气中的形式相同。 练习:单项选择 1 If I were to do it, I ________ it in a different way. 2 If you asked your father, you _______ permission. my hometown. A wouldn’t have fallen A shall do A may get B will do C would do D have done D may be get B might get C should have get D were to fall C Will be D Were 主语+should / would/could/ might+动词原形 If you came tomorrow, we would have the meeting. If it were to rain tomorrow, the sports meeting would be put off. If he should not come tomorrow, we should put off the meeting till next Monday. If+ 主 语 +had+ 过 去 分 词 主语+should/ would/ could/ might+have+过去分词 If + 主语 +动词的过去 式(be 动词用 were) 主句 主语+should/ would/ could/ might+动词原形 例句 If I had time, I would attend the meeting. If I were you, I should seize the opportunity to go abroad. If you had taken my advice, you would not have failed in the exams.

3 It is hard for me to imagine what I would be doing today if I ___ in love at the age of seven, with the Melinda Cox library in B had not fallen A Was C should fall B Had been D As for A will not have been achieved D had not been achieved 4 _____ I you, I would go with him to the party. A In spite of B But for

5 _____ the English examination I would have gone to the concert last Sunday. C Because of 6 Without electronic computers, much of today’s advanced technology ______. B have not been achieved 1 用于宾语从句 C would not have been achieved

(二)虚拟语气在名词性从句中的运用

(1)wish 后面所跟宾语从句谓语动词用虚拟语气(意为要是,但愿…就好了) ,其形式主要有三种: 表示对现在情况的虚拟:wish 后接一般过去时的从句 如 I wish it were spring all year round. 表示对过去情况的虚拟:wish 后接过去完成时或 should/could have done 如 She wished she had stayed at home. 表示对将来情况的虚拟:wish 后接 would,could+动词原形 如 I wish it would be fine tomorrow. (2) 用于表示建议、愿望、命令等词后的宾语从句中,常见的动词有 demand, order, require, insist, suggest, propose, advise 等。 宾语从句的虚拟语气结构为“should+动词原形” ,should 可以省略。 He suggested that we (should)start off early the next day. The doctor ordered that the patient (should) be sent to hospital without delay. They insisted that the boy (should) go with them. (3) .would rather 后接动词原形,但接从句时要用虚拟语气(宁愿,但愿) 。 would rather +主语+一般过去时(表示与现在或将来相反)I’d rather he didn’t go now. would rather +主语+过去完成时(表示与过去相反) I’d rather you hadn’t done it. (4) 当 suggest 表示“暗示、表明”之意,insist 表示“坚持认为,力言”时,suggest/insist 后的宾语从句动词不用虚拟语气,应使 用陈述语气。 The smile on his face suggested that he was satisfied with our work.他脸上的表情表明他对我们的工作非常满意。 The man insisted that he had never stolen the money. 那个人坚持说他没有偷钱。 2 用于主语从句 It is desired/ suggested/ proposed/ necessary/ important/ strange/ natural/ a pity/ essential + that 从句,从句中的谓语动词 要用虚拟语气“should + 动词原形” ,should 可以省略。如: It is suggested that the meeting should be put off till next week. It is strange that he should have acted toward his parents like that. (act 在主句谓语动词之前时,用 should have done) 以上句式也可用于陈述语气。 如: It’s strange that he didn't come yesterday. 3 用于表语从句和同位语从句 在 suggestion, proposal, order, plan, idea, request, advice 等名词后的表语从句和同位语从句中要用虚拟语气,其构成是“should + 动词原形” 。如: My idea is that we should think it over before accepting it. We all agreed to his suggestion that we should go to Dalian for sightseeing. It’s a pity that you can’t dance.

