非 谓 语 动 词 动词除了在句子中充当谓语外，还具有名词、形容词及副词的性质动词的非谓语形式，可在句中作主语、表语、 宾语、定语、补语和状语等，称作非谓语动词，包括动词不定式、分词和动名词。 高考重点要求： 1、掌握不定式、分词、动名词在句子中的作用 2、区分不定式、分词作定语和状语的异同 3、掌握不定式、动名词作宾语，不定式和分词作宾补的惯用结构 4、注意非谓语动词与句子谓语
动词的时间关系，以确定非谓语动词的时态形式 5、弄清非谓语动词与其逻辑主语的关系，以确定非谓语动词的语态形式 第一节 知识点概述 一、动词不定式 动词不定式的基本形式是“to+动词原形”，有时可以不带 to。动词不定式没有人称和数的变化，在句子中不能作 谓语，但可以担任主语、表语、宾语、状语和宾语补足语。动词不定式仍保留动词的一些特点。 （一 ） 动 词 不 定 式 的 特 征 及 用 法 1.动词不定式的构成及特征 “to +动词原形”构成动词不定式，是一种非谓语形式，在句子中不能作谓语，没有人称和数的变化，它具有 名词、形容词和副词的特征。 2.动词不定式的用法 动词不定式具有名词、形容词和副词的特征，在句子中可以作主语、表语、宾语、定语和状语。 1. 作主语 例如：To learn English well is not easy. 或 It is not easy to learn English well. 动词不定式作主语时，往往用 it 作形式主语，这种句型可归纳为下面的句型： It is + adj.+ 动词不定式 如果要说明不定式的动作执行者，可以用 for It is + adj.+ for sb. to do sth. 2. 作表语 My wish is to become a teacher. 3. 作宾语 Most of us like to watch football matches. 4. 作宾语补足语 He told me to be here on time. 5. 作定语 I have nothing to say about that thing. 6. 作状语 He stopped to have a look. 3.动词不定式的否定形式 动词不定式的否定形式 not + to + 动词原形 例如： He asked me not to make such a mistake. 4.动词不定式与疑问词连用 疑问代词 who, what, which 和疑问副词 when, where, how, why 等后面可以接动词不定式， 构成动词不定式短语， 可以在句子中作主语、宾语、表语等成分。 例如：(1) He doesn’t know how to use the machine.（不定式作宾语） (2) How to use the machine is a question. （不定式作主语） (3) The question is when to go there.（不定式作表语） （二 ） 动 词 不 定 式 的 时 态 和 被 动 形 式
动词不定式是非谓语动词的一种，由不定式符号(to)加动词原形构成。不定式的形式有五种： 1． 一般式 to do 例如：I like to read English. 2． 进行式 to be doing 例如：He seemed to be reading something at that time. 3． 完成式 to have done 例如：He seemed to have cleaned the room. 4． 被动式 to be done 例如：The work is to be done soon. 5． 完成被动式 to have been done 例如：The boy is said to have been sent to hospital yesterday. 二、分词 分词是动词非谓语形式的一种，包括现在分词和过去分词。现在分词表示：主动，动作正在进行。过去分词表示： 被动，动作已经完成。 （一）分词的作用 分词在句中可以作定语、表语、状语和宾语补足语。例如： 1．作定语 Do you know the boy standing at the gate? Have you read the book written by Lu Xun？ 2．作表语 We are excited at the news. The news he told us is exciting. 3．作宾语补足语 I heard him singing a song in the classroom. We found the ground covered with snow. 4．作状语 While lying in bed, he listened to some music. Seen from the hill, the village looks move beautiful. 分词作状语时，它的逻辑主语就是句子的主语，否则分词前面必须有自己的主语。 （二）分词的时态 现在分词分一般式和完成式，而过去分词则没有时态形式的变化。 现在分词的一般式表示动作与谓语动词同时发生，或在谓语动词之前发生。例如： Knowing his uncle would come, he began to make some preparations. 现在分词的完成时，表示的动作发生在谓语动词表示的动作之前。常用作状语。例如： Having finished his homework, he went to bed. （三）现在分词的被动式 被动一般式 being done 被动完成式 having been done This is one of the new supermarkets being built in our city. Having been told many times, he was able to operate the machine. （四）分词的否定形式 分词的否定式，由 not+分词构成，例如： Not having heard the news. I wrote to him again. Not knowing how to work out the maths problem, I went to the teacher for help. （五）分词独立主格结构 当分词的逻辑主语与主句的主语不同时，带逻辑主语的分词短语成为独立主格结构，在句法功能上起状语作用。 例如：
