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B1U4 定语从句


在复合句中,修饰某一名词或
代词的从句叫做定语从句

He is an English teacher who likes singing songs.

先行词
引导词

定语从句

关系代词 :who﹑whom﹑that﹑which﹑whose

引导词

r />关系副词:where﹑when﹑why

先行词为

在定语从句中作

引 导

关 系 代 词

who that whom which whose when where why

人 物 /人 人 物 某人/某物的
时间 地点 原因

主语或宾语 主语或宾语 宾语 主语或宾语 定语
状语 状语 状语

在从 句中 作宾 语可 省去

关 词 系 副 词

The apple is mine.

The apple
The apple

which is red which is red

is mine. is small.

which is green is yours. which is green is big.

The apple
The apple

1. which 指物,作主语或宾语 (作宾语可省略, 如介词提前则不能省)

These are the trees which were planted last year.
This recorder (which) he is using is made in Japan. Is this the library (which) you borrow books from? Is this the library from which you borrow books?

Titanic is the ship that sank after hitting an iceberg.

2. that 指人/物,作主语或宾语 (作宾语可省略)

A plane is a machine. It can fly. A plane is a machine that can fly.

He is the man. I told you about him. He is the man (that) I told you about.

4. that 指人/物,作主语或宾语 (作宾语可省略)
A plane is a machine that can fly. He is the man (that) I told you about.
? 注意:介词提前时只能用which 而不能用that 。 Is this the library from which you borrow books? from that

that和which在指物的情况下一般都可以互换, 但在下列情况下, 一般用that而不用which。

1. 当先行词是all, everything, nothing, something, anything, little, much 等不定代 词时或被all, every, no, some, any, little, much few only等修饰时。 I am sure she has something (that) you can borrow. I’ve read all the books that are not mine.

2. 先行词被序数词或最高级修饰时。 This is the first book (that) he has read.

3. 先行词被the only, the very, the same, the last修饰时。
This is the very book that belongs to him.

4. 当并列的两个先行词分别表示人或物, 用关系代词that。
We were deeply impressed by the teachers and the schools that we had visited there.

5. 先行词是who或who引导的主句。
Who is the girl that drove the car? Who that broke the window will be punished.

6. 主句以There be 引导时
There are 200 people that didn’t know the thing. 7. 当先行词在定语从句中作be表语時, 关系代词用that。 She isn’t the girl that she was 10 years ago.

8. 当先行词是which时,关系代词用that.
Which is the book that you bought last week?

先行词为物时引导词that和which的区别: 1.只用that不用which 的情况:
(2)先行词既有人又有物。 (3)先行词被形容词的最高级或序数词修饰。 (4)先行词被the very,the only,the last, just, all, any, every, no 等修饰。 (5)关系代词在从句中作表语.
This is one of the best films that I have ever seen. China is no longer the country that it used to be. All that can be done has been done. He spoke of the things and persons that he had seen abroad. This is the very book that I am looking for.

(1)先行词为much,little,few,nothing,none,anything,no,all等不定代词

2.只能用which不用that的情况:
1.定语从句中的介词前置时关系代词只能用which
2. 引导非限制性定语从句时只能用which (1) The machine, which I have looked after for many year, is still working perfectly. (2)My glasses, without which I was like a blind man,fell to the ground and broke.

Remember:Which 在这两种情况下即使在句中 作宾语也不能省。

3. who ,whom 在从句中分别作主语和宾

语 (口语中who也可作宾语)
1) The foreigner who visited our school yesterday is from Canada.(主语) 2) The boy (whom) I spoke to just now is Jim.

3) The person to whom you just talked is Mr. Li. (宾语) 4) Mr. Read is the professor to whom you should write . (宾语) 4. whose 在从句中作定语,指人或物 1) Miss Flower is the teacher whose house caught fire last week.

2) This is the boy whose composition the teacher talked of .
3) This is the book whose cover is blue.
4)The boss in whose company my father worked is a very kind person.

Rose and Jack are the lovers who met on the ship.

Rose

/the lady/meet Jack on Titanic

Rose is the lady who met Jack on Titanic.

Jack /the young man /want to save Rose

Jack is the young man who wanted to save rose.

Cal /the man /want to kill Jack

Cal is the man who wanted to kill Jack.

指出关系代词(副词)在定语从句中的成份:

1.The man who came to our school is Mr. Wang. 主语
2.The girl (whom) I met is Lucy.
宾语

3. A child whose parents are dead is called Tom. 定语

4.I like the book (which) you bought yesterday.
宾语

5. His parents wouldn’t let him marry anyone whose family was poor. 定语 6. We shall never forget the days (that) we spent together.

宾语

5. as 引导限制性定语从句时,先行词为人或物 1) 先行词常有such 和 the same 修饰,as 在从 句中不省略。

He has bought the same type of bike as I have . Such teachers as I know think him bright.

2) as可指代整个句子,可放在句中或句首。 As we know, China is a developing country. He, as we expected, came to the party on time.

注意:

as you know, as everybody can see, as is reported, as is often said, as is announced

介词+关系代词的情况 1

说明:介词+关系代词只有两种形式: 介词+whom/介词+which
The man whom you spoke to was a scientist.

The city

which she lives in is far away.

介词+关系代词的情况 2
Are these two sentences right?

The man who/whom you spoke to was a × scientist.
The city that/which she lives in is far away. ×

可见,who、that 不能用与介词之后

介词+关系代词的情况 3
下面两句中的介词能提前吗?

Is this the watch that you are looking for? The old man whom I am looking after is better . 在固定短语中介词不能提前

如何选择引导词和介词
? 引导词的选择:先行词指人时用 whom ? 先行词指物时用which ? 介词的选择方法: ? 1。看先行词的习惯搭配。On Monday/ in the year … ? 2.看从句谓语动词的习惯搭配:work with, live in, stay at/in ? 3.看从句谓语中形容词的搭配:be strict with/in, be pleased with, be angry at…

? 4.看行文的意义。 ? Do you see the boat in which we came here? ? Do you see the boat on which there is a monkey?

练习: 介词+关系代词的使用
on which she spent $10? 1. Do you like the book for which 2. Do you like the book she paid $10? from which she learned a lot? 3. Do you like the book 4. Do you like the book about which she often talks? 5. He built a telescope through which he could study the skis. 6. There is a tall tree outside, under which stands our teacher. of which 7. China has a lot of rivers, the second longest ___________ is the Yellow River. from which people can have a good view 8. The tower _____________ is on the hill. to whom I spoke on the phone last night 9. The man ____________ is very good at wrestling. 10. He paid the boy $10 for washing ten windows, of which hadn’t been cleaned for at least a year. most __________


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