2016 年全国硕士研究生入学考试英语一真题及答案 Section 1 Use of English
Section I Use of English
Directions: Read the following text. Choose the best word(s) for each numbered blank and mark
[A], [B], [C] or [D] on ANSWER SHEET 1. (10 points) In Cambodia, the choice of a spouse is a complex one for the young male. It may involve not only his parents and his friends, __1__those of the young woman, but also a matchmaker. A young man can __2__ a likely spouse on his own and then ask his parents to __3__the marriage negotiations, or the young man‘s parents may take the choice of a spouse, giving the child little to say in the selection. __4__, a girl may veto the spouse her parents have chosen. __5__ a spouse has been selected, each family investigates the other to make sure its child is marrying __6__ a good family. The traditional wedding is a long and colorful affair. Formerly it lasted three days, __7__1980s it more commonly lasted a day and a half. Buddhist priests offer a short sermon and __8__ prayers of blessing. Par--ts of the ceremony involve ritual hair cutting,__9__cotton threads soaked in holy water around the bride's and groom's wrists, and __10__a candle around a circle of happily married and respected couples to bless the __11__. Newlyweds traditionally move in with the wife's parents and may__12__ with them up to a year, __13__they can build a new house nearby. Divorce is legal and easy to __14__, but not common. Divorced persons are __15__ with some disapproval. Each spouse retains ___16___ property he or she
__17__ into the marriage, and jointly-acquired property is __18__ equally. Divorced persons may remarry, but a gender prejudice __19__up. The divorced male doesn't have a waiting period before he can remarry __20__the woman must wait ten months. 1. A. by way of as 2. A. decide on 3. A. close 4. A. In theory 5. A. Unless 6. A. into 7. A. or 8. A. test 9. A. folding 10. A. passing 11. A. association 12. A. deal 13. A. whereas 14. A. avoid 15. A. isolated 16. A. wherever 17. A. changed 18. A. invested B. provide for B. arrange B. Above all B. Less B. within B. since B. copy B. piling B. lighting B. meeting B. part B. until B. follow B. persuaded B. whatever B. brought B. divided
B. with regard to
C. on behalf of
D. as well
C. compete with C. renew C. In time C. After C. from C. but C. recite C. wrapping C. hiding C. collection C. grow C. for C. challenge C. viewed C. whenever C. shaped C. donated D. if
D. adapt to D. postpone
D. For example D. Although D. through D. so D. create D. tying D. serving D. union D. live
D. obtain D. exposed D. however D. pushed D. withdrawn
19. A. warms 20. A. while
B. clears B. so that
C. shows C. once
D. breaks D. in that
Section Ⅱ Reading Comprehension Part A Directions：Read the following four texts. Answer the questions after each text by choosing A, B, C or D. Mark your answers on ANSWER SHEET 1. (40 points) Text 1 France，which prides itself as the global innovator of fashion, has decided its fashion industry has lost an absolute right to define physical beauty for women. Its lawmakers gave preliminary approval last week to a law that would make it a crime to employ ultra-thin models on runways. The parliament also agreed to ban websites that ―incite excessive thinness‖ by promoting extreme dieting. Such measures have a couple of uplifting motives. They suggest beauty should not be defined by looks that end up impinging on health. That‘s a start. And the ban on ultra-thin models seems to go beyond protecting models from starving themselves to death –as some have done. It tells the fashion industry that it must take responsibility for the signal it sends women, especially teenage girls, about the social tape-measure they must use to determine their individual worth. The bans, if fully enforced, would suggest to women (and many men) that they should not let others be arbiters of their beauty. And perhaps faintly, they hint that people should look to intangible qualities like character and intellect rather than dieting their way to size zero or wasp-waist physiques. The French measures, however, rely too much on severe punishment to change a
culture that still regards beauty as skin-deep-and bone-showing. Under the law, using a fashion model that does not meet a government-defined index of body mass could result in a $85,000 fine and six months in prison. The fashion industry knows it has an inherent problem in focusing on material adornment and idealized body types. In Denmark, the United States, and a few other countries, it is trying to set voluntary standards for models and fashion images that rely more on peer pressure for enforcement. In contrast to France‘s actions, Denmark‘s fashion industry agreed last month on rules and sanctions regarding the age, health, and other characteristics of models. The newly revised Danish Fashion Ethical Charter clearly states:‖We are aware of and take responsibility for the impact the fashion industry has on body ideals, especially on young people‖. The charter‘s main tool of enforcement is to deny access for designers and modeling agencies to Copenhagen Fashion Week (CFW), which is run by the Danish Fashion Institute. But in general it relies on a name-and -shame method of compliance. Relying on ethical persuasion rather than law to address the misuse of body ideals may be the best step. Even better would be to help elevate notions of beauty beyond the material standards of a particular industry. 21. According to the first paragraph，what would happen in France? 【A】Physical beauty would be redefined. 【B】New runways would be constructed. 【C】Websites about dieting would thrive. 【D】The fashion industry would decline.
