阅读理解 What is the nature of the scientific attitude, the attitude of the man or woman who studies and applies physics, biology, chemistry, geology, engineering, m
edicine or any other science? We all know that science plays an important role in our societies. However, many people believe that our progress depends on two different aspects of science. The first aspect is the application of the machines, products and systems of knowledge that scientists and technologists develop. The second is the
application of the special methods of thought and action that scientists use in their work. What are these special methods of thinking and acting? First of all, it seems that a successful scientist is curious - he wants to find out how and why the universe works. He usually pays attention to problems which he notices have no satisfying explanation, and looks for relationships even if the data available seem to be unconnected. Moreover, he thinks he can improve the existing conditions and enjoys trying to solve the problems which this involves. He is a good observer, accurate, patient and objective(客观的) and uses the facts he observes to the fullest. For example, trained observers obtain a very large amount of information about a star mainly from the accurate analysis of the simple lines that appear in a spectrum(光谱). He does not accept statements which are not based on the most complete evidence available. He rejects authority as the only basis for truth. Scientists always check statements and make experiments carefully and objectively. Furthermore, he does not readily accept his own idea, since he knows that man is the least reliable of scientific instruments and that a number of factors tend to disturb objective investigation. Lastly, he is full of imagination since he often has to look for relationships in data which are not only complex but also frequently incomplete. Furthermore, he
needs imagination if he wants to guess how processes work and how events take place. These seem to be some of the ways in which a successful scientist or technologist thinks and acts. 10. Many people believe that science helps society to progress through_________ A. knowledge only. B. more than one aspect. C. technology only. D. the use of machines. 11. Which of the following statements about a curious scientist is TRUE? A. He doesn’t find confidence and pleasure in work. B. He is interested in problems that are explained. C. He makes efforts to investigate potential connections. D. He looks for new ways of acting. 12. According to the passage, a successful scientist would NOT_______________. A. easily believe in unchecked statements. B. easily criticize others' research work. C. always use his imagination in work. D. always use evidence from observation. 13. Which word can be used to describe the data that a good scientist uses? A. complete B. objective C. complicated D. accurate
14. What does the passage mainly discuss? A. Application of technology. B. Progress in modem society. C. Scientists' ways of thinking and acting. D. How to become a successful scientist.
10. B。 从第二段中 many people believe that our progress depends on two different aspects of science.可知科学在两个方面推动社会进步。 11. C。 选项的意思是“他总是寻求行动的新方法”， D 文中没有提及。 应是 find confidence A and pleasure. D 应是 that are unexplained
12. A。从文中可知，科学家不是很容易相信没有检验的结论，但是他不仅批判别人的工作， 还批判自已的工作，工作时需要想象力，充分利用自已观察所得。 13. C。倒数第二段中的 complex 等于 complicated，意思是“复杂的”。 14. C。文中前两段简要介绍社会的进步依赖于科学的哪两个方面；后部分详细介绍第二个方 面，即科学家的思考和行为方式。
第三部分：阅读理解(共两节，满分 40 分) 阅读下列短文，从每题所给的四个选项(A、B、C、D)中，选出最佳选项，并在答题卡上 将该项涂黑。 A (2012·上海春招) The Age of Unreason Charles Handy In his book The Age of Unreason Professor Handy describes the dramatic changes that are taking place in our lives today and warns that we must adapt to these changes if we want to survive in the future. Handy believes that in the future less than 50% of the workforce will be employed full?time by an organization. These full?time employees will be the qualified professionals, technicians, and managers who are essential to an organization. Their working lives will be a lot more demanding than today, but in return they will be well?paid and they will retire earlier. The rest of the workforce will be self?employed or will work part?time, providing organizations with the products and services they require on a contract basis. Handy forecasts a big increase in the number of working mothers in future and believes there will be a large number of unemployed. Handy gives us plenty of figures to worry about. He estimates that by the year 2040, one person in five will retire, and one in ten will be over seventy?five years old. There will be one retiree to every three people of working age, and even more than that in countries such as Germany and Switzerland, where the proportion will be as much as one to two. Retirees will remain healthy and active for longer than
