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高中英语词汇及习题 4单元

知识感悟 一、词汇详解? 1.terrify vt.使惊恐;使受惊吓? 【典型例句】 ? The girl was terrified out of her wits. 那女孩吓得魂不附体。? The thunderstorm terrified the child. 雷雨把那个小孩吓坏了。? 【相关链接】 ? terrifying adj.极大的,可怕的; terrified adj.恐惧的,受惊吓的; terrific adj.令人恐怖的,极好的,极度的; a terrific scene 一个令人毛骨悚然的景象; a terrific party 了不起的宴会; terrible adj.很糟的,极坏的,可怕的,骇人的; terror n.恐怖,可怕的人,恐怖时期,恐怖行动; terrorist n.恐怖分子 单项填空 ________by the sight of the footmark,he went home hurriedly.? A.Terrified greatly? B.Terrifying greatly? C.Greatly terrified? D.Greatly terrifying 提示:句意为“看到这个脚印感到极度的恐惧,他急忙回家了” 。terrified 是过去分词转化的形 容词,叙述人的感受,意为“感到恐惧的”;terrifying 表示给别人的感受,意为“令人恐惧的” 。 ? 答案:C ? 2.chase vt.&n.追逐;追赶;追踪? 【典型例句】 ? The cat chased the mouse. 猫追老鼠。? She chased the children from her yard. 她把那些孩子赶出院子。? The chase is often more exciting than the kill.? 追捕常常比猎杀更令人兴奋。? 【相关链接】 ? give chase 追赶(某人) 汉译英 (1)这女孩追赶蝴蝶,但没有追上。? _____________________________________? 答案:This girl chased the butterfly,but lost it.?

(2)他们把他逐出屋外! ? _____________________________________ 答案:They chased him out of the house.? 3.burn out (火)燃尽;烧完自灭;烧坏? 【典型例句】 ? The hotel was completely burnt out.? 该旅馆毁于大火。? Their home was burnt out and they were forced to leave the area.? 这家人因为房子被人放火烧了,不得不离开这个地区。? If he doesn’t stop working so hard,he’ll burn himself out.? 如果他继续这样拼命地工作,就会累垮的。? The electric light bulb is burnt out.? 电灯泡烧坏了。? 【相关链接】 ? burn away 继续燃烧;逐渐烧完;烧光;烧毁? burn down 全部焚毁;火势减弱? burn for 希望获得;渴望? burn off (晨雾等)消散;烧去;烫去;逐渐烧完? burn oneself out 耗尽精力,精疲力竭? burn up 烧完;烧尽;烧光;激怒? burn with 被……充满;被……所煎熬;急于 介副词填空 (1)You’ll burn yourself ________if you go on working at this rate.? 答案:out (2)The fire has burned ________;get some more coal please.? 答案:down (3)His behaviour really burns me ________.? 答案:up (4)All the students were burning ________anger at this monstrous crime.? 答案:with (5)The oil lamp has burned ________.? 答案:out (6)The forest fire burned ________for days.? 答案:away (7)There are no lights in the house.Perhaps a fuse has burned ________.? 答案:out (8)He has been burning ________a chance to visit Beijing. 答案:for ? 4.contrast vt.&vi.&n.对照;与……成对比? 【典型例句】 ? This white peak contrasts finely with the blue sky.?