22. The phrase ―impinging on‖(Line 2，Para.2) is closest in meaning to 【A】heightening the value of 【B】indicating the state of 【C】losing faith in 【D】doing harm to 23. Which of the following is true of the fashion industry？ 【A】The French measures have already failed. 【B】New standards are being set in Denmark. 【C】Models are no longer under peer pressure. 【D】Its inherent problems are getting worse. 24. A designer is most likely to be rejected by CFW for 【A】pursuing perfect physical conditions 【B】caring too much about model‘s character. 【C】showing little concern for health factors 【D】setting a high age threshold for models. 25. Which of the following may be the best title of the text? 【A】A Challenge to the Fashion Industry‘s Body Ideals 【B】A Dilemma for the Starving models in France 【C】Just Another Round of Struggle for Beauty 【D】The Great Threats to the Fashion Industry Text 2 For the first time in history more people live in towns than in the country. In Britain this has had a curious result. While polls show Britons rate‖the
countryside‖alongside the royal family, Shakespeare and the National Health Serivce (NHS) as what makes them proudest of their country, this has limited political support. A century ago Octavia Hill Launched the National Trust not to rescue stylish houses but to save―the beauty of natural places for everyone forever‖. It was specifically to provide city dwellers with spaces for leisure where they could experience―a refreshing air .‖Hill‘s pressure later led to creation of national parks and green belts. They don‘t make countryside any more，and every year concrete consumes more of it . It needs constant guardianship. At the next election none of the big parties seem likely to endorse this sentiment. The conservatives‘planning reform explicitly gives rural development priority over conservation，even authorising―off-plan‖building where local people might object. The concept of sustainable development has been defined as profitable. Labour likewise wants to discontinue local planning where councils oppose development. The Liberal Democrats are silent. Only Ukip, sensing its chance,has sided with those pleading for a more considered approach to using green land. Its Campaign to Protect Rural England struck terror into many local conservative parties. The sensible place to build new houses，factories and offices is where people are，in cities and towns where infrastructure is in place. The London agents Stirling Ackroyd recently identified enough sites for half a million houses in the London area alone，with no intrusion on green belt. What is true of London is even truer of the provinces.
The idea that‖housing crisis‖equals―concreted meadows‖ is pure lobby talk. The issue is not the need for more houses but, as always，where to put them. Under lobby pressure，George Osborne favours rural new-build against urban renovation and renewal. He favours out-of-town shopping sites against high streets . This is not a free market but a biased one. Rural towns and villages have grown and will always grow. They do so best where building sticks to their edges and respects their character. We do not ruin urban Development should be planned, not let rip. After the Netherlands, Britain is Europe‘s most crowed country. Half a century of town and country planning has enabled it to retain an enviable rural coherence, while still permitting low-density urban living. There is no doubt of the alternative --- the corrupted landscapes of southern Portugal, Spain or Ireland. Avoiding this rather than promoting it should unite the left and right of the political spectrum. 26. Britain‘s public sentiment about the countryside 【A】 has brought much benefit to the NHS. 【B】 didn‘t start till the Shakespearean age. 【C】 is fully backed by the royal family. 【D】 is not well reflected in politics. 27. According to Paragraph 2，the achievements of the National Trust are now being 【A】 gradually destroyed. 【B】 effectively reinforced. 【C】 properly protected.