Weather permitting, they will go and visit the science museum. The meeting being over, they all left the room. 三 、 动 名 词 动名词是动词非谓语形式的一种,由动词加 ing 构成。动名词既有动词特征，也有名词特征。 动名词在句中可以作主语、表语、宾语和定语。例如： ⑴ Smoking does great harm to people’s health. （作主语） ⑵ My job is looking after children. （作表语） ⑶ I have finished reading the novel. （作宾语） ⑷ We have got a swimming pool in our school. （做定语） 动名词的否定形式由 not +动名词构成。例如： He made me angry by not taking the medicine. 动名词的复合结构由名词所有格或物主代词加上动名词构成。例如： Would you mind my opening the door? 动名词的一般式，表示的动作可以与谓语动词同时发生或在前，或在后。 例如： We all enjoy listening to music.(同时发生) Do you remember meeting me there?（在谓语动词前发生） 动名词的完成式表示在谓语动词之前完成的动作。例如： I regret not having been taken to the Great Wall when I was a child. She attended the party without being invited. 第二节 实战演练 一 、 复 习 时 需 注 意 的 要 点 1． 动词不定式一般式表示的动作可能与谓语动词的动作同时发生,也可能在其之后发生。 例如：I saw the young man enter the house.（同时发生） I hope to go there next time.（之后发生） 2．不定式完成式表示不定式的动作在谓语动词之前发生。 例如：I’m sorry to have broken your glasses. 3．不定式进行式表示不定式的动作，与谓语动词同时发生。 例如：When he came in, I happened to be reading at the table. 4．不定式的被动式有两种形式：to be done 表示将要被做，to have been done 表示已被做。 例如：The new cinema to be put up next year will be very large. The cinema is said to have been built last year. 5. 在表示情绪的动词，如 like, love, hate, prefer 等后，用动名词作宾语表示一般倾向，用不定式表示特定某事。但在 would/should like/love/prefer 后要用不定式 例如：I hate eating the same food every day. Would you like to watch TV in the evening? 6. 在动词 need, want, require 后用动名词表示被动含义，相当于动词不定式的被动式；而用动词不定式的主动式表示主 动含义。 例如：The house needs cleaning. = The house needs to be cleaned. He needs to clean the house first. 7. 在介词后一般用动名词作宾语，但在少数介词，如 but, except 后用动词不定式作宾语，但要注意“to”的省略，如 but 前有“do”则省去“to” 。
例如：I have done nothing but help him with his luggage. I have no choice but to wait for him at the bus stop. 8. 分词的完成式一般不用来作定语，因此，要表示完成主动的意思常用定语从句。 例如：The accident which happened yesterday was very serious. 9. 如果分词短语的逻辑主语与句子不是相同的，则要用从句或分词独立主格结构来表示。 例如：Weather permitting, we will go to the Center Park. 10. 分词作状语时， 分词的逻辑主语要与句子的主语相一致。若它们之间的关系是主谓关系，用现在分词，而动宾关 系则用过去分词。如果分词的动作先于谓语，分词要用完成时。 例如：Having finished his composition, he went home. While looking through the paper, he found some errors.