雪白的山峰同蔚蓝的天空交相辉映。? It’s interesting to compare and contrast English with Chinese.? 把英语和汉语进行比较和对比是一件有趣的事情。? There is a big contrast between summer and winter weather here.? 这儿夏季和冬季的天气很大的差别。? He looks healthier in contrast to his former self.? 他与以前相比,显得更健康些。? 【相关链接】 ? by/in a contrast to/with 和……形成对比(对照)? present a striking contrast to 和……成显著的对比? contrast finely with 和……对比起来更加鲜明 英汉互译 (1)这颜色和绿色衬起来很好。? _____________________________________? _____________________________________? 答案:This colour contrasts well with green.? (2)作家使美好与邪恶形成对照。? _____________________________________? _____________________________________? 答案:The writer contrasts good with evil.? (3)When I contrasted the two bicycles,I saw that one was older.? _____________________________________? _____________________________________? ? 答案:当我对比两辆自行车的时候,我看出其中一辆旧了一些。? 5.rush vt.&vi.&n.冲;猛冲;匆促? 【典型例句】 ? He sprang up and rushed to the door. 他跳起身向门口跑去。? The injured passengers were rushed to the hospital.? 受伤的乘客被急忙送到医院。? Don’t rush to a conclusion. 不要急于下结论。? It was a bit of a rush to get the job done in two hours.? 两小时内完成这项工作是有点匆忙。? 【相关链接】 ? rush sb.off his feet 逼迫人忙得不亦乐乎 汉译英 (1)下课后孩子们冲出教室。? _____________________________________? _____________________________________?

答案:The children rushed out of the classroom after class.? (2)事故发生后,受伤者被急忙送往医院。? _____________________________________? _____________________________________ 答案:After the accident the men who were hurt were rushed to hospital.? 6.identical adj.完全相同的;同一的? 【典型例句】 ? She wore the identical dress on both occasions.? 她在两个场合穿戴同一套衣服。? The two words are identical in meaning.? 这两个字的字义完全一样。? 【要点归纳】 ? (be)identical in 在……方面是相同的? (be) identical with 和……完全相同,和……一致? under otherwise identical conditions? 其他条件都相同(时)? 【相关链接】 ? identification n.辨认,鉴定,证明,视为同一? identify vt.识别,鉴别,把……和……看成一样? I cannot identify this signature.? 我识别不出这是谁的签字。? identity n.同一性,身份,一致,特性,恒等式 单项填空 (1)The opinions of almost all the members are________ whether to set up a new branch office in London.? A.similar to? B.the same to? C.identical in? D.identical with ? 提示:句意:关于是否在伦敦建一个新办事处,几乎所有会员们的意见是相同的。? 答案:C ? (2)I can’t ________myself in this old photo.? A.identify? B.classify? C.pick? D.realize 提示:identify 辨别;classify 分类;pick 要改为 pick out;realize 意为“认识到,实现”,要改为 recognize。? 答案:A ? 7.beneficial adj.有益的;有用的? 【典型例句】 ? Fresh air is beneficial to our health.? 新鲜空气有益于健康。? It’s a beneficial result to us.? 对我们来说那是有利的结果。?

Sunshine and moisture are beneficial to living things.? 阳光和水分有益于生物。? 【要点归纳】 ? be beneficial to 对……有好处? 【相关链接】 ? benefit n.利益,好处 vt.&vi.有益于,有助于;受益? for the benefit of 为了……的好处? benefit from 从……中受益? be of benefit to sb.对某人有益? We benefit from daily exercises.? 我们得益于每天做操。? It is said Yogo is of great benefit to human health.? 据说瑜伽功对人体健康有极大的好处。 单项填空 (1)Building a reservoir indeed cost us a great amount of money,but in the long run it is greatly________to us,especially when we meet drought days.? A.beneficial? B.influential? C.commercial? D.efficient? 提示:beneficial 有益的;influential 有影响的,后接介词 on;commercial 商业的;efficient 有效率 的。? 答案:A ? (2)They say reading the original English novels will ________ the students.? A.benefit from? B.be benefit? C.be of benefit to? D.benefit to? ? 提示:of benefit 作表语,相当于 beneficial。? 答案:C ? 8.by mistake 错误地 【典型例句】 ? Tom must have taken your dictionary by mistake.? 汤姆一定是弄错了才拿了你的字典。? By mistake he took the tall heavy-set man for his boss.? 他误以为那个敦实的高个子男人是他的老板。? I took your bag instead of mine by mistake.? 我错拿了你的手提包,还以为是我的呢。? 【相关链接】 ? by构成的习语? by all means 无论如何________by chance/accident 偶然? by comparison 比较起来 by far 得多,最? by name 名字叫……的 by nature 生来? by night 在夜里 by the hour 按小时? by hand 用手 by heart 牢记,凭记忆? by means of 用……办法 by no means 决不?

