一、 动词 wish 后宾语从句中的虚拟语气 1． 用 wish 表示现在的祝愿和报歉。 其句子结构为：宾语从句的谓语 be 和 were(was)，实义动词用过 去式。例：I wish the were at home this time. 2． 用 wish 表示对过去事情的遗憾。 其句子结构为： 宾语从句的谓语用过去完成时或 could
+现在完成 时。例：I wish I hadn' t hurt him so much。 3． 用 wish 表示对将来事情的愿望。 其句子结构为宾语从句的谓语为 would/could/might+动词原形。 例：I wish I might be able to come tomorrow 。 二、 用在一般虚拟条件句中的虚拟语气 （一） 表示与现在、过去、将来事实相反的假设 1． 与现在事实相反的假设。 其句子结构为： 从句：if+主语+动词的过去式（be 变 were）+其他 主句：主语+would(should, could, might)+动词原形+其他 例：If I were you, I would go with him. 2． 与过去事实相反的假设。 其句子结构为： 从句：If+主语+过去完成时+其他 主句：主语+should(would, could, might)+现在完成时+其他。例：
If you had studied harder last term, you could have passed exam. 3．表示对将来事实实现的可能性不大的假设。 其句子结构为： 从句：If+主语+should (were to )+动词原形+其他 主句：主语+would (could, should, might)+动词原形 例：If he were to go tomorrow. He might tell you.
(二) 从句和主句要根据各自发所生的时间选用符合具体时间的 虚拟语气形式 1． 从句表示过去，主句表示现在。 If they had stared the early morning yesterday, they would be here now. 2． 从句表示将来，主句表示过去。 If I were not to make a preparation for my experiment this afternoon, I would have gone to see the film with you last night。 3． 从句表示过去，主句表示将来。 If we hadn' t made adequate preparations, we shouldn' t dare to do the experiment next week。 4．从句表示将来，主句表示现在。 If we shouldn' t have an exam this afternoon. I would go shopping now.
三、 可以引起与事实相反的方式状语从句，用虚拟语气 由 as if、as though 引起的与事实相反的句子， 不论主句的谓语是 现在时或者说过去时，其谓语表示的时间概念和句子结构，都基本上 与 wish 后的宾语从句相同。例： John pretends as if he didn' t know the thing at all, but in fact he knows it very well. (用过去式表示与现在事实相反的假设) The old man looked at the picture, he felt as though he had gone back to time 20 years ago. （用过去完成式表示与过去相反的事实） They talked and talked as if they would never meet again (would+动 词原形，表示与将来事实相反) 四、在表示建议、命令、要求、忠告等动词的后面，其宾语从句 的谓语用“should+动词原形”表示虚拟语气 常用的此类动词有： 表示“要求”的：ask, desire, request, demand, require, beg 表示 “提议、 劝告、 建议” 的： move, propose, suggest, recommend, advise, vote 表示“决定、命令”的：decide, order 表示“主张”的：maintain, urge 表示“同意、坚持”的：consent, insist 例：The doctor suggested that he (should) try to lose his weight.
He insisted that we (should ) tell him the news. 上述动词的名词形式，demand, desire, requirement, advice, order, decision, recommendation, suggestion, 以及 necessity, preference, plan, motion, idea 等名词，其后的表语从句或同位语从句，也用“should+ 动词原形“表示虚拟语气。现代英语，特别是美国英语，常省去 “should” ，例： The advice is that we (should) leave at once. He idea that we (should)visit Great Wall was warmly welcomed. 五、在“It is (was)+形容词（或过去分词）+that??”结构中， 主语从句的谓语也用“should+原形动词“表虚拟语气 美国英语中省去 should, 常用的形容词和过去分词有： 表示“要求”的：required, demanded, requested, desired, desirable 表示“建议”的：suggested, recommended, 表示 “迫切、 紧近、 重要” imperative, urgent, necessary, essential, 的： important, vital 表示“适当、较好”的：appropriate, advisable, better, preferable 表示“可能”的：probable, possible 表示“命令”的：ordered 例：It was necessary that we (should) make everything ready ahead of time. It is required that nobody (should) smoke here.