【D】 largely overshadowed. 28. which of the following can be inferred from Paragraph 3? 【A】 Ukip may gain from its support for rural conservation. 【B】 the Conservatives may abandon ‖off -plan― building. 【C】 the Liberal Democrats are losing political influence. 【D】 labour is under attack for opposing development. 29. the author holds that George Osborne‘s preference 【A】 reveals a strong prejudice against urban areas. 【B】 shows his disregard for the character of rural areas. 【C】 stresses the necessity of easing the housing crisis. 【D】 highlights his firm stand against lobby pressure. 30. In the last paragraph，the author shows his appreciation of 【A】 the size of population in Britain. 【B】 the enviable urban lifestyle in Britain. 【C】 the town-and-country planning in Britain. 【D】 the political life in today is Britain. Text 3 ―There is on and only one social responsibility of business,‖ wrote Milton Friedman, a Nobel prize-winning economist, ―That is, to use its resources and engage in activities designed to increase its profits.‖ But even if you accept Friedman‘s premise and regard corporate social responsibility (CSR) policies as a waste of shareholders‘ money, things may not be absolutely clear-cut. New research suggests that CSR may create monetary value for companies-at least
when they are prosecuted for corruption. The largest firms in America and Britain together spend more than $15 billion a year on CSR, according to an estimate by EPG, a consulting firm. This could add value to their businesses in three ways. First, consumers may take CSR spending as a ―signal‖ that a company‘s products are of high quality. Second, customers may be willing to buy a company‘s products as an indirect way to donate to the good causes it helps. And third, through a more diffuse ―halo effect,‖ whereby its good deeds earn it greater consideration from consumers and others. Previous studies on CSR have had trouble differentiating these effects because consumers can be affected by all three. Al recent study attempts to separate them by looking at bribery prosecutions under America‘s Foreign Corrupt Practices Act (FCPA). It argues that since prosecutors do not consume a company‘s products as part of their investigations, they could be influenced only by the halo effect. The study found that, among prosecuted firms, those with the most comprehensive CSR programms tended to get more lenient penalties,. Their analysis ruled out the possibility that it was firm‘s Political influence, rather than their CSR stand, that accounted for the leniency: Companies that contributed more to political campaigns did not receive lower fines. In all, the study concludes that whereas prosecutors should only evaluate a case based on its merits, they do seem to be influenced by a company‘s record in CSR. ―We estimate that either eliminating a substantial labour-rights concern , such as child labour, or increasing corporate giving byabout20% results in fines
that generally are 40% lower than the typical punishment for bribing foreign officials‖, says one researcher. Researchers admit that their study does not answer the question of how much businesses ought to spend on CSR. Nor does it reveal how much companies are banking on the halo effect, rather than the other possible benefits, when they decide their do-gooding policies. But at least they have demonstrated that when companies get into trouble with the law, evidence of good character can win them less costly punishment. 31.The author views Milton Friedman‘s statement about CSR with 【A】tolerance. 【B】skepticism. 【C】uncertainty. 【D】approval. 32.According to Paragraph 2,CSR helps a company by 【A】winning trust from consumers. 【B】guarding it against malpractices. 【C】protecting it from being defamed. 【D】raising the quality of its products. 33. The expression ―more lenient ‖(line 2,para.4)is closest in meaning to 【A】more effective 【B】less controversial 【C】less severe
【D】more lasting 34. When prosecutors evaluate a case, a company‘s CSR regard 【A】has an impact on their decision 【B】comes across as reliable evidence 【C】increases the chance of being penalized 【D】constitutes part of the investigation 35.Which of the following is true of CSR, according to the last paragraph? 【A】 Its negative effects on businesses are often overlooked. 【B】 The necessary amount of companies‘ spending on it is unknown. 【C】Companies‘ financial capacity for it has been overestimated. 【D】 It has brought much benefit to the banking industry. Text 4 There will eventually come a day when The New York Times ceases to publish stories on newsprint. Exactly when that day will be is a matter of debate. ―Sometime in the future‖, the paper‘s publisher said back in 2010. Nostalgia for ink on paper and the rustle of pages aside, there‘s plenty of incentive to ditch print. The infrastructure required to make a physical newspaper — printing presses, delivery trucks — isn‘t just expensive; it‘s excessive at a time when online-only competitors don‘t have the same set of financial constraints. Readers are migrating away from print away. And though print ad sales still dwarf their online and mobile counterparts, revenue from print is still declining. Overhead may be high and circulation lower, but rushing to eliminate its print edition would be a mistake, says BuzzFeed CEO Joah Peretti.
Peretti says the Times shouldn‘t waste time getting out of the print business, but only if they go about doing it the right way.‖Fighting out a way to accelerate that transition would make sense of them,‖he said, ―but if you discontinue it, you‘re going to have your most loyal customers really upset with you.‖ Sometimes that‘s worth making a change anyway. Peretti gives the example seen as a blunder,‖he said. The move turned out to be foresighted. And if Peretti would raise prices and make it into more of a legacy product.‖ The most loyal customers would still get the product they favor, the idea goes, and they‘d feel like they were helping sustain the quality of something they believe in. ―So if you‘re overpaying for print, you could feel like you were helping,‖Peretti said. ―Then increase it at a higher rate each year and essentially try to generate additional revenue.‖In other words, if you‘re going to make a print product ,make it for the people who are already obsessed with it. Which way be what the Times is doing already. Getting the print edition seven days a week costs $500 a year — more than twice as much as a digital-only subscription. ―It‘s a really hard thing to do and it‘s a tremendous luxury that BuzzFeed doesn‘t have a legacy business,‖Peretti remarked. ―But we‘re going to have questions like that where we have things we‘re doing that don‘t make sense when the market changes and the world changes. In those situations, it‘s better to be more aggressive than less aggressive. ‖ 36.The New York Times is considering ending its print edition partly due to 【A】the pressure from its investors. 【B】the complaints from its readers.