(三)虚拟语气在其他情况中的使用
1.在 as if/ as though 引导的状语从句中,若从句与事实相反,则要用虚拟语气。其形式如下: 主语+as if/ though +主语+一般过去时(从句的动作与主句同时发生) 主语+as if/ though +主语+would/could+动词原形(从句的动作相对主句来说在将来发生) 主语+as if/ though +主语+过去完成时(从句的动作先发生于主句动作之前) He talks as if he knew all about it. She speaks English well as if he had studied in America. He learns English so hard as if he would go abroad. 2.在 it is (high) time that …句型中也用虚拟语气,从句常用过去式,有时也用 should +动词原形,表示早该做而没做的事,含建议的 意味。 如 It is time that we went home. P.S.此句型中,注意与‘It/This is the +序数词+time that+现在完成式的区别。This is the first time that I have been here. 3 if only 后接从句也用虚拟语气,其形式与 wish 的用法一致。 4. 动词 hope, intend, mean, plan, want, think 等词用过去完成的形式,表示的意思为‘本想,本打算,本认为’ He had meant to buy the furniture last week, but it rained.(他上周本打算去买那件家具,但却下雨了) 练习:单项选择 7 How I wish I _____ to my parents’ advice. A be raised A do A will confirm B would be raised B don’t B confirm C didn’t C would confirm A listening B listen D raise D didn’t do D must confirm B had been C is D has been D had been A has been B was C is C am listening D had listened 8 The workers in the factory demanded that their pay______ by 20 percent. C raised 9 Most insurance agents would rather you _____ anything about collecting claims until they investigate the situation. 10 It is important that the TOFEL office _____ your registration. 11 He speaks Chinese as fluently as if he ____a Chinese. A were 12 Looking round the town, he felt as though he _____away for ages. A takes B took C has taken

13 It is time that the government _____ measures to protest the rare birds and animals. D taking 14 Look at the terrible situation I am in! If only I ____ your advice.

A follow 好题精练:

B would follow

C had followed A can’t

D have followed B mustn’t C needn’t D shouldn’t

1 There is no light on –-they ______ be at home. A need B must C should

2 We hope that as many people as possible _____join ur for the picnic tomorrow. D can A mayn’t B can’t C mustn’t D needn’t 3 As you worked late yesterday, you _____ have come this morning. 4 –Excuse me , but I want to use your computer to type a report. –You _____ have my computer if you don’t take care of it. A shan’t B might not C needn’t A Must B Can D needn’t C May D shouldn’t D Need 5 John, look at the time, _____ you play the piano at such a late hour? A shouldn’t B couldn’t C mustn’t

6 I ____ have been more than six years old when the accident happened. 7 –Lucy doesn’t mind lending you her dictionary. A can’t A will B mustn’t B may C needn’t C have to –She _____. I’ve already borrowed one. D shouldn’t D should B must C may D should

8 The boss has given everyone a special holiday, so we _____ go to work tomorrow. 9—I think I’ll give Bob a ring. –You _____. You haven’t been in touch with him for ages. --Oh, dear, if you ___. A can C Could you be C may B could have taken D must C needn ’t have taken A need B must D mustn’t have taken C may D will –OK, I ______.

10 –Could I have a word with you, mum? A Would you be 12 –May I smoke here? A should A should have taken B could B Should you be

11 _____ fired, your health care and other benefits will not be immediately cut off. D Might you be --If you _______, choose a seat in the smoking section.

13 The weather turned out to be fine yesterday. I ______the trouble to carry my umbrella with me. 14 –Must he come to sign this paper himself? --Yes, he _____. A won’t A needn’t A Shall A has to be A should put B don’t B may not B Would B will be B could have put C will C shouldn ’t C Can C mustn’ t be C might put A could

15 –Mr Gordon asked me to remind you of the meeting this afternoon. Don’t forget it. D do D mustn’t D Might

16 We ____ have proved great adventures, but we have done the greatest march ever made in the past ten years. 17 –What’s the name? --Khulaifi. ______ I spell that for you. 18 –I’ve taken someone else’s green sweater by mistake. 19 This cake is very sweet. You _____ a lot of sugar in it. D must have put B would C must D need 20 He paid for a seat, when he ______have entered free. --Oh, dear! She _____ a lot of difficulties. A may go through B might go through C ought to have gone through A shall D must have gone through C may D can 22 Helen ____ go on the trip with us, but she isn’t quite sure yet. 23 –Tom is never late for work. Why is he absent today? A must happen B should have happened B Of course you can C had to C can’t C mustn’t do 24 –Shall I give you a ride as you live so far away? A It couldn’t be better. A would A shouldn’t A needn’t do B could B mustn’t B needn’t have done B must –It ______ Harry’s. He always wears green. D could be

21 –The woman biologist stayed in Africa studying wild animals for 13 years before she returned.