二、历届高考试题分析 例 1、The discovery of new evidence led to _________. A. the thief having caught B. catch the thief
C. the thief being caught D. the thief to be caught 答案为 C。 【解析】 lead to 这个词组中 to 是介词，后面跟名词，于是 B 被排除，the thief 是动名词逻辑上的主语， 构成动名词的复合结构， catch 之间应是被动关系， 与 故排除 A。 常见的带介词 to 的短语有： (get) be used to, look forward to，look up to, stick to, object to, be devoted to, pay attention to 等。 例 2、Though _______money, his parents managed to send him to university. A. lacked B. lacking of C. lacking D. lacked in 答案为 C。 【解析】 lack 是及物动词，后接宾语 money。his parents 与 lack 是逻辑上的主谓关系，要用现在分词 作状语。译文：虽然缺钱，他的父母亲还是设法让他上了大学。 例 3、He got well-prepared for the job interview, for he couldn’t risk ____ the good opportunity. A. to lose B. losing C. to be lost D. being lost 答案：B 【解析】 risk 后面只能带动名词做宾语，含义为“冒??之险” 。 例4、 _____ to sunlight for too much time will do harm to one's skin. A. Exposed B. Having exposed C. Being exposed D. After being exposed 答案为 C。 【解析】 在非谓语动词中，用动名词或不定式来作主语，而分词和介词短语不能作主语，因此 A、D 被排除。在这个句子中，will do 是谓语，缺少主语，要用动名词作主语。expose 与 one's skin 是动宾关 系，所以要用动名词的被动式 being exposed。译文：在阳光下晒太长时间对人的皮肤有坏处。 例 5、____ into use in April 2000, the hotline was meant for residents reporting water and heating supply breakdowns. A. Put B. Putting C. Having put D. Being put 答案：A 【解析】 put sth. into use “让??投入使用” 。显然，put 和句子主语 the hotline 构成被动关系，所以 用表示被动的过去分词。 例 6、 was unbelievable that the fans waited outside the gym for three hours just ____ a look at the sports stars. It A. had B. having C. to have D. have 答案：C 【解析】 动词不定式充当目的状语。 例 7、With a lot of difficult problems _______, the newly-elected president is having a hard time. A. settled B. settling C. to settle D. being settled 答案为 C 【解析】 动词不定式 to settle 作为 difficult problems 的定语表示现在或将来要解决的难题； 过去分词 settle 作定语表示已经解决的难题，现在分词的被动式 being settled 作定语表示正在解决的难题。 例 8、More and more people are signing up for Yoga classes nowadays, ____ advantage of the health and relaxation benefits. A. taking B. taken C. having taken D. having been taken 答案：A 【解析】 take advantage of （利用）和句子主语 More and more people 构成主动关系，且和句子谓语 sign up for (报名参加)同时发生，所以选择 A。 例9、 Sandy could do nothing but ________ to his teacher that he was wrong. A. admit B. admitted C. admitting D. to admit 答案为 A。 【解析】 该句中的 but 是介词，后接动词不定式。当谓语动词是 do，does 或 did 时，后接不带 to 的不 定式；是其他动词时，后接带 to 的不定式。该句的谓语是 could do nothing，要填动词原形 admit。译文： 山德不得不向老师承认自己错了。 例10、He sent me an e-mail, ________ to get further information.
