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A ............................................................................................... - 1 a.........................................................

................................ - 1 ai ....................................................................................... - 2 an....................................................................................... - 2 ang..................................................................................... - 4 ao....................................................................................... - 5 E................................................................................................ - 6 e......................................................................................... - 6 ei ....................................................................................... - 6 en....................................................................................... - 7 eng..................................................................................... - 8 er ....................................................................................... - 8 I ................................................................................................. - 9 i ......................................................................................... - 9 ie ....................................................................................... - 9 in ..................................................................................... - 10 ing ................................................................................... - 10 -iǰ .......................................................................... - 10 -i .......................................................................... - 10 O ............................................................................................. - 11 o ...................................................................................... - 11 ou .................................................................................... - 12 ong .................................................................................. - 13 u .............................................................................................- 14 u ...................................................................................... - 14 .............................................................................................- 15 ...................................................................................... - 15 e..................................................................................... - 15 n .................................................................................... - 15 -

A
a
a
˰ǰͰɰ ɢ ⪲ ҷ ſ ɱɳɴɷ ɶ ̣ ߸ բը ա Ѱ ְհ԰ 農ɲ ɵ ̡ ̢̤ գ էթդ

ua
ɹ ˢ ץ Թҹ 뻭O ˣ צ

ia
ѹѽѻѺѼ ѿ ҼѼϼμм Լ ϺϹ ϻϿϾϼϽ μ ۼݼܼ ǡǢ

ɣb ɣ˵ֵĹ Ħms ᰴŲһһµƶĦmsu ָ




-1-

ai
ai
𰧰 ŲIJƲ β ٭ ɸ ̥ ̨̧̦ ժի լ 񰫰 ٰ ܰ ɲʲDz 쵡 ؤƸǸŸȺ ɹ ̫̬̩̭ խ ծկ

uai
ˤ˥ ˦ ˧ ק

an
an
𰲰 ߰ вϲ ɸʸ˸θ̸ ͘ Ȼȼ ɽɼɾդ ̸̵̶̳ ռ մճհ

-2-

Ʋ ʯ Ѹϸ ɸ ٩ ȽȾ ɡɢ ɢ ڨ ̮̰̯̲̱ ̹̺ ̼̾̽ նյչո ռջսվ տպ

ian
ꧼ߼ ƫƪ ǧܷǨǣǦǫǩ ǰǮǯǬDZǭ ཡɼ إ Ƭƭ dz Dz ǷǶǸ ޺

uan
𴨴 ع۹ٹڹ ˨ ˩ רש ⶴ ˴ ܴ ̶ζ϶йݹܹ۹߹޻ û ů תת׬׫׭

an
Ծ Ȧ ȨȫȪȭ ԩԨ Ԫ԰Ա ԫԭԲԮԵԳԴԯ Ȧ Ȯ Ȱȯ ѡ Ѥѣ Զ ԷԹԺԸ

-3-

ang
ang
ֲԲײ Ըոܸٸ к æäãå ȿ ɥɣ 곩 崵· ڸ ç ɤ ɥ

iang
𽭽ֽ ǹǻ ǿǽ 꽵 񽲽 ǿ

uang
𴴴 Ļ ʻƻ˻ ڿ ˫˪ ױ ׯ׮װ лλѻ ˬ ׳״ײ

-4-

ao
ao
۰ Ұ ٲ ߸ źƺ ث ɧɦ زҪ ҢҤҥҡң ų ְ ‰İ ᱤ ¸꽢 껺ĺ è ëìéê î ïðóñò ɨɩ ҧ ҩ ҪԿҫ צ گ

iao
ӽ̽ ƯƮ ư ǽȽʽŽ˽ оУνϽѽ ϲt ƱƯ ڽ ٬ С ТФУЦЧХ



Σno ¡硰Ρ Σ˵ûûʹᡣ 棨sho Ҳк档 꽣go 꽣 ̫ӡ硰꽡 -5-

E
e
õµ Ǻ ̺ͺϺкκӺɺغ ƿſ ô ج ߲ غֺպ ɿ ˿Ϳο ګ ɫɬɪ ߯

ei
ei
𱭱 Ƿ ں ûöüݮ ÷ýùú Σ΢ޱΡ ΥΧΪΦ} ΨΩά ﴸ׵ ڶֻͻ ظ ˭ ׵׶׷ 㣱 ηзϷ ÿ ΰέγαβ ίή ζληθνξεοκ 㲴 ӶԶ ڻ ܻ޻ݻ ˮ ˵˰˯ ׹׺ ׸