--Something ____ to him. D must have happened D It’s up to you.

C could have happened --Thank you. _______. C If you like D ought to D wouldn’t

25 If I ____plan to do anything I wanted to, I’d like to go to Tibet and travel through as much of it as possible. 26 –Do you know where David is? I couldn’t find him anywhere. –Well, he ____ have gone far- his coat’s still here. 27 –Catherine, I have cleaned the room for you. –Thanks. You _____ it . I could manage it myself. D shouldn’t have done D would have done

28 I was on the highway when this car went past followed by a police car. They ____ at least 150 kilometers an hour. A should have been doing A should B must B must have been doing C wouldn’t C could have dond D can’t B mustn’t C needn’t D may not 29 He _____have completed his work.; otherwise, he wouldn’t be enjoying himself by the seaside. 30 Tom., you ______leave all your clothes on the floor like this! A wouldn’t

31 I have lost one of my gloves. I _____it somewhere. A must drop B must have dropped C must be dropping A Can’t D must have been dropped C May not D needn’t D Won’t 32 –Mun, I’ve been studying English since 8 o’clock. ______ I go out and play with Tom for a while. --No, I’m afraid not. Besides, it’s raining outside now. A mustn’t 巩固练习: 1.The boy acted ____ he had never lived in Canada before. A. as though A. If he went A. will allow B. even if C. as D. since C. Should he have gone D. Had he gone 2. ____ to the doctor right away, he might have been alive. B. Were he gone B. should allow 3. If you were older, I ____ you to go there yesterday. C. would have allowed C. brought D. had allowed D. bring 4. The secretary suggested that they ____ the men in at once. A. had brought A. was B. were B. should have brought C. had been 5. I wish I ____ able to tell him all about it last night. D. should be C. had arrived/had caught D. had arrived/would have caught 6. If we ____ here ten minutes earlier, we ___ the bus. A. arrived/would catch A. had B. had had B. arrived/would have caught C. have had D. would have D. had come C. be arrested D. had to be arrested 7. If I ____ more time, I would have gone with him. 8. He was very busy yesterday, otherwise he ____ to the meeting. A. would come B. came C. would have come B. must be arrested 9. The Jade Emperor ordered that the Monkey King _____ right away. A. would be arrested A. not staying A. would come to A. is B. will be 10. Jane’s uncle insisted ____ in this hotel any longer. B. not to stay C. that he not stay D. staying not D. will come to 11. Don’t touch the sleeping tiger. If he woke up, he _____ you. B. would come at C. would have been C. would have come toward D. would be D. didn’t try D. would be written 12. Without electricity human life _____ quite different today. 13. How I wish I ____ to repair the watch! I only made it worse. A. had tried A. was written A. should send B. hadn’t tried B. be written B. would be sent C. have tried 14. He demanded that the laboratory report ___ immediately after the experiment was done. C. must be written C. sent 15. The man insisted that he _____ there. D. be sent C. he would have been alive now 16. If he had not gone out in the storm _____. A. he will be alive now A. rains B. he would be alive now C. would rain C. arrived D. rain 17. If it ___ tomorrow, what would we do? B. were to rain B. arrive 18. It is required that you ____ at six. A. will arrive A. had known A. was far away A. is to, should D. would arrive D. knew D. went far away. D. was going to, should 19. If only I _____ how to operate an electronic computer as you do. B. would know C. should know 20. He spoke in a quiet, distinct voice, as though his thought _____. B. had been far away B. were to, would C. were far away 21. If it ___ rain, we ___ get wet. C. were going to, would B. listened, would know D. had listened, would know C. must have died D. must die 22. If he ___ to the teacher attentively, he ___ the answer to the problem now. A. had listened, would have known C. listened, would have known A. would have died B. would die B may not B Wouldn’t 33 –I don’t mind telling you what I know. –You ____. I’m not asking you for it. C can ’t

