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高中英语(人教版)Book4 Unit3 A Taste of English Humour Grammar: V-ing 形式作定语、表语和宾语补足语 ★学习目标 1.知识目标:掌握 V-ing 形式作定语、表语和宾语补足语的基本用法。 2.技能目标:在专项练习中灵活运用所学规则。 3.情感目标:通过学习 V-ing 形式作定语、表语和宾语补足语的基本用法, 让学生丰富句子内容

,提高学生学习英语的兴趣。 ★重点和难点 1. 重点:V-ing 形式作定语、表语和宾语补足语的基本用法; 2. 难点:在做题中能够区分 V-ing, done 和 to do .

V-ing 形式作定语、表语和宾语补足语
※ V-ing 形式的构成 具体形式如下: 语态 时态 一般式 完成式 having done
(发生在谓语动作之前)

主动 doing
(表主动)

被动 being done
(表正在被…或被动)

having been done

一、V-ing 形式作定语
1. 单个 v-ing 形式作定语位于被修饰名词的 前面。 ①表示被修饰名词的用途或功能 a walking stick (=a stick for walking) 手杖 a washing machine 洗衣机 ②表示正在进行的动作 a sleeping child (= a child who is sleeping ) 正在睡觉的孩子 正在升起的太阳 a rising sun 2. V-ing 短语作定语须位于被修饰的名词 后面。 The student making the experiment(=who is making the experiment) is our monitor. 正在做实验的那个学生是我们的班长。 汉译英: 正与老师谈话的人是我的叔叔。 The man speaking to the teacher is my uncle. 3. 注意: 现在分词,过去分词和不定式做定语的区别是:现在分词表正在主动或进行 意义;过去分词表示被动或完成意义;不定式表示将要发生的动作。 游泳池 a reading room 阅览室 a swimming pool

汉译英: (1)正在打篮球的男孩儿是汤姆. The boy playing basketball is Tom. (2)用过的书 used books 一颗倒下的树 a fallen tree (3)我很多工作要做。 I have a lot of work to do. 【考例】There were some boys A. to shout B. shouted D near the window, so I couldn’t fall asleep. D. shouting

C. shout

二、V-ing 形式作表语
1. 当表示主语的内容时,表语与主语可调换位置。 My favorite sport is swimming. = Swimming is my favorite sport. 汉译英:我的工作就是照顾这些孩子。 My job is looking after the children. 2. 当表示主语具有的特征、性质和状态(V-ing 相当一个形容词)时,表语与主语不 可调换位置。 这个问题很令人困惑。 The problem is quite 3. 作表语的 V-ing 形式也可带有自己的逻辑主语。 V-ing 形式作表语时,其逻辑主语往往是句子中的主语,但作表语的-ing 形式也可 带有自己的逻辑主语, 逻辑主语一般由形容词性物主代词或名词所有格来承担。 (1)What worries me most is her (Julia's) staying too late every night. 我担心的是她天天晚上熬夜熬得太迟。 (staying too late every night 的逻辑主语 是 Julia) (2)The main problem is your not having practiced a lot. 主要的问题是你缺乏大量的练习。 (not having practiced a lot 的逻辑主语是 you) puzzling / confusing.

三、V-ing 形式作宾语补足语
1. V-ing 形式作宾语补足语常放在宾语后面,对宾语进行解释说明,表示一个正在进 行的主动性的动作,强调一个过程或一种状态。其中,宾语和宾语补足语在逻辑 上有主动关系。 例:When we returned, we found a stranger standing in front of the house. a stranger 是 found 的宾语,standing in front of the house 是宾语补足语。 2. 能用 V-ing 形式作宾语补足语的常见的几类动词: (1) 表示感觉和心理状态的动词: (see, watch, notice, hear, feel, smell, look at, listen to, observe, find ) 等动词 + sb. / sth. + doing sth. 其中 doing sth. 做宾补。 汉译英:

我们听到隔壁一个女孩在唱歌。 We heard a girl singing in the next room. 他看见孩子们在院子里玩。 He saw the children playing in the yard. (2) 使役动词(常见的有 have, keep, get, leave, set, catch 等)+sb/ sth + doing sth (作 宾补) 汉译英: 我们让火整夜燃烧着。 We kept the fire burning all night long. 我很遗憾让你一直等着。 I’m sorry to have left you waiting. (3) see, watch, notice, hear, find 等后跟 doing 与 do 的区别: doing 表示动作正在进行,而 do 表示(或强调)动作从开始到结束的全过程。 汉译英: 你听见有人在敲门吗? Do you hear someone knocking at the door? 你听见有人敲门了吗? Do you hear someone knock at the door?

四、语法专练
1. Tell Mary that there’s someone A. waiting 2. The A B. waited A C. waits for her at the door. D. to wait

waiter came up to us and said, “You are welcome.” B. smiled C. smile D. to smile B smoothly.

A. smiling

3. On festivals, the traffic police worked hard to keep the traffic A. run B. running D C. to run under the big tree? C. laying C D. lying

D. being run

4. Do you know the boy A. lay B. lain

5. I can hardly imagine Peter A. sail B. to sail

across the Atlantic Ocean in five days. C. sailing D D. to have sailed

6. There are lots of places of interest A. needs repairing C. needed repairing 7. There were some boys A. to shout D

in our city.

B. needing repaired D. needing to be repaired near the window, so I couldn’t fall asleep. C. shout D. shouting

B. shouted

8. As is known to us all, traveling is travels. A. interesting; tired C. interesting; tiring

A , but we often feel ____ when we are back from

B. interested; tiring D. interested; tired

9. To learn English well, we should find opportunities to hear English we can. A. speak B. speaking C. spoke D. to speak C on the ground. D. lain

C

as much as

10. As the stone was too heavy to move, I left it A. laying 11. John’s bad habit is A. read B. lay D C. lying

without thorough understanding. C. to be read A C. lay D. reading

B. being read

12. The next morning she found the man A. lying 13. People D B. lie

in bed, dead. D. laying

in the city do not know the pleasure of country life.

A. live B. to live C. lived D. living 14. When he awoke, he found himself C by an old woman. A. looked after B. be looked after C. being looked after D. be looking after 15. Sitting by her side, I could feel her heart_ C__. A. beaten B. to beat C. beating D. to be beating 16. --Did you see the boys yesterday afternoon? --Yes. I saw them B the fence when I passed. A. climb B. climbing C. climbed D. to climb 17. With a lot of difficult problems C , the newly-elected president is having a hard time. A. settled B. settling C. to settle D. being settled 18. What worried the boy most was A to visit his father is the hospital. A. his not being allowed B. his not allowing C. his not been allowed D. his being not allowed 19. Peter receive a letter just now C his grandma would come to see him soon. A. to say B. says C. saying D. said 20. The A boy was last seen near the East Lake. A. missing; playing B. missing; play C. missed; played D. missed; to play


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