2015 届高三英语语法要点精讲 专题—— 倒装句 英语里主语和谓语有两种顺序：一是主语在谓语前，叫自然语序。反之，如果谓 语在主语前就是倒装语序，倒装又分全部倒装和部分倒装。全部倒装是把全部谓 语放在主语之前，部分倒装是把助动词或情态动词放在主语之前。? 一、全部倒装 全部倒装是将句子中的谓语动词全部置于主语之前。此结构通常 只用于一般现在时和一般过去时。常见的结构有： 1.t
here be 句型：? 可以用在这类句型中的动词除 be 外,还可用 live，happen，exist，remain，stand 等等作这类句型的谓语。如：? 1) There ______many students and a teacher in the classroom.教室里有许多学生和 一个老师。? 2) There ___________ be nobody in the bedroom when the fire broke out.? 起火的时候，碰巧房间里面没有人。 2.Here/There/Now/ Then＋vi.（常为 come, go）＋主语（必须是名词）? 此句型中 here/there 用来唤起注意意思是“喂，注意了”。如： Now comes your turn! 该你了 Here comes Mary. → I can see Mary coming.玛丽来了。? There goes the bell. 铃响了。→I can hear the bell ringing.? 当主语是代词时不用倒装：There he comes.他来了。 “Give me some paper.” “Here you are.”“给我点纸。” “给你。” 3.out，in，up, down，away 之类的副词作状语放在句首，主语比较长，也就是说 主语不能是很短的人称代词，谓语为不及物动词 come， go，run ,rush，etc。句 式为：副词＋vi.＋主语（必须是名词）(若主语是代词，则不能倒装)。如： Out rushed the tiger from among the bushes.老虎从灌木丛里冲了出来。? 4．such 作表语，置于句首，表示“这样的人/事物；上述的人/事物”。be 动词须 与后面的主语保持一致。如： Such _____their decision．他们的决定就是这样。 5.介词短语作状语放在句首， 谓语为不及物动词.句式为： 介词短语＋vi.＋主语 （必 须是名词）。如：? In the middle of our school ______a high building.在学校中央耸立着一座高楼。 6.表语放在句首，表语常为形容词、分词、副词、介词短语。句式为：表语＋系 动词＋主语（必须是名词）。? Gone ________the days ________the teachers were looked down upon.? 老师地位低下的年代一去不复返了。 On the both sides of the street ____ beautiful flowers.街道两旁有美丽的花。? 二、部分倒装 部分倒装是指将谓语的一部分如助动词或情态倒装至主语之前。 如果句子的谓语没有助动词或情态动词，则需添加助动词 do, does 或 did，并将 其置于主语之前。 1.“only＋副词/ 介词短语/ 状语从句”开头的句子。如：? Only then ______________the importance of English.? 直到那时我才意识到英语的重要性。 Only in this way__________ make progress in your English.? 只有通过这种方式你学英语才能取得进步。? 注意：?
１）在 only＋状语从句＋主句结构中，主倒从不倒。Not until 位于句首也一样。 A.只有当你意识到英语的重要性你才能学好英语。 B. Not until I began to work _________(我才意识到)how much time I had wasted.? ２）only 修饰主语，不倒装。? Only Tom knows the answer.只有汤姆知道答案。 2.否定词（短语）开头的句子要用部分倒装。? ①表示否定的副词 never，nor，neither, ②表示半否定意义的副词 hardly，few，seldom，little，含有 no 和 not 的词组: 但是 in no time.（ ） ③七个“决不”:by no means / at no time （在任何时候都不） ， in no way/in no case/on no account/ on no condition/under no circumstances. ④not only...but also，no sooner...than＝hardly...when/scarcely... when 注意：1)关联词的搭配 2)前倒，后不倒。 （1.Never _____ I been in this city.我从没到过这座城市。? （2.Little/Seldom ____ I watch TV.我很少看电视。? （3.( ) No sooner___ than it began to rain heavily. A. the game began B. has the game begun C. did the game begin D. had the game begun （4.她不仅聪明而且勤奋 3.以 so 开头,用 “so＋助动词/情态动词/系动词＋主语”表示前面叙述的情况也适 合于另一个人或物，意为“也，同样，也如此”。 表示前面叙述的否定情况也适合于另一个人或物，用 “neither/nor＋助动词/情态 动词/系动词＋主语”。 ? Society has changed and so ______ the people in it.社会变了，人也变了。? 1)当 so 表示对前句内容的肯定，或进一步强调前面所说的情况，或者赞同前面 的说法时，应用自然语序。意为 “的确如此”。? —Tom works hard.汤姆工作很卖力 So and so 的确如此，你也是。 2）倒装部分的助动词、情态动词、连系动词的时态和形式要与前句相一致。? If you don’t go，neither/nor shall I.（If you don’t go，I shall not go.） ---Do you know Jim quarrelled with his brother? ---I don't know, _____. A. nor don't I care B. nor do I care C. I don't care neither D. I don't care also 注意： 表示前面的多种情况也适合于另一人或物，或者既有肯定又有否定情况或 涉及到不同类型的动词时可用：It is the same with sth./sb.或 So it is with sth./sb. 句型。?She does well in English，but is poor in maths. So it is with Lucy.? 她英语学得好，但数学学的差，露茜也是如此。 4.由 as 引导让步状语从句要用部分倒装或前置。句式为：表语/状语/动词原形＋ as＋主语＋其他。注意：表语前的名词无形容词修饰时冠词要省略 _______________ he is，he doesn’t study well.虽然他很聪明，但他学习不好。? ________________， he knows a lot.虽然他是个孩子，但他懂得不少事情。? Try as she might， she failed.虽然她试过了，但还是失败了。? 5.在 so/such..that 从句中，如果 so＋adj./adv.或者 such+名词?放在句首，其主句 要倒装。前倒，后不倒 1)So frightened was he that he did not dare to move an inch. 他很害怕动也不敢动。 2) So loudly _____________ (speak)that everyone could hear him.?
