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必修5unit1笔记


必修 5Unit1 笔记整理 Page1 lift up 拿起,举起 invent the first steam engine/a lamp 发明第一台蒸汽机/电灯 discover radium 发现镭 find out a cure for cholera 找到治愈霍乱的方法 physical characteristics 身体特征 characteristic 可数名词,意为“与众不同”的特征 character 表示(个人、集体、民族特有的)“性格、品质”,还意为“人物,角色” “文字” Chinese character 汉字 pass … from … to…把…从父母传给孩子 painter n. 画家 paint v. 绘画 painting n. 绘画;油画 put forward a theory/an idea/a plan/a suggestion 提出一条理论/想法/计划/建议 do scientific research into … 对…做科学研究 write a scientific report 写科学报告 the stages in setting out a new scientific idea 陈述/阐明一项新的科学观点的步骤 Find a problem 发现问题 Make a question 提出问题 Think of a method 想出方法 Collect results 收集结果 Analyze the results 分析结果 analyze=analyse vt.分析 analysis n. 分析 analyses 复数 Find supporting evidence 找出支持观点的证据 Draw a conclusion 得出结论 conclude that…=draw a conclusion that? an infectious disease 传染病 infected people 被传染的人 an affectionate person 一位有感情的人 affected people 受影响的人,被传染的人 predict the content of the passage 预测文章的内容 be content with… 对…感到满意 Page2 expert n.专家,能手;行家 adj.专家的;需要专门知识(或技术)的 be expert in 在…方面是内行的 attend sb. 治疗,护理, 照料 attend school 上学 attend a lecture 听讲座 attend church 去教堂 attend a wedding 出席婚礼 personal physician 私人医生 expose oneself to …= be exposed to …使..暴露于. . . die v. die, died, died dead adj. death n. 复数 deaths deadly adj.致命的 a deadly disease dying 临死的,快要死的 lie dying, a dying person every time 连词 = whenever “每次,每当” 名词、副词当连词用,表示“一…就”的连词有: as soon as = the moment= the minute=the instant=directly=instantly=immediately, 另外表示“一…就”的还有 Hardly… when… ,Scarcely…when… ,No sooner… than…句型。 control, controlled, controlled 控制(v.) Mr. Brown is in control of the shop. =This money is under the control of Mr Brown.控制 (n.) The outbreak of cholera hit London in 1854=Cholera broke out in 1854.

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face the challenge 面对挑战 a challenging job 一份有挑战性的工作 float around 四处漂浮 find victims 找到受害者 absorb sth.= take in sth. absorb…into…把…吸进… absorb sb. =absorb one’s attention 吸引某人 absorb oneself in doing sth.=be absorbed in doing sth.全神贯注做某事, 专心于做某事 近意的短语有: be occupied in doing/ with (sth.)忙于… be busy in doing/ with (sth.)忙于… be lost in 专心于… be caught / trapped /stuck in 被困于… be buried in 埋头于、专心于… be devoted to 致力于、献身于… be involved in 涉及、参与… suspect vt 认为;怀疑 n 被怀疑者; 嫌疑犯 suspect sb/sth of doing sth 怀疑某人做了某事= sb/sth be suspected of doing sth suspect that…表示没有确凿证据的怀疑或猜测,与 suppose/guess/consider/think 近义 begin his enquiry 开始了他的询问 gather information 收集信息 make further investigations 做进一步的调查 spread through poor neighbourhoods 在贫民区蔓延 be spread by germs 通过细菌传播 look into the source of water 调查水的源头 severe = serious 严厉的,严格的 = serious 剧烈的,严重的 mark sth. on a map 在地图上标注… give sb. a valuable clue 给某人一条有价值的线索 foresee ,foresaw, foreseen 预见 blame sb.责备,指责某人 blame sb. for sth. 因为某事责备某人 blame sth. on sb. 把…归咎于某人 Sb be to blame for doing sth 某人因某事受责备=Sb. be blamed for doing sth. polluted water 受污染的水 remove the handle from the water pump 从水泵处拆除把手 handle the situation v.=deal with 处理,对付 slow down 减缓,变慢 link…to... 把…与…连接/联系 be linked to=be connected with a direct link between…and… A 与 B 之间的直接联系 have water delivered to her house =ask others to deliver water to her house announce sth. (with certainty) to sb.(确定地)向某人宣布某事 carry the virus 携带病毒 instruct sb. to do sth.教导/命令/指导某人做某事 read the instructions/directions 阅读说明书 John Snow suggested that the source of all the water supplies be examined.(建议) The first suggested that cholera multiplied in the air.(暗示,表明) cure sb.=cure one’s disease= cure sb. of the disease 治愈某人的病 find a cure for a disease 找到治疗疾病的方法

