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【2014届高三一轮复习英语精品资料 专题八 状语从句(新课标专用)Word版含解析]


专题八

状语从句、定语从句

状语从句
一、时间状语从句 1.before 引导的从句中不用否定式谓语。常用如下句型: It is long before...(过了好久才……) It is not long before...(过了不久就……) 2.since 后面所用动词不同,该动词所表示动作持续时间的计算方法也不同。

/>?since+瞬间动词过去式?从该动作发生时算起? ? ? ?since+持续性动词过去式?从动作结束时算起? ?

It is two years since he joined the army. It is two years since he smoked. 二、地点状语从句 多由 where 和 wherever 引导。 Where there is a will,there is a way. 二、原因状语从句 在表示原因时,because 语气最重,其次是 as,since,now that,故在回答 why 问句或 者在强调句对原因进行强调时,只能用 because。for 是并列连词,表示推测的理由或者进一 步说明,不能放在句首,for 前要用逗号。 —Why were you absent? —Because I was ill. 三、目的状语从句 1 . so that/in order that 引 导 的 目 的 状 语 从 句 中 的 谓 语 动 词 多 用 can/could/may/might/will/would+动词。 Please turn off the light so that I can go to sleep. 2.for fear that,in case,lest 表示“以防,免得”。 He is working hard for fear that he should fail. 四、条件状语从句 1.providing/provided (that)假如,假若 Providing (that) no one has further questions,the meeting will be over.

2.on the understanding that=on condition that 在……条件下 I give you money on the understanding that you finish your homework. 五、结果状语从句 注意 such 引导的结果状语从句与定语从句的区别。 试比较: This is such an interesting book that everyone likes to read it. This is such an interesting book as everyone likes to read. 六、目的状语从句与结果状语从句的区别 in order that 可放在句首,只能引导目的状语从句;so that 引导目的或结果状语从句,不 能放在句首。 试比较: He spoke so slowly that we all followed him.(结果状语从句)=He spoke slowly,so we all followed him. He spoke slowly so (in order) that we could all understand him.(目的状语从句) 七、让步状语从句 1.as 引导让步状语从句,作“尽管”解,用倒装句,语序为:状语/宾语/表语/动词原 形+as+主语+谓语……。如果句首是单数可数名词作表语,名词前无冠词。 Clever as you may be,you can’t do that. Clever boy as he is,he can’t solve the problem. 2.while 有时引导让步状语从句,作“尽管”、“虽然”讲,多用于句首。 While I admit the problems are difficult,I don’t agree that I can’t solve them. 八、地点状语从句 多由 where 和 wherever 引导。 Where there is a will,there is a way. 九、方式状语从句 方式状语从句常由 as(按照),just as(正像),as if=as though(仿佛,好像;从句可用虚拟 语气)等引导。 I changed my mind as you suggested.

定语从句
一、关系代词的用法 1.that 和 which 的用法 (1)限制性定语从句中,必须用关系代词 that 的情况: ①当先行词是不定代词 all,much,little,something,everything,anything,nothing, none,the one 时。

You should hand in all that you have. ②当先行词前面被 the only,the very,any,few,little,no,all 等词修饰时。 This is the only thing that has been tried. ③当先行词是形容词最高级或先行词的前面有形容词最高级修饰时。 This is the best that has been used against pollution. ④当先行词是序数词或它前面有序数词修饰时。 This train is the last that will go to Suzhou. ⑤当先行词既有人又有物时。 Do you know the things and persons that they are talking about? ⑥当主句的主语是疑问词 who 或 which 时。 Which is the bike that you lost? ⑦有两个定语从句时,其中一个关系代词已用 which,另外一个宜用 that。 They secretly built up a small factory,which produced things that could cause pollution. ⑧当先行词在主句中作表语,而关系代词也在从句中作表语时。 Shanghai is no longer the city that it used to be. (2)定语从句中必须用 which 的情况: ①在非限制性定语从句中,只用 which,不用 that。 Helen was much kinder to her youngest son than to the others,which,of course,made the others envy him. ②当动词短语中的介词提前时,只用 which,不用 that。 This is a house in which Lu Xun once lived. 注意:在一些固定搭配的动词短语中,由于动词和介词不可分割,因此不能把介词置于 关系代词之前。 This is the pen (which/that) I’m looking for. 不可以说:This is the pen for which I’m looking. 2.who,whom 和 whose 的用法 当先行词指人,在定语从句中作主语时,用 who,不可省略;在定语从句中作宾语时, 用 whom/that,可以省略;在定语从句中作定语时,用 whose,不可省略。 She is the girl who lives next door. That’s the girl (whom/that) I teach. 3.“介词+关系代词”引导的定语从句 “介词+关系代词”引导定语从句时,关系代词只能用 which(指物)或 whom(指人),即:介 词+which/whom。 (1)当介词放在关系代词的前面时,关系代词只能用 which 或 whom,且不能省略。