3)Such a hard problem_____ _____ that I can’t solve it. 6.如果 if 虚拟条件句的谓语含有 were， should ， had 可以把 if 省略而将这三个词 放于条件句主语前构成倒装。? If there should be a flood，what would we do? 要是发了洪水，我们该怎么办呢？ ＝______________________ a flood，what would we do? 1. Not until I began to work ____ how much time I had wasted. A. didn’t I realize B. did I realize C. I didn’t realize D.I realized 2. Only by practising a few hours every day ____ be able to master the language. A. you can B. can you C. you will D. will you 3. If you don’t go, neither ____. A. shall I B. do I C. I do D. I shall 4. No sooner ____ to the station ____ the train left. A. had I got, when B. I had got, than C. had I got, than D. did I get, when 5. ---- Your father is very strict with you. ---- ____. He never lets off a single mistake of ours A. So he is B. So is he C. He is so D. So does he 6. ____ today, he would get there by Sunday. A. Would he leave B. Was he leaving C. Were he to leave D. If he leaves 7. Never in my life ____ such a thing. A. I have heard or have seen B. have I heard or seen C. I have heard or seen D. did I hear or see 8. ---- Here ____! Where is Xiao Liu? ---- There ____. A. comes the bus, is he B. comes the bus, he is C. the bus comes, is he D. the bus comes, he is 9. ---- I like football. I don’t like volleyball. ---- ____. A. So do I B. Neither do I C. So it is with me D. So is it with me 10. _____ the expense, I _____ to Italy. A. If it were not, go B. Were it not for, would go C. Weren't it for, will go D. If it hadn’ t been, would have gone 11. So _____ in the darkness that he didn' t dare to move an inch. A. he was frightened B. was he frightened C. frightened he was D. frightened was he 12. Only after he read the text over again _____ its main idea. A. that he knew B.did he know C.he could know D. does he know 13. So excited _____ that he couldn't say a word. A. he seemed B. did he seem C. was he seeming D. he did look 14. ____ , 1 would accept the invitation and go to the party. A. Were I you B. Was I you C. Had I been you D. Would I be you 15. _____ and caught the mouse. A. Up the cat jumped B. The cat up jumped C. Up jumped the cat D. Jumped up the cat 16. Not on ly _____ a promise, but also he kept it. A. did he make B. he made C. does he make D. has he made 17. Not once _____ their plan. A. did they change B. they changed C. changed they D. they did change
18.—Do you know Jim quarreled with his brother? —I don't know, and ______ . A. nor don't I care B. nor do I care C. I don't care neither D. I don't care also 19. Not until he arrived home _____ he find that this wallet had been stolen. A. did B. would C. when D. that 20. Nowhere else in the world _____ cheaper tailoring（裁缝业）than in Hong Kong. A. a tourist can find B. can a tourist find C. a tourist will find D. a tourist has found 21. _____ succeed in doing anything. A. Only by working hard we can B. By only working hard we can C. Only we can by working hard D. O nly by working hard can we 22. _____ that we all went out, lying in the sun. A. So fine was the weather B. So was t he fine weather C. The w eather was such fine D. So the weather was tine 23. Not only ____ working hard, but also ____ very polite. A. the boy is; he is B. is the boy; he is C. the boy is; is he D. is the boy; is he 24.