by oneself 独自地,单独地 by the way 顺便提一下 by virtue of 由于 汉译英 (1)我错把咖啡倒在你的杯子里了。? _____________________________________? _____________________________________? 答案:I’ve poured coffee into your cup by mistake.? (2)我错拿了你的手提包。? _____________________________________? _____________________________________? 答案:I picked up your bag by mistake.?

by reason of 由于? by turns 轮流,交替地? by way of 经由,通过……方式

单项填空 (3)Mr.Johnson should have taken the train to Liverpool for an important meeting,but he got on the train for Edinburg ________.? A.by chance? B.by accident? C.by time? D.by mistake 提示:句意:约翰逊先应当乘坐去利物浦的火车开一个重要会议,但错上了去爱丁堡的车。? 答案:D ? 9.imaginary adj.假想的;虚构的? 【典型例句】 ? It isn’t real—it’s only imaginary.? 那不是真的,那只不过是想像出来的罢了。? All the characters in this book are imaginary.? 这本书中的人物全是虚构的。? 【相关链接】 ? imagine vt.想像;设想 imagine (sb./sb.’s) doing? imagination n.想像;想像力? a writer full of imagination 充满想像的作家? imaginative adj.富于想像力的? a imaginative poet 充满想像力的诗人? image n.影像;映像? imaginable adj.可想像的,可能的? try every means imaginable 试用一切可能的办法 单项填空 Among picture books for 4-8-year-olds,several outstanding works appeared that combined original stories with ________illustrations.? A.imaginable? B.imaginative? C.imaging? D.imageless 提示:imaginative“想像的,虚构的”,句意为“把故事原形与充分的想像相结合” 。imagine“想

像”,imaginative“富于想像力的”,imaginable “可以想像的”,imaginary“虚构的,假想的” 。 ? 答案:B ? 10.encourage vt.鼓舞;鼓励;助长;促进? 【典型例句】 ? Don’t encourage her laziness by doing things for her.? 别替她做事,这会助长她的懒惰。? Her first success encouraged her to work even harder.? 她的首次成功鼓舞她更加努力工作。? We encourage getting up early to exercise.? 我们鼓励早起锻炼。? 【要点归纳】 ? encourage sb.to do 鼓励某人做某事? encourage doing sth.鼓励做某事? 【相关链接】 ? encouraging adj.令人鼓舞的? It’s really encouraging news.? 这真是一条令人鼓舞的消息。? encouraged adj.受到鼓舞的? He felt encouraged by my words.? 他听了我的话受到了鼓舞。? encouragement n.鼓励? His words were an encouragement to me. 他的话鼓舞了我。 单项填空 (1)Teachers don’t encourage students________up late but encourage ________up good learning habits.? A.to sit;to set? B.sitting;setting? C.to sit;setting? D.sitting;to set? 提示:encourage sb.to do;encourage 也可接动名词作宾语。? 答案:C ? (2)Obviously________by the________ story of Hellen Keller,the students were all determined to try their best to work well.? A.encouraging;encouraged? B.encouraging;encouraging? C.encouraged;encouraged? D.encouraged;encouraging? 提示:encouraging 叙述给别人导致的感受;encouraged 指本身的感受。? 答案:D ? 二、句型剖析? 1.it 强调句型?