六、由下列名词或短语引导，或含有某些词的从句中应用的虚拟 语气 1． “lest 以免、惟恐”引导的从句用“should+动词原形” 。 He took a map with him lest he (should ) lose his wag there. 2． “whether 不管、无论”引导的让步状语从句，有时用动词原 形。 All things, whether you know or don' t know, exist in the world. 3．用“would rather/had rather' would just as soon"表示“宁愿、但 愿” ，后面的宾语从句谓语用过去式或动词原形表示对将来的要求， 用过去时表示对现在的愿望，用过去完成时表示对过去做的事的懊 悔。 Don' t live in the world, I would rather( I would just as soon) you die. I would rather you go tomorrow. I would rather everything hadn' t happened in the past. 4．用“had hoped”表示原来希望做到而实际上未能实现的事情， 其宾语从句的谓语用“would+动词原形” 。 I had hoped that she would go to the U.S. and study there, but she said she liked to stay in China. 5．在“It is（high/about）time+that”引导的定语从句中，定语从 句的主谓语用一般过去时， 偶尔也可以用 would(或 should)+动词原形， 或 had rather (would rather)+动词原形。
It is high (about)time that we left/should leave/ had better leave/had rather leave/ were leaving.(注意与“This is the first/second?time”后从 句中用现在完成时的区别。 6．用“without/but for/in the absence of ”表示“要不是”“如果 ， 没有” （相当于 if it were not for?）表示条件时，句中一般用虚拟语 气。 （也可用陈述语气） Without your help, I couldn' t finish my work on time. In the absence of water and air, nothing could live. 7．由“providing (that)/ provided (that)/on condition that/ in order that”引导的条件从句或目的从句，根据情况，可用虚拟语气。 （有时 也可用陈述语气） They are willing surrender provided they are given free passage. 8．在 if 引导的虚拟条件句中，若有 were, had, should, 在书面语 中可省去 if ,将 were 等提到主语前，形成倒装。 Should there be a good film tomorrow. I would go to the theatre with you. Were it not for your help. I wouldn' t be succeed. 虚拟语气专项练习 1. You didn’t let me drive. If we _____ in turn, you _____ so tired. A. drove; didn’t get C. were driving; wouldn’t get B. drove; wouldn’t get D. had driven; wouldn’t have got
2. When a pencil is partly in a glass of water, it looks as if it _____.
A. breaks broken
B. has broken
C. were broken
D. had been
3. _____ it rain tomorrow, we should have to put off the visit to the Yangpu Bridge. A. Were B. Should C. Would D. Will
4. Jane’s face suggested that she _____ ill, and her parents suggested that she _____ a medical examination. A. be; should have B. was; have C. should be; had D. was; has
5. Without electricity human life _____ quite different today. A. is B. will be C. would have been D. would be
6. I told Sally how to get there, but perhaps I _____ for her. A. had to write it out B. must have written it out C. should have written it out D. ought to write it out
7. I didn’t see your sister at the meeting. If she _____, she would have met my brother. A. has come B. did come C. came D. had come
8. --If he _____, he _____ that food. --Luckily he was sent to the hospital immediately. A. was warmed; would not take B. had been warned; would not D. would have been
have taken C. would be warned; had not taken warned; had not taken
9. The two strangers talked as if they _____ friends for years.
A. should be B. would be
C. have been
D. had been
10. Without the air to hold some of the sun’s heat, the earth at night _____, too cold for us to live. A. would be freezing cold B. will be freezing coldly C. would be frozen cold D. can freeze coldly
11. --Have you ever been to Beijing? --No, but I wish I _____. A. have B. will C. do D. had
12. If only he _____ quietly as the doctor instructed, he would not suffer so much now. A. lies B. lay C. had lain D. should lie
13. If I _____ you, I would ask him to stay. A. was B. would be C. were D. am
14. If it hadn’t rained last Sunday, we _____ picnicking. A. could go B. could have gone C. went D. would go
15. Everybody would be very happy if the hot summer _____ tomorrow. A. should finish finishes 16. If only I _____ your advice! A. had taken B. took C. would take D. have taken B. would finish C. were to be finished D.