}wi }}ݺܸߵӡ -6-

uiuei
Σ΢ޱΡ ΥΧΪΦ} ΨΩά ﴸ׵ ڶֻͻ ظ ˭ ׵׶׷ ΰέγαβίή ζληθνξεοκ 㲴 ӶԶ ڻٻܻ ޻ݻۻ ˮ ˵˰˯ ׹׺׸

en
en
乢 _ ³ ַ׷շ ط ɭ ݷ ijƳ ݷܷ޷ ب ܺ Ͽѿ

unuen
ȴ ֶض ׻ ۶ܶٶݹ ˱˳˲ ׼



cn 乣 ݺ ᡢ ˮȲӣ ¡ -7-

eng
Ƴ ةʳϳгdzʢ̳γ Ƶǵ к ɮ ֢ ñű ҳ ʵ ٺ 칣 ʡ ʥʤʢʣ ֤֣ں֢

er
Ƕ

-8-

I
i
͵ ϵеѵӵ ߴ ܼ ᧼񤼮 ƤƣƢ ݽ ϦϫϣϢϤϧϡϬϪ Ϩϥ ϰϯϮϱϭ һҽҾ ذȱʱ ұرϱձӱбԱٱ̱αױڱܱ ڮֵ صܵĵ۵ݵ ü ƼǼͼɼ˼ʼ ̼ļżټ ƥ Ʀ ƨƧ ϴϲ Ϸϵϸ϶ ߮ 鰬

ie
뺵 ׽ӽսҽ ڦٽڵ ٽ Ƴ ҮҬҭ үа Ʋ ЩЪ ЭавЮбгЯЬ дѪ йкжмлеииз ҲұҰ ҵҶҳҹҷҺҸ

-9-

in
ͱ ƴ ƶƵ н ܰ Ʒ Ƹ ӡ

ing
궣 šƽƺƻƾƿƼ ͤͣ͢ ӦӢݺӤӧӣӥ ӭӫӯӨӪӬӮ 붧 徱㽾 ڤ Ţ ͡ ͦͧ ӱӰ ӦӳӲ

-iǰ
ɴǴȴŴ ˾˿˽˼˹˺˻ δ̴

-i
ͳʢ سڳ۳ٳֳ ʮʯʱʶʵʰʳʴ ֻ֧֥֭֮ ֦֪֫֯ ְֱֲֳִֵֶ ߳ݳ޳ ߳ ʬʧʦʫʭʨʩʪ ʷ ʸʹʼʻʺ ʿʾʽ ߱ ַָֹֺֻּֽ ־ ֿ


ʣch ò硰ʡ - 10 -

O
o
o
𲨲IJ ± ġģ ĤĦĥħ Ӵ ĨĩûĭİĬĪĮīį

uo
Ͷ֢ Ų ٢ ׽׾ ׿ ਴ ܻⷢo ŵų ˵ ˶˷˸



⣨m 硰⡱ 񢣨m ࡣ硰񢡱 ļࡣ ֣du 첹£ 硰֡ ֱ֣ɮĴ쳤ۡ ⷣhu ࡣ硰ⷡ ohu ָõIJɫ硰o - 11 -

ou
ou
¥ § ¨ ı کŷŹŸ ڸ ˺ ߵޢ ª©¶ ij Żżź ͵ ͷͶ ͸ ݬ

iuiou
ţ žþľ ɾ̾ξȾǾ; ŤŦť

- 12 -

ong
ong
㿢 س ҴѴ Ӵ 칥 ް տ ¡ ũٯŨ ͨ ͬͯͮͭ Ӷӵ ӹ ڧ ׿ £¢ Ū Ū ͳͱͰͲ ʹ ӽӾٸӿӼӻ ڣ

iong
ľ

㿣chng 㿣ҡҷ硰Ӱ㿡Ӱ 㿡 - 13 -



u
u
ۻܳ ޢ ɹ¹ù ݿ޿ ®¯­ ģ ū ָ@ ͹ͺͻ ͼͽݱ;Ϳ 񲷲 ƴ ء ⧴ ƶ¶Ķ ŶǶʶȶ ŹɹǼֹƹ ̹ʹ˹ 䰻 竿 ²³ ½¼¸¹µ»· ¾¶ ĸĶķ ľĿļĹĻĽĺ뎢 Ŭ ŭ ˡ أ סעפף



ޣc ȥš硰ޡ 뎣m @뎣Сꡣ - 14 -



оӾ ֽپ ¿ q ؾ ޾ܾ߾ݾ Ů ȡȢ ȥȤ ԦԡԤ Ԣԣԥ

e
޾ǫiⱾ ȱ ȳ ѥ ѧѨ ԻԼ űŰ ȴȸȵȷȶ ѩ Ѫ ԾԽ

n
Ⱥȹ ѫѬ޹ ѮѰѲݡѭ ܿ 񿡿 ѵѶѴѸѱѷѳ ƽ

- 15 -

¼һ ƽƹɣΪ
һһ
A B A B

a b

a b

ʫɣԣ
1
ʽ ƽʽ ƽʽ ƽƽʽ





- 16 -

ʫ
ʽ ƽʽ ƽʽ ƽƽʽ





- 17 -

¼
һƽ

һЩ

B ;ɵ֣ ɵһֱƽ ƽ˵ǣ ܸΪ

־
;־ Ϊ 磺ɽתԴ䡣 άоš ;־ȣȹƽ 磺԰ƽ ;־ Ϊ 磺ᰮϷӣš סϺȻ ־ȳ;־ϵ 磺¹̷԰ƽ ־ɵĵʱֶ ǾͱڶԾȡ 磺Ұղ紵 ׾סùԭ ͱ𡷡֣ ־ȡ

- 18 -


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