【典型例句】 ? It is I who am right.是我对。? It was you that were wrong. 是你错了。? It was in Japan that he died. 他是死于日本。? It was yesterday that he got married. 他是昨天结婚的。? It was a computer that he bought last week.? 他上个星期买的是一台电脑。? Where was it that she lived? 她是住在什么地方?? When was it that he left for Japan?? 他是什么时候离开去日本的?? Who is it that teaches you English? 是谁教你们英语?? It was not until the rain stopped that I went home.? 直到雨停了我才回家。? 【要点归纳】 ? (1)不管被强调部分是单数还是复数,其前一律用 It is/It was,而不能用 They are/There were 之 类的。? (2)被强调部分是指人时,被强调部分后可用 that/who,被强调部分指物时,被强调部分后只能用 that。? (3)被强调部分是指时间或地点时,被强调部分后通常用 that,不能用 when,where。? (4)“not...until...”句型的强调结构为“It is not until...that...”应注意把否定词 not 转移到 until 前 面。 单项填空 (1)Is it only on the world market________we can prove the competitiveness and quality of our goods?? A.that? B.ever since ? C.where? D.now that ? 提示:句意:是不是只有在国际市场上我们才能验证产品的竞争性和质量呢?考查强调句型。 ? 答案:A ? (2)—Susan looks unhappy today.? —Yes,but she can’t tell what it is ________is bothering her.? A.as? B.what? C.that? D.which? 提示:宾语从句其实是一个强调结构,所以用 that。? 答案:C ? (3)—Dad,you promised!? —Yes.But ________broke the promise first?? A.who is the one that B.who was it that?

C.whom is it that? D.it were you who 提示:句意为“是谁首先违背诺言的?”考查疑问句的强调句型。? 答案:B ? 2.wish 句型? 【典型例句】 ? I wish I were as tall as you. 我希望和你一样高。? I wish I had a car of my own. 我希望有一辆自己的汽车。? He wished he hadn’t said that. 他希望他没讲那样的话。? I wish it would rain tomorrow. 我希望明天下雨就好了。? I wish the manager to be informed at once.? 我希望经理立刻被通知。? The city has everything one could wish for,except good weather.? 除了好天气外,这个城市拥有人们所希望得到的一切。? I wish you a pleasant journey. 祝你旅途愉快。? 【要点归纳】 ? (1)wish 后面的从句,表示与事实相反的情况,或表示将来不太可能实现的愿望。 其宾语从句的 动词形式为:?
现在的原望 过去式/were 过去的愿望 had done 将来的愿望 would/could+do

(2)wish to do;wish sb./sth. to do sth. 希望做某事;希望某人做某事? (3)wish for sth.希望得到某物? (4)wish 后面接双宾语,用于祝愿情景。 单项填空 (1)We often hear old people wishing they ________ young again.? A.are B.were ? C.had been D.will be ? 提示:句意:我们经常听到老人愿自己再一次年轻。 这是一个与现在的事实相反的愿望,所以要 用系动词 were。? 答案:B ? (2)—Did you attend her birthday party last week?? —Yes,but I wish I________.? A.didn’t? B.hadn’t? C.wouldn’t? D.wasn’t? 提示:句意:“上一周你参加她的生日宴会了吗?” “参加了,但我希望没有参加。 ”这是一个与 过去的事实相反的愿望,所以要用 hadn’t attended。attended 已省略。? 答案:B ? (3)How Mary wishes she stayed slim,but she ________too much.?