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1. accuse sb of sth 指控 2. cure sb of sth 治愈;矫正 3. rob sb of sth 抢劫 4. remind sb of sth 提醒,使想起 5. inform sb of sth 通知 6. warn sb of sth 警告,提醒注意 7. convince sb of sth 使信服 8. persuade sb of sth 说服 9. suspect sb of sth 怀疑 10. rid sb of sth 摆脱 11. free sb of/from sth 解除,摆脱 Page4 win a victory over sb.= defeat sb. ① win “赢得”后接“赛事、战事、某物” ;后接人时,意为“争取赢得…的好感或支持” ②defeat 后接 sb, 意为“战胜”“击败”比赛中的对手,可与 beat 互换 construction① 建造,多作不可数名词。under construction 在建造中 ② 建筑物,可数名词 ③ (语言)结构。 make a description=describe make a contribution=contribute contribute to 有助于,促成 contribute sth. to 把…捐赠给…, 给…投稿,为…贡献? make a contribution to 为…做贡献 apart from 介词短语 All the compositions are worth reading apart from Tom’s. (= except) Tom’s composition is worth reading apart from a few spelling mistakes. (= except for) Apart from Tom’s composition, other compositions are also worth reading. (=besides=in addition to) Page5 at the fireworks display 在烟花展上 set off fireworks 燃放烟花 The Past Participle is used as Attribute and Predicative 过去分词作定语、表语 1)单个分词用作前置定语,分词短语用作后置定语 2)过去分词作定语常可扩展为一个定语从句。 来自不及物动词的过去分词仅表示完成意义,不表示被动意义。 a retired worker=a worker who has retired an escaped prisoner=a prisoner who has escaped fallen leaves=leaves that have fallen the risen sun=the sun that has just risen 来自及物动词的过去分词通常表示被动意义和/或完成意义。 People today tend to choose vegetables grown without chemicals = vegetables which are grown without chemicals We like skating in the frozen lake in the winter.= the lake which has been frozen How many finished products have you got up to now?= products that have been finished 已经形容词化了的过去分词作定语表示情绪,相当于形容词 terrified, frightened, surprised, astonished, shocked, amazed, amused, delighted, excited, pleased, satisfied, tired, worn out, exhausted, bored, tired, blamed, interested, disappointed, upset, worried, puzzled, confused 3) 过去分词作表语,表示主语的特点或所处的状态,相当于形容词。 Page6

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chart 图表 What personalities do you think great scientists should have? I think they should be creative(有创造力的)/positive(积极的)/co-operative(合作的) /considerate(体贴的) /sensitive(敏感的) be strict with sb in sth 对某人在某事上严格 full of logical thinking 充满逻辑思维的 Page7 math maths mathematics mathematical mathematician astronomer astronomy astronaut mathematical calculations 数学计算 lead to the same conclusion 导致同样的结果 Only if you put the sun in the center of the solar system did the movements of the other planets in the sky make sense. 只有当你把太阳放在太阳系中心的时候,宇宙里其它星球的运
转才说得通。

Only+状语 放在句首,用部分倒装 make sense 讲得通,有道理 make sense of 理解;懂;明白=understand He could not tell anyone about his theory as the powerful Christian Church would have punished him for even suggesting such an idea. 他不能将这个理论告诉任何人,因为即便 他只是暗示有这种想法,强大的基督教教会势力都会惩罚他。

arise (arose, arisen) vi. 呈现, 出现=appear;发生, 产生=happen;起身,起 立=get up/stand up;向上,上升=rise ,无被动语态。
move backward 向后退 go forward 向前进 in a loop 绕圈地 at times = sometimes 有时 collect observations 收集观测的结果 work on sth. 从事…的研究 privately=secretly 私下地 public adj. 公开的 publicly adv. 公开地 publish v. 出版 publication n. 出版 revolutionary theory 革命性的理论 He placed a fixed sun at the solar system with planets going round it. with +宾语+宾语补足语(doing, done, to do) spin, spun, spun 旋转 be enthusiastic for (about)…对…热心/热情 be cautious of / about 对…谨慎 reject his theory/invitation 拒绝他的理论/邀请 reject doing sth reject=refuse to accept refuse to do sth. build …on the basis of…把…建立在…基础上 the centre of the universe 宇宙中心 Page8 The important thing is not to stop questioning" ---- Albert Einstein Genius is one percent inspiration and ninety-nine percent perspiration. Accordingly, a 'genius' is often merely a talented person who has done all of his or her homework.----Thomas Edison If I have seen further it is by standing on the shoulders of giants ----Isaac Newton

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