17. If it _____ yesterday, we could play football on the sports ground now.
A. didn’t snow weren’t snowing.
B. hasn’t snowed
C. hadn’t snowed
18. If he came here at this moment, I _____ him. A. would criticize criticize 19. I wish I _____ the meeting last week. A. could attend attended 20. He’s always talking like that, as if the whole world _____to him alone. A. had belonged B. belonged C. were belonging D. were belonged B. attended C. have attended D. could have B. will criticize C. shall criticize D. were to
21. The TV play for tonight won’t be interesting. Even if it _____, I might not have time for it. A. would be B. be C. had been D. were
22. Without your help, I _____ in my English study. A. would not have succeeded C. will not succeed B. hadn’t succeeded
D. won’t have succeeded
23. The workers in France demanded that their pay _____ from the following week on. A. would be raised B. was raised C. be raised D. raised 24. My suggestion is that we _____ the sports meeting. A. would put off B. should put off C. putted off D. be put
off 25. The monitor made a proposal that the whole class _____the matter. A. discussed B. would discuss C. be discussed 26. It is necessary that our drinking water _____ cleaner. A. should be made would be made B. is made D. was made C. D. discuss
27. It is high time that our child _____ to do some housework. A. learned D. would learn B. learn
C. will learn
28. They stopped at Hangzhou so that they _____ the West Lake. A. will visit D. might visit B. can visit
C. may visit
29. _____ it _____ for your help, I couldn’t have make any progress. A. Were; not not been D. Did; be B. Had; not been C. Should;
30. You are late again. You _____ here earlier. A. B. will come C. should have come will have come 31. Don’t come this afternoon. I’d rather you _____ tomorrow. A. come B. to come C. D. should come
D. will come
32. He took his raincoat with him lest it _____. A. rained rain D. will rain B. should rain C. would
33. John was very busy last week, otherwise, he _____ to attend the meeting. A. would have come D. came 34. _____ I to tell her about it, she would be very glad. A. Should D. Might B. Would B. would come C. should come
35. Without sunlight or water or air, there _____ no life on the earth. A. will have be D. must be B. would be C. should
36. It was ordered that no smoking _____ in the library. A. is allowed should allow B. be allowed D. will be allowed C.
37. _____ I known he was in trouble, I might have managed to help him. A. If Unless D. Had B. When C.
38. You _____ there by taxi yesterday, it is not far from here. A. couldn’t have gone
B. should have gone C. D. mustn’t have gone 39. I would have gone there with you but I _____ too tired then. A. were D. have been 40. --Did you go to see the football match yesterday? --No, I didn’t feel well, but I would have gone if I _____. A. did C. would D. had B. have B. had been C. was needn’t have gone
41. _____the friendship between us last forever! A. C. May 42. --Where have you been? --I got caught in traffic; _____ I could have been here soon. A. otherwise though D. anyway B. however C. Could D. Wish B. Will
43. If my lawyer _____ here last Saturday, he _____ me from going. A. had been; would have prevented been; would prevent C. were; would prevent would have prevented D. were; B. had
44. If it _____ for the snow, we _____ the mountain yesterday. A. were not; could have climbed could climb C. had not been; could have climbed been; could climb 45. We _____ last night, but we went to the concert instead. A. must have studied C. should have studied study 46. --There were already five people in the car but they managed to take me as well. --It _____ a comfortable journey. A. can’t be shouldn’t be C. mustn’t have been B. B. might study D. would D. had not B. were not;
D. couldn’t have been 47. I was really anxious about you. You _____ home without a word. A. mustn’t leave shouldn’t have left C. couldn’t have left needn’t leave 48. _____ your letter, I would have started off two days ago. D. B.
A. If I received D. Had I received
B. Should I receive C. If I could have received
49. It is strange that she _____ so. A. think thought 50. He suggested that the meeting _____ put off. A. not be D. be not 51. She would rather ____ more money on books _____ on clothes. A. cost; not spend; than 52. What would have happened if you _____ her child? A. hadn’t helped didn’t help 53. If I _____ with her last summer, I _____ with her now. A. worked; am getting on very well would get on very well C. had worked; would have got on very well get on very well 54. The old professor gave orders that the experiment _____ before 6. A. was finished finished B. will finis C. be finished D. shall be D. had worked; will B. had worked; B. couldn’t help C. wouldn’t help D. B. to spare; don’t C. pay; than D. B. should not C. wouldn’t B. thinks C. will think D.