A.ate? B.eats? C.had eaten? D.would eat 提示:句意:玛丽多么希望自己苗条,但她吃得太多。这是一个与现在的事实相符的叙述。? 答案:B ? 3.as if=as though 句型? 【典型例句】 ? It seems as if our team is going to win. 看来我们队要胜了。? She looks as if she were ten years younger.? 她看起来好像年轻了十岁。? He talks as if he knew where she was.? 他说话的样子,好像他知道她在哪里似的。? He talks about Rome as if he had been there before.? 他说起罗马来好像他以前去过罗马似的。? He opened his mouth as if he would say something.? 他张开嘴好像要说什么。? She left the room hurriedly as if (she was)angry.? 她匆忙离开房间好像生气的样子。? Tom raised his hands as if (he was going) to say something.? 汤姆举起手好像要说什么。? 【要点归纳】 ? (1)当说话者认为句子所叙述的是真实的或极有可能发生或存在的事实时,as if 从句用陈述语 气。? (2)当说话人认为句子所叙述的是不真实的或极少有可能发生或存在的情况时。从句用虚拟 语气,虚拟语气动词时态的形式如下:? 从句动作与主句动作同时发生:did/were? 从句动作先于主句动作发生:had done? 从句动作发生在主句动作之后: would/could/might+do? (3)as if 从句可出现省略现象,后面接名词、不定式、形容词(短语)、介词短语或分词。 单项填空 (1)He felt as if he alone ________ what had happened.? A.be responsible to ? B.should be responsible to? C.be responsible for ? D.were responsible for? 提示:句意:他感觉惟独他一个人要承担事情的责任。根据四个备选项看,只有 D 项符合 as if 的句式用法。要注意,虚拟语气的系动词一律用 were。? 答案:D ? (2)The actor threw himself from the horse,as if________.? A.to be shot? B.being shot C.shooting? D.shot

提示:as if 后接过去分词,表示被动与完成。? 答案:D ? (3)The host family treated me as though I ________ a member of the family while I studied in France.? A.am? B.were ? C.would be? D.should be? 提示:句意:当我在法国就读时,我寄宿的那一家人对待我就像我是他们家庭中的一员似的。 ? 答案:B ? 三、语法解读 ? 虚拟语气Ⅰ? 虚拟语气是一种动词形式,表示说话人的一种愿望、假设、怀疑、猜测、建议等,虚拟语气所 表示的含义不是客观存在的事实。? 1.带非真实条件句的虚拟语气分三种情况:? 与现在事实相反;与将来事实相反或实现的可能性不大;与过去事实相反。本模块我们主要学 习前两种的用法:? (1)同现在事实相反的假设。? 句型:条件从句 主句? 一般过去时? were should(would)+动词原形? If they were here,they would help you.? 如果他们在这儿,他们会帮助你的。(可是他们并没有在这儿。)? If I were you,I should buy it.? 如果我是你,我就买了它。? If I had time,I would study French.? 如果我有时间,我会学习法语的。(其实我没有时间)? If she knew English,she would not ask me for help.? 如果她懂英语的话,她不会找我帮忙的。(其实她不懂英语)? (2)表示对将来的假想? 句型:条件从句 主句? 一般过去时 ? should+动词原形? were+不定式? would+动词原形? If you succeeded,everything would be all right.? 如果你成功的话,一切都会好起来的。? If you should succeed,everything would be all right.? 如果你成功的话,一切都会好起来的。? If you were to succeed,everything would be all right.? 如果你成功的话,一切都会好起来的。? 2.虚拟语气的常见类型和句型 (1)用于表示意愿、建议、命令、提议、请求等动词后的由 that 引导宾语从句中要用虚拟语 气,动词形式用 should+动词原形或省略 should。这类动词有:? ask 要求,advise 建议,arrange 安排,beg 请求,command 命令,decide 决定,demand 要求,desire 渴 望,determine 决定,insist 坚持、intend 打算、maintain 坚持、主张,move 建议、动员,propose 提议,object 反对,order 命令,prefer 建议,require 需要,request 要求,recommend 推荐,suggest 建 议,urge 强调、促进?

