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高三英语阅读理解:推理判断题


推理判断题 [题型特点] 推理判断题要求考生根据文章的某个 句子、段落或全文所提供的事实进行逻辑 推理,推断出作者没有提到的或者没有明 说的事实或者可能发生的事实。旨在考查 考生透过词语的字面意义去理解作者的言 外之意或弦外之音的能力。

广东卷中的推理判断题主要包括推断隐含 意思、推断目标读者 (2008年第50题)、推断写法 意图 (2007年第42题)

等。但以推断隐含意义的题 居多。推断隐含意义的题干中常含infer (推断) (如2013年第27题、34题、39题,2008年54题, 2009年50题,2010年45、55题,2011年42题), suggest (暗示) (2011年第34题),imply (暗示) (2008年第25题),indicate (暗示),conclude(推断, 得出结论) 等词语。如:

What can we infer from Paragraph 2? What does the last sentence of the passage imply? We can infer from the passage that ____. It can be inferred from the passage that ____. The writer uses the two questions at the beginning of the passage to ____. Who are the intended readers of the passage? It can be concluded from the text that ____.

[解法点拨]
解答这类题时,首先通过寻读找到相关 信息点 (推理的依据);然后研读,理解相 关信息点的字面意义;结合语境和常识, 围绕主题,在字面意义的基础上进行符合 逻辑的推断,从而理解作者的言外之意。 注意对原文信息的简单重述,或以偏 概全推理过度,或虽符合考生已有常识但 文中无依据的选项均为错误选项。

[真题破解] [例1] 42. What can we infer from this Paragraph?

A. China lacks wind and solar energy. B. China is the leader of the low-carbon market. C. High-speed trains are a low-carbon development. D. Palm oil is made at the cost of valuable forests.
解析:第一步,信息定位。用high-speed trains (高铁)作为关键词在文中找到相关句, 在该段第4句。

第二步,理解字面意思。该句中的it指代前句中 的China,本句大意是“中国正在努力充分利用风 能和太阳能,也正在花巨资制造电动汽车和高 铁”。 第三步,结合语境进行推断。本句依然属于for example的内容,我们知道,举例的目的就是为了 证明某一观点和论点,即为论点提供论据。此例 就是为了证明“可持续发展是许多国家正确发展 的趋势,全球的低碳能源市场在未来几十年里要 扩大三倍”,中国就是这“许多国家”中的一个, 并“决心引领低碳能源市场,抓住新一轮能源革 命的机遇”,既然中国正在花巨资来发展高铁, 那么高铁应当是一种低碳发展。故选C。

文中说“中国正努力充分利用风能和太阳能 (make full use of wind and solar energy)”,而不是 “缺少风能和太阳能”,因此选项A与文中事实不 符,应排除。 文中说“中国已下定决心引领低碳市场 (has set its mind on leading that market)”,但并不意味 着中国已经是这个市场的领袖了,选项B与文中事 实不符,应排除。 文章说“棕榈油的生产不需要砍伐有用的雨 林(…palm oil,which is produced without cutting down valuable rainforest)”,而不是以消耗有用森 林为代价的,选项D与文中事实相反,故排除。

[例2] 63.The last sentence in the text implies that most of the people long for ____.
A. a peaceful world C. better health care B. good education D. a life without anxiety

解析:最后一句的字面意思“另外900个人极度忧 虑不安地观望着他们 (控制武器的那100个人),担 心能否跟他们和睦相处”,根据常识,可推知这 900个人是渴望和平的,只有在和平的世界里,他 们才不再忧虑,不再担心。故选A。

[例3] 50. Who are the intended readers of the passage? A. Parents. C. Educators. B. Adolescents. D. People in general.

解析:由第1段第4句中we’re the apple of our parents’ eyes…our Grandmas think we’re… and our Uncle Roberts think that we will go to the Olympics等可知,本文应当是写给青少年 阅读的,故选B。

(一 )

1. Many of Gershwin’s musical works were ____ . A. written about New Yorkers B. composed for Paul Whiteman C. played mainly in the countryside D. performed in various ways D 事实细节题。由第二段最后一句Over the years they have been sung and played in every possible way — from jazz to country可知,多年来这些歌 曲都以不同的方式 (从爵士乐到乡村乐) 被人传唱 着。

2. What do we know about the concert organized by Whiteman?
A. It attracted more people to theatres B. It proved jazz could be serious music C. It made Gershwin leader of the orchestra D. It caused a debate among jazz musicians.

2. B 事实细节题。由第三段最后一句The audiences were thrilled when…could be both serious and popular可知,观众们听到音乐后 兴奋不已,说明爵士乐可以既严肃又受大众 欢迎,故选B; 选项A,文中无任何依据; 由第 三段第三句jazz musician and orchestra leader Paul Whiteman 可知,orchestra的leader是 Whiteman,排除C;由于“cause”表结果,但 “a debate among jazz musicians ”是音乐会举 办的缘由而不是结果,可排除D。

3. What did Gershwin do during his stay in Paris? A. He created one of his best works B. He studied with Nadia Boulanger C. He argued with French critics D. He changed his music style
A 细节理解题。根据题干,定位在第四段,根据 第四段最后两句But it quickly became popular in Europe and the United States. It still remains one of his most famous works可知,Gershwin创作的 歌曲很流行。

4. What do we learn from the last paragraph?
A. Many of Gershwin’s works were lost B. The death of Gershwin was widely reported C. A concert was held in memory of Gershwin D. Brain cancer research started after Gershwin’s death

B 细节理解题。由最后一段的Newspapers all over the world reported his death on their front pages可 知,Gershwin去世的消息在各地的头条都被报道 出来。