A. hoped B. hoping C. to hope D. hope 答案为 B。 【解析】 现在分词 hoping 表示与 send me an e-mail 同时发生的动作。一些考生认为应该填不定式作目 的状语。不定式作目的状语时，句子的正确形式是：He sent me an e-mail to get further information.不需要 hope 一词，如果要选择“hoped”时，句子的正确形式是：He sent me an e-mail and hoped to get further information。 “hope”和“sent”作并列谓语。
高中非谓语动词练习 1. When he was a boy, he used to go there and watch _____. A. to repair bicycles B. bicycles to be repaired
C. bicycles being repaired D. repairing bicycles 2. --- Have you considered _____ your job as a teacher? --- Yes. I like the job because a teacher is often considered _____ a gardener. A. to change; to be B. to change; being C. changing; being D. changing; to be 3. The dog, _____, will be made a good watchdog. A. to train properly B. being trained properly C. properly to train D. trained properly 4. _____ the diamond, he had to look for a place to hide it. A. Having stolen B. Having been stolen C. Stolen D. Stealing 5. _____ the front door _____, he had to enter the room through the back door. A. Seen; painted B. Seeing; painted C. Being seen; being painted D. Seeing; being painted 6. And there, almost _____ in the big chair, sat her little brother, who never had to be told to keep quiet. A. having lost B. losing C. to be lost D. lost 7. He looked around and caught a man _____ his hand into the pocket of a passenger. A. put B. to be putting C. to put D. putting 8. To answer correctly is more important than _____. A. that you finish quickly B. finishing quickly C. to finish quickly D. finish quickly 9. The old farmer, _____ the badly injured and burnt soldier, came out of the burning farmhouse, calling continuously for help. A. supporting B. having supported C. being supported by D. being supported 10. In January , 2004, the United States successfully launched “Spirit”, a Mars Exploration Rover, _____ a new milestone in the history of mankind. A. it marked B. marking C. marked D. to mark 11. It was getting dark; I found a car _____ in a pool by the side of the road. A. to be stuck B. stuck C. sticking D. stick 12. You can’t imagine what great trouble they have _____ the problem _____. A. to solve; being talked about B. solving; discussing C. to solve; to talk about D. solving; being discussed 13. The monument was built in honor of the explorer who was believed _____ the river. A. to have discovered B. to have been discovered C. to discover D. having been discovered 14. The thief fell to the ground, his left foot _____ and blood _____ down from his mouth. A. breaking; running B. broken; running C. breaking; run D. broken; run 15. The program was so exciting that the children kept their eyes _____ on the screen. A. to fix B. to be fixed C. fixed D. fixing 16. As I will be away for at least a year, I’d appreciate _____ from you now and then so that I can know how everyone is getting along. A. having heard B. to hear C. hearing D. being heard 17. _____, the subject was always in my mind. A. Walking or sleeping B. Walking or slept C. Having walked or slept D. To walk and sleep 18. --- Did you get a dictionary? --- No, I _____, but there were not any _____. A. tried; to be left B. had tried to; leaving C. tried to; left D. had tried; have left 19. When he came to, he found himself _____ on a chair, with his hands _____ back. A. to sit; tying B. sitting; tying C. seating; tied D. seated; tied 20. The joke told by Tom made us _____, so the teacher couldn’t make himself _____. A. to laugh; hearing B. laughing; heard C. laughing; hear D. laughed; heard 21. All of the flowers now _____ here have developed from those once _____ in the forest.
A. raised; grown B. rising; growing C. raised; growing D. rising; grown 22. Henry can’t attend the party _____ at Tom’s house at present because he is preparing the speech at the party _____ at Marie’s house tomorrow. A. held; being held B. to be held; to be held C. to be held; held D. being held; to be held 23. Seeing the soldiers well _____ for the flood-fight, the general nodded with satisfaction. A. prepare B. preparing C. prepared D. having prepared 24. Don’t worry. I’ll have it _____ and get someone _____ it to you tomorrow. A. typed; send B. to type; to send C. type; send D. typed; to send 25. The sun was shining brightly, _____ everything there _____ more beautiful. A. making; look B. to make; looked C. and made; looking D. and making; be looked 26. How could he get the plan _____ without any one to support him? A. to carry out B. carry out C. carrying out D. carried out 27. New ideas sometimes have to wait for years before _____. A. being fully accepting B. fully accepting C. having fully accepted D. fully accepted 28. Having passed all the tests, she felt a great weight _____ off her mind. A. taking