they do today and many will live to be a hundred years old, a fact which leads Handy to suggest that the term retirement will no longer be appropriate. He suggests the
third age is a more appropriate description, since it will be as important a part of our lives as the first age of learning and the second age of working are for us today. 文章大意：本文讲述了汉迪教授写的《非理性时代》一书的简介。 56．Professor Handy wrote the book most probably to________. A. warn us of potential social problems in the future B. predict the leading professions in the coming years C. describe the effect of unemployment on society D. suggest a better term for future retirement 答案：A 细节理解题。由第一段“...warns that we must adapt to these changes if we want to survive in the future”可知，Handy 教授写这本书的目的是警告我们：在未来 我们必须适应社会变化才能生存。 57．According to Professor Handy, the future workforce will________. A. adapt to the changes in retirement easily B. be mainly self?employed C. have fewer full?time workers than today D. work on a contract basis 答案：C 细节理解题。由第二段可知，在未来，全职工人的数目将会比现在少。 58．From the last paragraph, we learn that about 30 years from now，________. A. the number of retirees will double in many countries B. ageing will be a common and serious problem C. 10% of the population will live to be 100 years old D. the third age will be the most important part of our lives 答案：B 细节理解题。由第三段第二句话“He estimates that by the year 2040, one person in five will retire, and one in ten will be over seventy?five years old.” 可知。 B (2012·苏州五市区调研) Haagen?Dazs from Europe started in 1989 and is 5—10 times more expensive than regular ice cream. On price there is no real advantage. However, it adopted a unique marketing strategy, and quickly occupied the market, a top ice cream brand. Haagen?Dazs did not set up shops in ordinary supermarkets or grocery stores. Haagen?Dazs leisure fashion shops are in busy sections of malls. The layout is carefully planned to create an elegant atmosphere, and sometimes, a flagship(旗舰)
store layout will cost several million dollars. Compared to other ice cream brands, Haagen?Dazs consumers are tightly grouped. It is understood that Haagen?Dazs seldom does television advertising. The majority of ads are highly visual impact of the print ads. In particular many advertisements lock those pyramid tip consumers. Moreover, as long as the consumer spending 500 yuan to fill in a small form can become their members, these members will be regularly sent advertisements by direct mail. Praise of customers is a powerful weapon for Haagen?Dazs. There is always much creative ingenuity (独创性) in Haagen?Dazs advertising, so it is remembered by the people. ☆ initial advertisements such as: “Delicious Haagen?Dazs, like 24K gold, Japan Kobe beef, original palm oil, mushroom truffles and Chinese ceramics, Tiffany Africa...what ‘ice cream' was waiting for”． ☆ “love her, let her eat Haagen?Dazs” This classic sensational advertisement attracted more numerous Haagen?Dazs lovers who become regulars. Today, Haagen?Dazs has 55 countries in the world with approximately 700 stores with annual sales of more than 1 billion US dollars (about 8.28 billion yuan). Haagen?Dazs has become the world's most popular top ice cream brand. In the United States, its market share is 6.1%, 1% in France, 4.6% in Japan, 4% in Singapore and 5% in Hong Kong. Determined to take the “Qugaohegua” line, Haagen?Dazs has combined accurate positioning in the marketplace with dedicated brand goals. This is the real secret of success. 文章大意：哈根达斯冰激凌始于 1989 年，比一般的冰激凌贵五到十倍，但是它因为采取 了独到的营销策略，所以很快占领了市场，成为了冰激凌的超级品牌。 59．Which of the following statements about Haagen?Dazs is NOT true according to the passage? A. It is so popular that it can be bought in almost every supermarket. B. You can enjoy yourself both physically and spiritually by eating it. C. It has become the world's top ice cream brand through its efforts. D. If you are one of its members, you may receive its advertisements regularly. 答案：A 推理判断题。由第二段第一句话“Haagen?Dazs did not set up shops in
ordinary supermarkets or grocery stores.”可知，哈根达斯冰激凌在一般的超市和杂货 店买不到，因此 A 项错误。
60．Why does Haagen?Dazs seldom do television advertisements? A. Because it can't afford to do television advertisements. B. Because it doesn't think television advertising attracts consumers. C. Because it focuses on its target consumers by using other media. D. Because its design isn't suitable to be broadcast on the television. 答案：C 细节理解题。由第三、四段可知，哈根达斯冰激凌使用了其他的广告手段吸引、 并牢牢把握住它的目标群体。 61．According to the initial advertisements of Haagen?Dazs, it stresses that it is________. A. perfect C. special B. expensive D. popular