They may start as a group of highschool students, for whom practising their music in someone’s house is the first step to fame. (2) 在 限 制 性 定 语 从 句 中 , 当 介 词 位 于 定 语 从 句 的 末 尾 时 , 可 用 that/which( 指 物 ) , that/whom/who(指人)作介词的宾语,而且作介词宾语的关系代词可以省略。 (3)“复合介词短语+关系代词 which”引导的定语从句, 这种结构引导的定语从句常与先行 词用逗号分开,定语从句常用倒装语序。 He lived in a big house,in front of which stood a big tall apple tree. (4)介词+which/whom+不定式结构。 The poor man has no house in which to live. =The poor man has no house to live in. =The poor man has no house in which he can live. 4.as 和 which 的区别 (1)as 引导的非限制性定语从句,既可在主句前,又可在主句后,有时还可插入主句中,而 which 引导的非限制性定语从句只能置于主句之后。相同的是两者都可替代主句的整个内 容,而不是主句中的某一个词。 The weather turned out to be very good,which was more than we could expect. (2)当非限制性定语从句放在主句前面时,只能用 as。 As is known to everybody,the moon travels round the earth once every month. =The moon travels round the earth once every month,as/which is known to everybody. =It is known to everybody that the moon travels round the earth once every month. =What is known to everybody is that the moon travels round the earth once every month.(后两句 属名词性从句范畴。) 另外,as 多用于下列习惯用语中: as anybody can see 正如人人都能看到的那样 as we had expected 正如我们所预料的那样 as often happens 正如经常发生的那样 as has been said before 如上所述 as is mentioned above 正如上面提到的 (3)当定语从句放在主句后面时,也并不是 as 就永远等于 which。 ①当定语从句是否定句或表示否定时,只能用 which。 He came here very late,which was unexpected(not expected). Mr.Smith usually praises his student Rose in public,which she doesn’t like at all. ②当 as 在从句中作主语时,后面常接动词的被动语态。如:be known,be said 等。如果从 句中行为动词是主动语态,一般用 which 作主语。

③as 常用在 as often happens,as was said earlier,as I understand,as appears 等结构中。 Jack has won the first prize,as often happens. ④as 仍然保持作连词时常有的某种含义。 David is tall,as are my brothers. ⑤当非限制性定语从句的谓语后跟一个复合结构时,只能用 which 引导定语从句。 Betty always tells a lie,which her parents feel strange. 二、关系副词的用法 1.当先行词在定语从句中作状语时,要用关系副词。 I still remember the day when I first came to Beijing.(when=on which) Can you tell me the office where he works?(where=in which) 2.介词+关系代词(which)=where/when。有时为表达清楚,还可以在关系副词 where/when 前加介词 from,to 等。 China is the birthplace of kites,from where kites spread to Japan and Korea. 3.高考对关系副词 where 的考查。 高考试题中对于 where 的考查趋于复杂,从先行词为明显的“地点”转为“地点的模糊 化”。事实上,对于 where 这个词,考生不能只理解为表地点。当先行词表示某人 /物的 situation,或某事所发展的 stage,或表达某事的某个方面时都可用 where 这个关系副词。 The accident has reached to a point where both their parents are to be called in. 三、定语从句用法其他要点 1.关系代词在定语从句中作主语,不可省略。 2.定语从句中的谓语动词的单复数与先行词保持一致。 当引导定语从句的关系代词在从句中作主语时,定语从句中的谓语动词在人称和数的方面, 应该与先行词保持一致。 I,who am your teacher,will try my best to help you. (1)one of+复数名词+关系代词+复数动词。 The Great Wall is one of the worldfamous buildings that draw lots of visitors. (2)the only one of+复数名词+关系代词+单数动词。 The Great Wall is the only one of the buildings on the earth that is seen from the moon. 注意:not the only one of...=one of... (3)当关系代词 as 与 which 引导非限制性定语从句,修饰主句内容时,若 as 与 which 作 主语,则从句的谓语动词用单数形式。 Great changes have taken place in China,as is known to all. He has passed the College Entrance Examinations,which makes his parents quite happy.