—I cannot see the picture well from here. — _____. A. Neither can t I B. Neither I can C. I can't neither D. Neither can I 25. So carelessly _____ that he almost killed h imself. A. he drives B. does he drive C. did he drive D. he drove 26. Little _____ about his own health though he was very ill. A. he cared B. did he care C. he cares D. does he care 27. No sooner ____ they rushed out into the street. A. did they hear the news than B. did they hear the news when C. had they heard the news than D. had they heard the news when 28. _____ , he would have passed the exam. A. If he were to study B. If he studied hard C. Had he studied hard D. Should he study hard 29. So little _____ agree on the plan that they could not settle their difference. A. did th ey B. do they C. they did D. they did not 30.At no time ______the rules of the game. .It was unfair to punish them. A. they actually broke B. do they actually break C. did they actually break D. they had actually broken 31.(13· 福建)Not until he went through real hardship_____the love we have for our families is important. A. had he realized B. did he realize C. he realized D. he had realized 32. (13· 湖南)Not once_____to Michael that he could one day become a top student in his class. A. occurred it B. it did occur C. it occurred D. did it occur 33. (13· 高考)“Never for a second, ”the boy says, “_____that my father would come to my rescue. ”A. I doubted B. do I doubt C. I have doubted D. did I doubt 34. Only when he apologizes for his rudeness _____to him again.
A. I will speak B. will I speak C. do I speak D. I speak 35.At no time ____the rules of the game. It was unfair to punish them. A. they actually broke B. do they actually break C. did they actually break D. they had actually broken 36.(13· 新 课 标 Ⅱ)Only by increasing the number of doctors by 50 percent _____properly in this hospital. A. can be the patients treated B. can the patients be treated C. the patients can be treated D. treated can be the patients 37.(12· 辽宁)Not until he retired from teaching three years ago ____ having a holiday abroad. A. he had considered B. had he considered C. he considered D. did he consider 38.(12· 江西)Never before ______ seen anybody who can play tennis as well as Robert. A. had she B. she had C. has she D. she has 39.(12· 山东)—I don’t know about you, but I’m sick and tired of this weather. —______. I can’t stand all this rain. A. I don’t care B. It’s hard to say C. So am I D. I hope so 40.(2012· 重庆高考)The headmaster will not permit the change in the course, nor ______ it a thought. A. does he even give B. he even gives C. will he even give D. he will even give 41. (2012· 天津高考)Only after Mary read her composition the second time ______ the spelling mistake. A. did she notice B. she noticed C. does she notice D. she has noticed 42.（陕西）John opened the door . There _____ he had never seen before. A. a girl did stand B. a girl stood C. did a girl stand D. stood a girl 43.(海南 31) The computer was used in teaching. As a result, not only _________, but students became more interested in the lessons. A. saved was teachers’ energy B. was teachers’ energy saved C. teachers’ energy was saved D. was saved teachers’ energy 44.(07 上海 31)—How was the televised debate last night?? —Super! Rarely___________ so much media attention.? A. a debate attracted B. did a debate attract ? C. a debate did attract D. attracted a debate 45.(07 重庆 34)________ ，his idea was accepted by all the people at the meeting.? A. Strange as might it sound ? B. As it might sound strange ? C. As strange it might sound ? D. Strange as it might sound 46.At the foot of the mountain__________.? A.a village lie B.lies a village ? C.does a village lie D.lying a village 1 16 31 2 17 32 3 18 33 4 19 34 5 20 35 6 21 36 7 22 37 8 23 38 9 24 39 10 25 40 11 26 41 12 27 13 28 14 29 15 30