B. taken C. take D. to be taken 29. I’m examining the article he has just finished _____ the possible mistakes in it. A. being corrected B. to correct C. corrected D. having corrected 30. _____ full preparations, we decided to put off the meeting till next week. A. We did not make B. Having not made C. We had not made D. Not having made 31. We should prevent such a silly mistake _____ again. A. occurring B. to occur C. to be occurred D. from being occurred 32. I regret _____ hard at school, or I would have succeeded in passing the exam. A. not to work B. having not worked C. to have not worked D. not having worked 33. They looked forward with hope _____ a chance to receive further education. A. for getting B. of getting C. to get D. to getting 34. “Well, I’ll tell you a secret ...” said the boy, with his mouth almost _____ my ear. A. touched B. touching C. touch D. to touch 35. Towards evening, the patient opened his mouth as if _____ something to his son. A. said B. say C. to say D. to have said 36. --- Would you be _____ lend me your bicycle? --- Sure. A. so kind as to B. kind enough as to C. very kind to D. so kind to 37. The beach is so beautiful that it is worthwhile, I think, _____ for a short holiday. A. of going B. to be going C. your going D. you to go 38. The teacher asked more _____ to prevent the students’ eyes from being injured. A. to do B. done C. to be done D. being done 39. Some of the schools in Shanghai have moved one step closer to _____ with the global education community. A. being connected B. connect C. having connected D. be connected 40. The performance of the host, _____ to please the audience and draw their attention, was greeted with a cold silence, however. A. had intended B. intended C. being intended D. to intend 41. _____ and out of breath, we reached the top of the mountain and stopped _____ the beautiful scenery. A. Tiring; to admire B. Being tired; admiring C. Tired; to admire D. Tired; admiring 42. The 18-storeyed building, when _____, will shut out the sun _____ up the rooms in my house. A. completed; lighted B. completing; lighting C. completing; lighted D. completed; lighting
43. --- I hear Warren _____ in a middle school. --- What? I can’t imagine him _____ as a teacher. A. teaches; working B. teaches; work C. teach; to work D. teach; working 44. _____ he’s only been learning English for a year, he speaks it very well. A. Considered B. Considering C. Having considered D. To consider 45. It was _____ computer games that cost the boy a lot of time that he ought to have spent on his lessons. A. to have played B. playing C. played D. having played 46. At no time does the salesgirl get up late in the morning, for she is always too busy _____ a good rest. A. to take B. taking C. took D. taken 47. _____ as the most excellent student in her university, as most classmates had expected, made her parents very happy. A. Mary was chosen B. Mary chosen C. Mary being chosen D. Mary’s being chosen 48. _____ the big snake, the little girl stood under the tree _____ to death. A. Seeing; frightened B. Seeing; frightening C. Seen; frighten D. To see; frightening 49. You will see this product made in this factory _____ wherever you go. A. to be advertised B. advertised C. advertise D. advertising 50. Mr. Green is said _____ an experiment to prove the new method of solving the problem when young. A. to do B. to have done C. to be doing D. to have been doing
非谓语动词填空专练 1. The great hall was crowded with many people, _____ (include) many children _____(seat) on their parents’ laps. 2. It’s said that the Olympic Games _____(hold) in London in 2012 will cover more events than any other Olympics did. 3. There _____ (be) no rain for a long time, most of the crops in this area died from lacking water. 4. Yesterday a street-beggar bought a lottery ticket purposelessly, _____(make) him a millionaire overnight. 5. In the face of the big fire in October in California, many people in the fire-stricken areas moved out _____(escape ; burn) 6. Taking this medicine, if _____(continue) , will of course do good to his health. 7. The little boy still needs the _____ (remain ) 20 dollars to do with some things _____(remain; settle). 8. _____ (consider) his age, the little boy read quite well. 9. _____ from the appearance, it is very peaceful; but in fact, a war will break out soon. 10. — Tom enjoys _____ (play) basketball on Sunday afternoons, doesn’t he? — Yes, he does. But what his sister enjoys _____(dance) . 11. His letter, _____(address) to the wrong number, reached me late. 12. The Space Shuttle Columbia broke into pieces over Texas as it returned to the earth on February 1, 2003, _____ (kill) all seven astronauts aboard.