The teacher suggested that we (should) clean the blackboard after class.? 老师建议我们下课后把黑板擦了。? He ordered that the students wash the clothes every week by themselves.? 他要求学生每周都要自己洗衣服。? (2)虚拟语气用在主语从句中。? 在句型 “It is important (necessary,strange,natural) that....” 中,that 后面的从句中的谓语动词 用:(should)+动词原形? It’s necessary that we should have a walk now.? 我们有必要出去散散步。? It’s natural that she should do so.? 她这样做是很自然的。? It’s important that we should take good care of the patient.? 重要的是我们要照顾好病人。? (3)had hoped 后跟的宾语从句中动词形式为 would+动词原形,表示一种过去未实现的愿望或 令人失望的事。? His father had hoped that his son would go to business with him,but his son became an artist later.? 他父亲本来希望他的儿子将随他从商,而他儿子后来成了一位艺术家。? (4)would rather 后跟的从句中要求用过去式表示当时或将来的情况,用过去完成时表示过去 的情况,表示希望或婉转的责备。? I’d rather you posted the letter right away.? 我倒希望你把这封信立刻寄出去。? (5)It’s (high,about) time that 句型中 that 从句中要求用虚拟语气形式,即动词要用过去式。? It’s time that something was done about the traffic problem downtown.? 到了该采取措施解决商贸区交通问题的时候了。? It is high time that we put an end to this discussion.? 现在是我们该结束讲座的时候了。 单项填空 (1)If an earthquake ________occur,the old buildings would fall down easily,which is sure to cause large numbers of deaths.? A.would B.will ? C.is going to D.were to? 提示:虚拟将来时的条件中,用 were to do 或“should+do” 。? 答案:D ? (2)If I________ you,I ________ more attention to English idioms and phrases.? A.was;shall pay? B.am;will pay? C.would be;would pay? D.were;would pay? 提示:这是一个与现在事实相反的叙述,条件句中用 were;主句中用 would pay。? 答案:D ? (3)I do not have a job.I would find one but I ________ no time.? A.had? B.didn’t have? C.had had? D.have? 提示:用一般现在时 have 表示现在的实际情况。?

答案:D ? (4)Let’s say you could go there again,how ________ feel?? A.will you? B.should you? C.would you? D.do you? 提示:句意:假设你再一次去那儿,你会感觉如何?? 答案:C ? (5)He suggested that they ________ use a trick instead of fighting.? A.should? B.would? C.do? D.had? 提示:句意:他建议他们使用计谋而不是使用武力。? 答案:A ? (6)Would you rather I ________ buying a new bike?? A.decided against? B.will decide against? C.have decided? D.shall decide against? 提示:would rather 后接的从句如果表示现在的愿望,谓语动词用一般过去时。? 答案:A ? (7)You look so tired tonight.It is time you ________.? A.go to sleep? B.went to sleep? C.go to bed? D.went to bed? 提示:句意:你今晚看起来很累。你该睡觉了。It is time 后面的从句常用一般过去时表示虚拟 语气。? 答案:B ? (8)It is strange that he ________ so.? A.would say? B.would speak? C.should say? D.will speak? 提示:It is strange that he should say so 中的 should 表示“竟然” 。? 答案:C ? (9)The law requires that everyone ________ his car checked at least once a year.? A.has? B.had? C.have? D.will have? 提示:句意:法律要求每人都要一年一度让他们的车辆得到验审。? 答案:C ? (10)Supposing this ship ________,do you think there would be enough life jackets for all the passengers? ? A.was sinking? B.has sunk ? C.were to sink? D.sunk 提示:supposing 相当于 if。根据主句的时态 would be 可知这是一个虚拟将来时。从句要用 were to sink。? 答案:C ? 课文浓缩 下面一段文章为课文原文的浓缩,仔细阅读,根据原文章内容将其补充完整,并尽量背诵。 ? Frankenstein,a young scientist,discovers to 1 to lifeless matter and 2 creatures that

3 human beings.Unfortunately,the creature makes the people around 4 ,moreover,he is 5 and has human 6 .When Frankenstein refuses to create a 7 for him,he hates Frankenstein,and 8 his brother and wife.In order to 9 the creature,he 10 him to the Artic,where he dies himself and the monster 11 into the ice and snow.? 答 案 : 1.give life 2.create 3.resemble 4.terrified 5.intelligent 6.emotions 7.wife 8.murders 9.destroy 10.chases 11.disappears ?

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