23. But for the party, he ___ of hunger 30 years ago.

24. ___ today, he would get there for holiday. A. Was he leaving A. didn’t know A. would to A. will to A. leave A. fails B. Were he to leave C. Would he leave D. If he leaves 25. I would have come earlier, but I ___ that you were waiting for me. B. hadn’t know B. went B. is going to B. left B. failed C. go C. would have known D. will go D. were going to D. to leave D. fail C. be married D. would marry D. haven’t known 26. It’s high time that we ___ to school. 27. It seems as if it ___ rain. C. is to 28. I’d rather you ___ right away. C. will leave C. would fail 29. He is working hard for fear that he ___. 30. It is really strange that the girl ___ so early. A. has been married A. accept A. give B. has married 31. Supposing I ___ this gift, what would he say? B. accepted B. should give C. should accept C. be given D. would accept 32. The teacher agreed to the suggestion that the students ___ two weeks to prepare for the exam. D. would be given D. would have attended 33. I was busy yesterday, otherwise I ___ your birthday party. A. attended A. see A. were B. had attended C. would attend D. saw D. had been C. might lose D. could have lost 34. He insisted that he ___ me before. B. should see B. would be C. had seen C. have been 35. The two strangers talked as if they ___ friends for years. 36. We ___ our lives had it not been for the policeman. A. would have lost B. should lose 37. ---- I thought you would come back tomorrow. ---- I would if I ___ to attend a meeting. A. don’t have B. didn’t have C. will not have D. would not have D. he wouldn’t always making 38. He wishes ___ mistakes. A. he doesn’t always make A. will be A. won’t win A. knew B. would be B. will lose B. he isn’t always making C. he didn’t always make C. is D. were D. can’t win 39. It ___ very nice if only it were possible. 40. Without your help, our team ___ the last match. C. wouldn’t have won C. know D. would know C. Were I you C. would have caught D. I had been you D. had caught 41. I wish I ___ what to do. B. have known 42. ___, I would take an umbrella with me. A. Had I been you A. would catch A. do A. are A. needs A. speak A. saw B. does B. were B. I were you 43. If I had hurried, I ___ the train. B. could catch C. did C. be 44. He insisted that John ___ it. D. would do D. will be C. needed D. need 45. It is high time we ___ off. 46. He felt as if he ___ more time to study for the test. B. were needed B. spoke B. see 47. It is important that I ___ with Mr. Williams immediately. C. will speak D. to speak D. had seen C. he be left D. he would leave me alone 48. James wishes he ___ the football game instead of the film. C. had been seen 49. I wish ___. A. he left B. he leaves me alone 50. If I had known that, I ___ so.

A. wouldn’t do A. will not smoke A. be B. am

B. wouldn’t have done B. not smoke C. was D. were

C. won’t do

D. have not done D. did not smoke

51. The doctor suggested that she ___. C. would not smoke 52. If I ___ you, I wouldn’t return the call. 53. You talk as if you ___ there. A. would started A. will happen A. are A. was A. sum A. were really B. has really been C. had really been D. would really be

54. He suggested that the work ___ at once. B.would be started B. happens C. be C.should started D. happened D. should be started 55. It is strange that such a thing ___ in your school. C. should happen D. would be D. went D. would sum C. could not die D. could not have died D. was tired never 56. It is imperative that you ___ on time. B. will be B. were B. summed 57. I didn’t go to the party, but I do wish I ___ there. C. had been C. will sum 58. It is time we ___ up our results. 59. If the doctor had been available, the child ___. A. would not die B. would not have died 60. Dr. Bethune worked hard as if he ___. A. never had felt tired B. had never felt tired C. never felt tired


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