13. There are lots of places of interest _____(need; repair) in our city. 14. — What caused the party to be put off? — Tom’s _____ the invitations. 15. I was afraid _____(talk) back to my customers because I was afraid of_____(lose) them. 16. Standing on the top of the hill, I would not do anything but _____(enjoy) me. 17. — Is Tom a good talker? — No, he never speaks to me other than _____(ask) for something? 18. I can’t get my car _____(run) on cold mornings, so I have to try _____(fill) the radiator with some hot water. 19. The drunken husband knocked against the table and sent the bowls _____(fly) in all directions before he was sent _____(sleep) by his wife. 20. When we got back from the cinema, we found the lamp _____(burn) on but the door _____(shut). the flowing of the smog around
答案及部分解析： 选择 1-5 CDDAD 6-10 DDCAB 11-15 BDABC 16-20 CACDB 21-25 CDCDA 26-30 DDBBD 31-35 ADDBC 36-40 ACCAB 41-45 CDABB 46-50 ADABB 1. 用-ing 形式一般式的被动语态作宾语补足语，强调自行车被修理的过程。 2. consider 作“考虑”解时，后常接-ing 形式（短语）作宾语；作“认为” 解时，后常接含有名词、形容词 或 to be 的复合结构。 3. 过去分词短语作条件状语，相当于 if it is trained properly。watchdog 看门狗。 4. 从动作发生的时间来看，应是先偷钻石，再找地方藏匿，故用-ing 形式的完成式。 5. see 表示的动作与句子谓语动词（had to enter）所表示的动作几乎同时发生，且与其逻辑主语（he） 为主动关系，故用一般式。由句意“看到前门正在被漆，……”可知，第二空应用 being painted。 6. lost in the big chair 为过去分词短语在句中作伴随状语。此句的正常语序为：Her little brother sat there... 7. catch sb. doing sth. （偶然或突然）发现或撞见某人正在做某事。 8. 题意为“正确做出答案要比快速完成更重要”。两个非谓语动词短语在形式上应保持一致。 9. -ing 形式的一般式在句中作非限制性定语。 10. 题意为“2004 年 1 月， 美国成功地发射了“勇气”号火星探测器，标志着人类历史上一个新的里程碑”。 11. 由短语 be stuck in（陷入）可知此处应用过去分词作宾语补足语。 12. 由 have great trouble （in）doing sth.可知第一空应用 solving; being discussed 作定语修饰 problem，表 示“正在被讨论的问题”。 13. 用不定式的完成式表示动作发生在(定语)从句谓语动作之前。 14. 考查独立主格结构。foot 和 break 之间是被动关系，blood 和 run 是主动关系。 15. 由固定结构 fix one’s eyes on/upon...可知此处应用过去分词。 16. appreciate 后常接-ing 形式（短语）作宾语。 17. 题意为“无论是走路还是睡觉，我总是在想这个问题。”注意：此题中-ing 形式短语的逻辑主语与句 子的主语并不一致，有的语法家称其为“垂悬分词”。又如：Having suffered such heavy pollution already, it may now be too late to clean up the river. （NMET2001） 18. tried to 后省去了 get one。
19. 由 seat 的用法(be seated)可知第一空应用 seated 作宾语补足语； with his hands tied back 为 with 的复合 结构在句中作伴随状语。 22. 由 at present 可知第一空应用 being held（表示正在被进行的动作）；由 tomorrow 可知第二空应用 to be held（表示即将被进行的动作）。 23. 由固定短语 be (well) prepared for 可知此处应用过去分词作宾补。 24. 此处为 have sth. done 结构和 get sb. to do sth. 结构。 26. 考查 get sth. done 结构。carry out 执行。 27. before full accepted 相当于 before they are fully accepted。 28. feel 后可接含有非谓语动词的复合结构。此处宾语与宾语补足语之间为被动关系，故用过去分词。题 意为“所有考试都通过后，她感觉如释重负。” 29. 不定式短语在句中作目的状语。he has just finished 为定语从句。 30. -ing 形式短语作原因状语。not 要置于-ing 形式之前。 31. prevent sb./sth. (from) doing sth.为固定搭配。occur 为不及物动词。 32. regret doing sth.后悔做过某事；regret to do sth.遗憾（抱歉）地要做……。 