55. The thief closed his eyes _____ he _____ dying. A. even if; was as if; were 56. I wish _____ my uncle yesterday. A. had met D. have met 57. Without his help, we _____ such rapid progress. A. don’t make D. wouldn’t have made 58. _____ so busy, she would come to help you. A. Should my daughter my daughter not C. If my daughter were not daughter isn’t 59. If you _____ any problem, please don’t hesitate to ask your teacher. A. have D. will have 60. What do you think of the suggestion that she _____ at the meeting last week? A. should make D. A or B 61. If only I _____ to my parents’ advice? B. make C. made B. would have C. are going to have D. If my B. Was B. wouldn’t make C. didn’t make B. would met C. met B. though; would be C. when; had been D.
A. listening D. had listened
C. am listening
62. But for the snow, we _____ earlier. A. will arrive D. arrived 63. Here’s an umbrella in case you _____ it. A. should use D. to need 64. It is natural that he _____ his mind. A. changes D. to change 65. It is a pity Mr. Zhang isn’t here. If he _____, my parents would be happier. A. comes D. had come 66. _____ you succeed and _____ you be healthy. A. May; may D. Should; may 67. It’s high time he _____ home. A. goes is going to go 68. I hoped _____ my letter. B. went C. will go D. B. Wish; wish C. Hope; hope B. has come C. came B. changing C. change B. needed C. needing B. should have arrived C. arrive
A. her to answer she would answer C. that she will answer answering 69. I was very busy yesterday, otherwise I _____ to the meeting. A. came D. would have come B. would come
C. had come
70. If she knew as much about music as you do, my daughter _____ much better. A. play D. would play 71. “Jane wants to see you tomorrow.” “I would rather she _____ today than tomorrow.” A. comes D. came 72. The secretary listened carefully _____ he might discover exactly what she wanted. A. so as that D. providing 73. Supposing the weather _____ bad, where would they go? A. will be D. be B. is C. were B. in case C. in order that B. should come C. come B. must play C. will play
74. Without the leadership of the Party, there _____ no New China. A. would be D. should be 75. The work would require that _____ at 5 every morning. A. she has been there B. she was there she will be there 76. The little hero’s pale face suggested he _____ dead. A. is should be D. be B. was C. C. she be there D. B. has been C. was
77. Galileo insisted that the earth _____ round the sun. A. should move D. A or B B. move
78. The rice _____ if you had been more careful. A. wouldn’t be burning would not burn C. wouldn’t have been burnt would not burnt 79. _____ I known it, I should have told him. A. Have Having D. If B. Had C. D. B.
80. If Alice _____ this afternoon, the meeting should be put off. A. would not come B. might not come C. should
not come D. could not come 81. If you had gone to a doctor, you _____ all right now. A. are been B. were D. would be C. would have
82. It is necessary that we _____ a foreign language. A. must master D. should master 83. My idea is that we _____ to our plan. A. must stick D. will stick 84. He _____ into trouble if he had taken our advice. A. would have not got Had not got C. wouldn’t have got didn’t get 85. I didn’t see her in the meeting room this morning. She _____ at the meeting. A. mustn’t have spoken shouldn’t have spoken C. needn’t have spoken couldn’t have spoken 86. One ought _____ for what one hasn’t done. D. B. D. B. B. ought to stick C. should stick B. ought to master C. mastered
A. not to be punished B. to not be punished D. not be punished
C. to not punished
87. If you really want yourself to be in good health, you must _____ always _____ so much. A. not; be smoking D. be not; smoking 88. With so much work on hand, you _____ to see the game last night. A. B. shouldn’t go C. couldn’t have gone mustn’t go B. not; have smoked C. not; to smoke
D. shouldn’t have gone 89. Most of the students felt rather disappointed at the English party. They say that it _____ better organized. A. had been must have been B. had to be D. could have been C.
90. I’m surprised that he _____ in the exam. A. should fail have failed B. would have failed D. should have failed C. may
1-10 DCBBD CDBDA
11-20 DCCBA ACADB 21-30 DACBD
AADBC 31-40 CBACB BDCCD 41-50 CAACC DBDAA 51-60 DABCD ADCAC 61-70 DBACD ABBDD 71-80 DCCAC BCCBC
81-90 DDCCD AADDD