状语从句答题技巧 技巧 1 掌握连词意义,判断从句类型 从句类型不同,引导从句的连词也不同。选择连词的前提是确定从句的类型。要确定从句类 型,就要正确翻译句子。翻译正确就能够判断出该从句是状语从句中的哪一种,选择也就很 容易了。 [考题印证] Tim is in good shape physically________he doesn’t get much exercise.(2010· 湖南,32) A.if 答案 B 解析 句意为:Tim 尽管不怎么锻炼,但体型很好。if 如果;even though 即使,尽管;unless 如果不,除非;as long as 只要。 技巧 2 区分常用句型结构 英语中有些固定句型, 需要用不同的连词来引导, 熟记这些句型, 有时起到事半功倍的作用。 如 It is/has been + 一段时间+ since...;It is/was +具体时间点+when...;It will be/was + 一段时间+before...;It is/was +时间状语+that...等。还要区分把两种从句结合在一起的情 形。 [考题印证] I will put the book________you placed it and make a mark at the place________I put it. A.where;at which C.where;which 答案 A 解析 前后两个从句都表示地点的含义。 是定语从句还是地点状语从句, 做题的关键是看有 没有表示地点的名词作先行词。如果有表示地点的名词,就是定语从句;如果没有便是地点 状语从句。该题中第一个从句为地点状语从句,第二个从句为定语从句,因此答案为 A 项。 定语从句答题技巧 技巧 1 从句成分分析法 引导定语从句的词叫关系词,分为关系代词和关系副词,关系代词在从句中作主语、宾语、 表语或定语; 关系副词在从句中作状语。 解题时先对从句进行分析, 确定从句中所缺的成分, 然后根据所缺成分选择关系代词或关系副词。 B.at which;at which D.at which;where B.even though C.unless D.as long as

[考题印证] The girl arranged to have piano lessons at the training centre with her sister________she would stay for an hour. A.where B.who C.which D.what 答案 A 解析 句意为:这个女孩安排在培训中心和她的妹妹上钢琴课,在那儿她要待上一个小时。 where 在句中引导定语从句,修饰先行词 the training centre。 技巧 2 特殊先行词记忆法 当先行词是 case,point,situation,condition 等且从句中不缺少主要成分时,从句用 where 引导;先行词是 occasion 时,从句常用 when 引导;先行词是 the way 且从句不缺少主要成 分时,用 that 或 in which 引导(或省略关系词);先行词是 reason 且从句中缺状语时,用 why 引导定语从句;当主句中出现 as,so,such,the same 时,限制性定语从句用 as 引导。 [考题印证] She’ll never forget her stay there ________ she found her son who had gone missing two years before. A.that C.where 答案 D 解析 stay 在此处的意义与 a period of staying 相同,故用 when 引导定语从句,且 when 在 从句中作时间状语。 技巧 3 先行词还原法 在解答有关“介词+关系代词”类试题时, 可把先行词代替关系词放到从句中, 如果此句意 思通顺,则为正确答案。 [考题印证] Wind power is an ancient source of energy________we may return in the near future. (2010· 上海,38) A.on which C.to which 答案 C 解析 句意为:风力是很古老的一种能源,不久的将来我们也许会再利用它。此句可还原为 Wind power is an ancient source of energy which/that we may return to in the near future. B.by which D. from which B.which D.when (2010· 江西,31)