答案：B 推理判断题。由第五段“Delicious Haagen?Dazs, like 24K gold, Japan Kobe beef, original palm oil, mushroom truffles and Chinese ceramics, Tiffany Africa...what ‘ice cream' was waiting for”可知，哈根达斯冰激凌强调的是自己的产 品很贵。 62．What is the best title for the passage? A. The origin of Haagen?Dazs. B. The creative advertisements of Haagen?Dazs. C. The influence of Haagen?Dazs. D. The marketing strategy of Haagen?Dazs. 答案：D 主旨大意题。由文章大意可知。
4.（2011·上海卷）(A) The teacher who did the most to encourage me was, as it happened, my aunt. She was Myrtle C. Manigault, the wife of my mother’s brother Bill. She taught in second grade at all-black Summer School in Camden, New Jersey. During my childhood and youth, Aunt Myrtle encouraged me to develop every aspect of my potential, without regard for what was considered practical or possible for black females. I liked to sing; she listened to my voice and pronounced it good. I couldn’t dance; she taught me the basic dancing steps. She took me to the theatre ____ not just children’s theatre but adult comedies and dramas --- and her faith
that I could appreciate adult plays was not disappointed. My aunt also took down books from her extensive library and shared them with me. I had books at home, but they were all serious classics. Even as a child I had a strong liking for humor, and I’ll never forget the joy of discovering Don Marquis’s Archy & Mehitabel through her. Most important, perhaps, Aunt Myrtle provided my first opportunity to write for publication. A writer herself for one of the black newspapers, she suggested my name to the editor as a “youth columnist”. My column, begun when I was fourteen, was supposed to cover teenage social activities---and it did---but it also gave me the freedom to write on many other subjects as well as the habit of gathering material, the discipline of meeting deadlines, and, after graduation from college six years later, a solid collection of published material that carried my name and was my passport to a series of writing jobs. Today Aunt Myrtle is still an enthusiastic supporter of her “favorite niece”. Like a diamond, she has reflected a bright, multifaceted( 多 面 的 ) image of possibilities to every pupil who has crossed her path. 65. Which of the following did Aunt Myrtle do to the author during her childhood and youth? A. She lent her some serious classics. music. C. She discovered her talent for dancing. plays. 66. What does Archy & Mehitabel in Paragraph 3 probably refer to? A. A book of great fun. C. A serious masterpiece. B. A writer of high fame. D. A heartbreaking play. D. She introduced her to adult B. She cultivated her taste for
67. Aunt Myrtle recommended the author to a newspaper editor mainly to ____. A. develop her capabilities for writing. material C. involve her in teenage social activities D. offer her a series of writing jobs.
B. give her a chance to collect
68. We can conclude from the passage that Aunt Myrtle was a teacher who _____. A. trained pupils to be diligent and well-disciplined B. gave pupils confidence in exploiting their potential C. emphasized what was practical or possible for pupils D. helped pupils overcome difficulties in learning
Most of us spend our lives seeking the natural world. To this end, we walk the dog, play golf, go fishing, sit in the garden, drink outside rather than inside the pub, have a picnic, live in the suburbs, go to the seaside, buy a weekend place in the country. The most popular free time activity in Britain is going for a walk. And when joggers (慢跑者) jog, they don’t run the streets. Every one of them automatically heads to the park or the river. It is my firm belief that not only do we all need nature, but we all seek nature, whether we know we are doing so or not. But despite this, our children are growing up nature-deprived (丧失). I spent my boyhood climbing trees. These days, children are robbed of these ancient freedoms, due to problems like crime, traffic, the loss of the open spaces and strange new ideas about what is best for children, that is to say, things that can be bought, rather than things that can be found. The truth is to be found elsewhere. A study in the US: families had moved to better housing and the children were assessed for ADHD (多动症). Those whose housing had more natural views showed an improvement of 19%; those who had the same improvement in material surroundings but no nice view improved just 4%. A study in Sweden indicated that kindergarten children who could play in a natural environment had less illness and greater physical ability than children used only to a normal playground. A US study suggested that when a school gave children access to a natural environment, the entire school would do better in studies. Another study found that children play differently in a natural environment. In