5. Which of the following best describes Gershwin?
A. talented and productive B. serious and boring C. popular and unhappy D. friendly and honest

A 推理判断题。第一步,信息定位:He published his first song when he was eighteen years old. During the next twenty years he wrote more than five hundred songs;第二步,理解字 面意思:他在18岁创作了第一首歌曲,在他接下 来短暂的20多年中,他创作了500余首歌曲;第 三步,推断弦外之音:结合下文,第二段第后一 句,第三段最后一句,第四段最后两句,不难推 断出他很有“才华”且是“多产的”。故选A。

(二 )

6. For what purpose did Belyaev create the lampbrella?
A. To predict a heavy rain. B. To check the weather forecast. C. To protect people from the rain. D. To remind people to take an umbrella. C 细节理解题。由第一段第二句和第三句 “Mikhail Belyaev认为出门前忘记检查天气预报 的人也不应该被雨淋湿,这就是他发明路灯伞的 原因”可知, Belyaevd设计这款路灯伞是为了防 止路人淋湿。

7. What do we know from Belyaev’s words in Paragraph2?
A. His creation was inspired by an experience. B. it rains a lot in the city of Saint Petersburg. C. Street lamps are protected by canopies. D. He enjoyed taking walks in the rain. A 推理判断题。由第二段第一句The designer says he come up with the idea after watching people get wet on streets in Russia是主题句,其后设计者的 话描述的是这次具体的经历,为说明主题服务的, 可见设计师发明路灯伞的灵感来自于一次经历。

8. Which of the following show how the lampbrella works? A. motor → canopy → sensors B. sensors → motor → canopy C. motor → sensors → canopy D. canopy → motor → sensors
C 细节理解题。由第三段最后两句It has a builtin electric motor which can open or close the umbrella on demand. Sensors(传感器)then ensure that… it starts raining…可知,路灯伞的工作原理 是从马达 (motor) 的发动→sensors (传感器) 的传 导→canopy (伞篷) 的接收。这几句话的时间标志 词有,…then…In addition to …,故选C。

9. What does paragraph 5 mainly tell us about the lampbrella? A. Its moving speed. B. Its appearance. C. Its installation. D. Its safety.

D 段落大意题。由move at a relatively low speed, so as not to cause harm to the pedestrians. Besides, …protect from possibly lighting strike等 可知第五段主要介绍路灯伞的安全性。选项A只 是一个细节;选项B在本段中无相关内容;本段 提到的installation(装置)也是说其安全性,排除C。

10. What can be inferred from the last paragraph?
A. The designer will open a company to promote his product. B. The lampbrella could be put into immediate production. C. The designer is confident that his creation is practical. D. The lampbrella would be put on show in Moscow.

C 推理判断题。第一步,信息定位:在最后一 段的最后一句中的找到Belyaev insists this creation could be installed on any street where a lot of people walk but there are no canopies to provide shelter;第二步,理解字面意思:他坚 持认为这项发明可以安装在有许多人过路却没有 伞蓬避雨的任何一条街道上;第三步,推断弦外 之音:设计者坚信这项发明很有实用性。故选C。 选项B,C,D在文中没有提及。

(三 )

11. As people grow older, they _____.
A. feel it harder to experience happiness B. associate their happiness less with others C. will take fewer risks in pursuing happiness D. tend to believe responsibility means happiness

A 细节理解题。由第一段最后的which seems to get rarer the older we get (年龄越大得到的幸福越 稀少),以及第二、三、四三段都说明,人们随着 年龄的增长,体验幸福就越来越难了。

12. What can we learn about the author from Paragraphs 5 and 6?
A. She cares little about her own health. B. She enjoys the freedom of traveling. C. She is easily pleased by things in daily life. D. She prefers getting pleasure from housework. C 推理判断题。第五段表明了作者的幸福观, 越 能享受所拥有的人越幸福,第六段是作者对具体 一天的幸福时刻的具体描述, 从这些描述中可以 推断出作者很易从日常生活中获得快乐。

13. What can be inferred from Paragraph 7? A. Psychologists think satisfying work is key to happiness. B. Psychologists’ opinion is well proved by Grandma’s case. C. Grandma often found time for social gatherings. D. Grandma’s happiness came from modest expectations of life.

D 推理判断题。第一步,在本段找到关键 信息,本段的第二、三句;第二步,理解 字面意思:奶奶要在家抚养14个孩子,既 没有闲遐时间也没有满意工作,但他有家 人朋友圈,也许这就是使她满足的地方; 第三步,推断弦外之音:奶奶的幸福来自 对生活的适度期望,即不期望过高,不过 分期望手头所没有的东西一样会幸福。故 选 D。

14. People who equal happiness with wealth and success ____.
A. consider pressure something blocking their way B. stress their right to happiness too much C. are at a loss to make correct choices D. are more likely to be happy

B 细节理解题。第一步,用equal或wealth and success在文中搜索,找到关键信息,按命题的顺 序性原则也易想到关键信息在第八段,关键信息 是第二、三句We’re so self-conscious about our “right” to it that it’s making us miserable. So we chase it and equal it with wealth and success;第 二步,理解信息:我们如此看重幸福的权利,使 得我们苦不堪言。因此,我们追求它,将它等同 于财富和成功;第三步,作出选择,选B (过份强 调幸福的权利)。

15. What can be concluded from the passage? A. Happiness lies between the positive and the negative. B. Each man is the master of his own fate. C. Success leads to happiness. D. Happy is he who is content. D 主旨归纳题。文章最后一段是全文的总结,告 诉我们“享受我们所拥有的,而不是祈求我们所 没有的”,即“知足常乐”,故选D。


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