1.At 13,Samuel received a training course in drawing for three years,________ he got a good opportunity for further development. A.after that C.after it 答案 B 解析 after which 意为 after he received a training course in drawing for three years。句中没 有并列连词,故不能选 C、D 两项;that 不引导非限制性定语从句,故 A 项也不符合。 2.There are species living in the depths of the oceans ________ we still know little. A.for which C.of what 答案 D 解析 考查定语从句的关系词。此处考查介词前置的定语从句。句意为:在我们知之甚少 的大洋深处有许多种生物。 3.—Have you made any plan for the coming Spring Festival? —I don’t mind what to do________there’s less homework from the teachers and more pocket money from my parents. A.as long as C.now that 答案 A 解析 考查连词辨析。答句句意为:我不介意做什么,只要是老师少留点作业,爸妈多给 些零花钱就可以了。as long as 只要,符合句意。 4.________,his idea was accepted by all the people at the meeting. A.Strange as might it sound B.As it might sound strange C.As strange it might sound D.Strange as it might sound 答案 D 解析 句意为:尽管他的想法听起来有些奇怪,但与会的所有人都接受了。as 引导让步 B.as far as D.in order that B.in which D.of which B.after which D.after this

状语从句时,作表语的形容词要前置,但 as 后仍为陈述语序。 5.________is announced in today’s paper,they have succeeded in solving many problems in

accordance with the new theory. A.It C.As 答案 C 解析 考查非限制性定语从句的关系词。此处是 as 引导的非限制性定语从句,as 替代后 面整个句子的内容。句意为:正如今天的报纸所宣称的:他们根据新的理论成功地解决了 许多问题。 6.Taobao is Asia’s largest retail(零售的) network platform,________people can buy and sell many kinds of things. A.where C.that 答案 A 解析 考查定语从句。根据先行词 platform 在定语从句中作地点状语可知应该用 B.when D.whose B.That D.What

where(=on which)。 7.I can not understand why Libya will become so complicated ________ I understand more from the medium. A.after C.while 答案 B 解析 考查时间状语从句中的连词辨析。句意为:在我从媒体了解更多的信息之前,我不 明白为什么利比亚的形势会变得如此复杂。 也就是说, 他是在通过媒体了解了更多的信息 之后才理解的。before 在……之前,符合句意。 8.I would accept that if I were you,________we’ll have to cancel it. A.and B.or C.while D.so 答案 B 解析 考查连词辨析。句意为:我要是你我就会接受,要不然的话我们得取消它。表示与 前面相反的动作,所以用 or。 9 . She has a gift for creating an atmosphere for her students , ________ allows them to communicate freely with each other. A.which C.what B.where D.who B.before D.when

答案 A 解析 考查定语从句的连接词, 此处 which 作从句的主语, 指代前面的整个部分“She has a gift for creating an atmosphere for her students”。 10.You will succeed in the end ________ you give up halfway. A.even if C.as long as 答案 D 解析 考查状语从句连词。 句意为:你一定会成功的,除非半途而废。unless 除非, B.as though D.unless

符合句意。 11.In some cultures it is traditional for boys to attend school ________ girls stay at home and do housework. A.anyhow C.while 答案 C 解析 考查连词辨析。这里男孩子上学和女孩子在家做家务是一种对比关系,所以选 B.however D.as

while(然而,却)。 12.She may have been caught in the heavy traffic,________ she won’t arrive here by five o’clock. A.in case C.in that case 答案 D 解析 句意为:她可能遇上交通堵塞了,那样的话,她就不能 5 点到达了。本题考查定 语从句,故 D 项正确。如果变为并列句,则 C 项正确。 13.To show our respect,we usually have to take our gloves off ________we are to shake hands with. A.whichever C.whoever 答案 C 解析 这里 whoever 引导的是让步状语从句,相当于 no matter who。句意为:为了表 达我们的尊敬,无论和谁握手,我们都得摘掉手套。 14.Is this the reason________he gave us for the delay of the project? B.whenever D.wherever B.in case of D.in which case

A.how C.why 答案 D

B.what D.that

解析 考查定语从句的关系词。此处 reason 作 gave 的宾语,故选 D。 15.I hate to say this,________you forgot to shut the door when you left the office yesterday. A.and B.but C.so D.or 答案 B 解析 考查 but 的用法。用来引出一个不得不说的话题,用 but。句意为:我不想说的, 但是你昨天离开办公室的时候忘了关门。


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