1. All our savings gone, we started looking fo
2. The question settled, we went home.
3. The river having risen in the night, the crossing was impossible.
独立主格结构： 独立主格结构，又叫独立结构（absolute construction）.它在句法上游离与句子主体之外，跟主 句没有任何语法联系；但在意义上却与主句紧密联系在 一起，给他构成一个完整的寓意环境。独立主格结构有 主语和位于，只有逻辑上的主语，因此，它在句法上不 是句子，而是一个独立于句子成分之外的独特结构式。 独立主格结构可置于句首、句尾，用逗号上与主句隔开。
三、独立主格结构的功能 独立主格结构主要用于描绘性文字中，七作用相当于 一个撰于从句，常用来辨识时间、原因、条件、行为 方式或伴随情况等。 1）表示时间 Her work done ,she sat down for a cup of tea. 她干完了活，坐下来喝茶。 2）表示条件 The condition being favourable , she may succeed. 若条件有利，他或许能成功。 3）表示原因 There being taxis , we had to walk. 没有出坐车，我们只好步行。 4）表示伴随情况 Almost all metals are good conductors ,silver the best of all. 几乎所有的金属都是良导体，而银则是最 好的导体。
主格名词/代词 + 形容词
1. His mother being ill, he had to stay home to look after her.
2. Other things being equal, I would buy the black dress.
主格名词/代词 + 副词
The meeting being over, our headmaster soon left the meeting-room.
主格名词/代词 + 不定式
We to care for the children, you are able to be carefree away from home.
Our English teacher came into the classroom, papers in hand.
with复合结构 与 独立主格结构 它们都可以在句中作原因状语、伴随状况状语、 条件状语、时间状语或结果状语用，一般也可以 相互转换。虽然它们的语法功能和意义相同，但 其结构形式和名称却不相同。
1、With winter coming on, the trees turn yellow and some birds fly south. =Winter coming on, the trees turn yellow and some birds fly south. 2、With the traffic light green, the bus got moving. =The traffic light green, the bus got moving.
1、With the weather terribly cold, we entered the room to warm ourselves. = The weather terribly cold, we entered the room to warm ourselves.
2、With the key having been lost, she could not enter the room. = The key having been lost, she could not enter the room.
1、With time permitting, we’ll visit the Summer Palace. = Time permitting, we’ll visit the Summer Palace. 2、With the car going wrong, we’ll have to stop at the foot of the mountain. = The car going wrong, we’ll have to stop at the foot of the mountain.
1、The mother was cleaning the house with her baby playing on the bed. =The mother was cleaning the house, her baby playing on the bed.
2、Last night I followed him, with a sword in my hand.
= Last night I followed him , sword in hand.
无论with复合结构还是独立主格结构，都不可有 动词的谓语形式充当其中的逻辑谓语。如下例中 的was就必须去掉： He sat at the desk reading with a pen was in his right hand.
with复合结构可以作后置定语修饰名词，而 独立主格结构则不可作后置定语修饰名词. Soon she arrived at a park with grass green and flowers in blossom. = Soon she arrived at a park whose grass was green and whose flowers were in blossom.