33. look forward to doing sth.盼望做某事，注意 with hope（满怀希望地）插入了短语 look forward to 中。 34. 考查 with 的复合结构。his mouth 与 touch 之间是主动关系。 35. “as if+不定式短语”在句中作方式状语。 37. 考查句型 It is worthwhile to do sth./doing sth.。I think 为插入语。 38. 由 ask sb. to do sth.可知此处应用不定式。宾语与宾语补足语之间为被动关系，故用 to be done。 39. close to 中的 to 为介词。be connected with 可理解为“与……接轨”。 40. intended to please the audience...相当于 which had been intended to please the audience...。 41. tired and out of breath 为“形容词和介词短语”在句中作状语。stop to do sth. 停下来去做另外一件事。 42. when completed=when it is completed；lighting up...在此相当于 which lights up...。 43. 第一空应用一般现在时表示，意为“我听说沃伦在一所中学教书”；imagine 后常接-ing 形式(短语)或 -ing 形式的复合结构作宾语。 44. 此处 considering 为连词， 意为“考虑到”； 它还可用作介词， Considering the weather, he arrives very 如： early 考虑到天气，他算早的啦。 45. 此句是强调句型，强调句子的主语 playing computer games。 46. 考查 too...to...结构。注意：at no time（在什何时候都不）放在句首时,句子要用倒装 语序。 47. -ing 形式的复合结构作主语时， 其逻辑主语常用名词所有格或形容词性的物主代词。 most classmates as had expected 为非限制性定语从句。 48. seeing the big snake 在句中作时间状语；frightened to death 在句中作伴随状语。 49. advertise 意为“为……登广告”。made in this factory 作定语修饰 product; advertised 作宾语补足语。 50. 由 when young 可知此处应该用不定式的完成式。 填空 1. including; seated 2. to be held including 为介词;由 seat 的用法可知,此处应用其过去分词形式。
hold 与 the Olympic Games 之间是被动关系,且 2012 奥运会尚未举办,应用不定式表将来。
3. being. There being no rain 为 there be 句型的独立主格形式。 4. to make 不定式作结果状语表示主语未曾预料到的结果。 5. to escape being burned 不定式作目的状语。escape 意为“逃脱”,不接不定式,而常接-ing 形式作宾语。只 能接-ing 形式作宾语的动词还有:mind, admit,avoid, appreciate, consider(考虑), delay, imagine, miss, practice 等。
6. continued if continued 是“if taking this medicine is continued”的省略形式。 7. remaining; remaining to be settled settled 是-ing 形式短语作定语。 8. Considering 9. Judging considering 为介词,作“就……而论;考虑到”解。 第一个 remaining 用作形容词,作“剩下的”解;第二个 remaining to be
judging from 意为“从……来判断”,为固定结构。
10. playing; is to dance。 enjoy 后常接-ing 形式作宾语; what his sister enjoys 作主语,is to dance 构成句子的 谓语。 11. having been addressed。address 所表示的动作发生在谓语动词所表示的动作之前,且与 letter 之间逻辑 上存在着被动关系,having been addressed...在句中作非限制性定语。 12. killing。 13. needing to be repaired。needing to be repaired 相当于 needing repairing,在句中作定语。另外,require 和 want 也有类似的用法。 14. delaying sending。Tom’s delaying sending 是-ing 形式的复合结构可代替 what 在句中作主语。 15. to talk; losing。be afraid to do 作“不敢……”解(侧重指不敢作出的一种行为); be afraid of doing 作“担 心……”解(侧重强调害怕产生某种后果)。 16. enjoy 。but 用作“除了”解,当其前含有实义动词 do 时, 则 but 后的不定式短语要省去 to。 17. asked。 other than asked for something 相当于 unless he is asked for something。 18. running; filling。 my car running 意为“使我的车发动起来”;try doing 表示“试一试做某事的办法”;try get to do 意为“努力去做某事”。 19. flying; to sleep。send sb./sth. doing 意为“使 ……快速移动”;send sb. to sleep 意为“使某人入睡”,其中 to 为介词,sleep 为名词。 20. burning; shut 。句中的 burning,shut 均作 found 的宾语补足语,表状态。