playgrounds, children create a hierarchy (等级) based on physical abilities, with the tough ones taking the lead. But when a grassy area was planted with bushes, the children got much more into fantasy play, and the social hierarchy was now based on imagination and creativity. Most bullying (恃强凌弱) is found in schools where there is a tarmac (柏油碎 石 ) playground; the least bullying is in a natural area that the children are encouraged to explore. This reminds me unpleasantly of Sunnyhill School, with its hard tarmac, where I used to hang about in corners dreaming about wildlife. But children are frequently discouraged from involvement with natural spaces, for health and safety reasons, for fear that they might get dirty or that they might cause damage. So, instead, the damage is done to the children themselves: not to their bodies but to their souls. One of the great problems of modern childhood is ADHD, now increasingly and expensively treated with drugs. Yet one study after another indicates that contact with nature gives huge benefits to ADHD children. However, we spend money on drugs rather than on green places The life of old people is much better when they have access to nature. The most important for the growing population of old people is in quality rather than quantity of years. And study after study finds that a garden is the single most important thing in finding that quality. In wider and more difficult areas of life, there is evidence to indicate that natural surroundings improve all kinds of things. Even problems with crime and aggressive behaviour are reduced when there is contact with the natural world. Dr William Bird, researcher from the Royal Society for the Protection of Birds, states in his study, “A natural environment can reduce violent behaviour because its process helps reduce anger and behavior that people might regret later.” Wild places need encouraging for this reason, no matter how small their contribution. We tend to think human beings are doing nature some kind of favour when we are protecting nature. The error here is far too deep: not only do humans need nature for themselves, but the very idea that humanity and the natural world are separable
things is damaging. Human beings are a species of animals. For seven million years we lived on the planet as part of nature. So we miss the natural world and long for contact with non-human life. Anyone who has patted a dog, stroked a cat, sat under a tree with a glass of beer, given or received a bunch of flowers or chosen to walk through the park on a nice day, understands that. We need the wild world. It is necessary to our well-being, our health, our happiness. Without other living things around us we are less than human. 15. What is the author’s firm belief? A. People seek nature in different ways. B. People should spend most of their lives in the wild. C. People have quite different ideas of nature. D. People must make more efforts to study nature. 16. What does the author say people prefer for their children nowadays? A. Personal freedom. B. Things that are natural. C. Urban surroundings. D. Things that are purchased. 17. What does a study in Sweden show? A. The natural environment can help children learn better. B. More access to nature makes children less likely to fall ill. C. A good playground helps kids develop their physical abilities. D. Natural views can prevent children from developing ADHD. 18. Children who have chances to explore natural areas ________. A. tend to develop a strong love for science B. are more likely to dream about wildlife C. tend to be physically tougher in adulthood D. are less likely to be involved in bullying 19. What does the author suggest we do to help children with ADHD? A. Find more effective drugs for them.
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B. Provide more green spaces for them. C. Place them under more personal care. D.Engage them in more meaningful activities. 20. In what way do elderly people benefit from their contact with nature? A. They look on life optimistically. B. They enjoy a life of better quality. C. They are able to live longer. D. They become good-humoured.
15. A。从第一段最后一句”It is my firm belief that not only do we all need nature, but we all seek nature, whether we know we are doing so or not.”可知人们以 各种形式追寻大自然，亲近大自然。 16. D。从第二段最后一句中“things that can be bought, rather than things that can be found”可知父母现在更愿意给孩子买东西. 17. B 。 从 第 四 段 第 一 句 中 “kindergarten children who could play in a natural environment had less illness and greater physical ability”可以得出 B 结论。 18. D。从第六段第一句中的“the least bullying is in a natural area that the children are encouraged to explore.”可以得出 D 结论。 19. B。第八段第二句“Yet one study after another indicates that contact with nature gives huge benefits to ADHD children.”可知对多动症儿童来说，把他们置于自然 环境中是最有益的。 20. B。第九段第二句“The most important for the growing population of old people is in quality rather than quantity of years.”可以得出 B 结论。
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