【C】the high cost of operation. 【D】the increasing online ad sales. 37. Peretti suggests that, in face of the present situation, the Times should 【A】make strategic adjustments 【B】end the print edition for good. 【C】seek new sources of readership. 【D】aim for efficient management. 38. It can be inferred form Paragraphs 5 and 6 that a ―legacy product‖ 【A】will have the cost of printing reduced. 【B】is meant for the most loyal customers. 【C】helps restore the glory of former times. 【D】expands the popularity of the paper. 39. Peretti believes that, in a changing world, 【A】traditional luxuries can stay unaffected. 【B】aggressiveness better meets challenges. 【C】cautiousness facilitates problem-solving. 【D】legacy businesses are becoming outdated. 40. Which of the following would be the best title of the text? 【A】Make Your Print Newspaper a Luxury Good. 【B】Keep Your Newspapers Forever in Fashion. 【C】Cherish the Newspaper Still in Your Hand. 【D】Shift to Online Newspapers All at Once. Part B
Directions: In the following article, some sentences have been removed. For Questions 41-45, choose the most suitable one from the list A-G to fit into each of the numbered blank. There are two extra choices, which do not fit in any of the gaps. Mark your answers on ANSWER SHEET 1. (10 points) [A]Create a new image of yourself [B]Decide if the time is right [C]Have confidence in yourself [D]Understand the context [E]Work with professionals [F]Know your goals [G]Make it efficient No matter how formal or informa the work environment，the way you present yourself has an impact. This is especially true in first impressions. According to research from Princeton University，people assess your competence， trustworthiness，and likeability in just a tenth of a second，solely based on the way you look. The difference between today‘s workplace and the―dress for success‖ era is that the range of options is so much broader. Norms have evolved and fragmented. In some settings, red sneakers or dress T-shirts can convey status; in others not so much. Plus, whatever image we present is magnified by social-media services like LinkedIn. Chances are, your headshots are seen much more often now than a decade or two ago. Millennials, it seems, face the paradox of being the least formal
generation yet the most conscious of style and personal branding. It can be confusing. So how do we navigate this? How do we know when to invest in an upgrade? And what‘s the best way to pull off one that enhance our goals? Here are some tips; 41. （） As an executive coach, I‘ve seen image upgrades be particularly helpful during transitions---when looking for a new job, stepping into a new or more public role, or changing work environments. If you‘re in a period of change or just feeling stuck and in a rut, now may be a good time. If you‘re not sure, ask for honest feedback from trusted friends, colleagues and professionals. Look for cues about how others perceive you.Maybe there‘s no need for an upgrade and that‘s OK. 42. （） Get clear on what impact you‘re hoping to have. Are you looking to refresh your image or pivot it? For one person, the goal may be to be taken more seriously and enhance their professional image. For another, it may be to be perceived as more approachable, or more modern and stylish. For someone moving from finance to advertising, maybe they want to look more―SoHo‖.(It‘s OK to use characterizations like that.) 43. （） Look at your work environment like an anthropologist. What are the norms of your environment? What conveys status? Who are your most important audiences? How do the people you respect and look up to present themselves? The better you
understand the cultural context, the more control you can have over your impact. 44.（） Enlist the support of professionals and share with them your goals and context. Hire a personal stylist, or use the free styling service of a store like J.Crew. Try a hair stylist instead of a barber. Work with a professional photographer instead of your spouse or friend. It‘s not as expensive as you might think. 45.（） The point of a style upgrade isn‘t to become more vain or to spend more time passing over what to wear. Instead, use it as an opportunity to reduce decision fatigue. Pick a standard work uniform or a few go-to options. Buy all your clothes once with a stylist instead of shopping alone, one article of clothing at a time. Part C Translation Directions: Read the following text carefully and then translate the underlined segments into Chinese. Your translation should be written clearly on ANSWER SHEET 2. (10 points) Mental health is our birthright. (46) we don‘t have to learn how to be mentally healthy, it is built into us in the same way that our bodies know how to heal a cut or mend, a broken bone. Mental health can‘t be learned, only reawakened. It is like immune system of the body, which under stress or through lack of nutrition or exercise can be weakened, but which never leaves us. When we don‘t understand the value of mental health and we don‘t know how to gain access to it, mental health will remain hidden from us. (47) Our mental health doesn‘t go anywhere;
like the sun behind a cloud, it can be temporarily hidden from view, but it is fully capable of being restored in an instant. Mental health is the seed that contains self-esteem –confidence in ourselves and an ability to trust in our common sense. It allows us to have perspective on our lives-the ability to not take ourselves too seriously, to laugh at ourselves, to see the bigger picture, and to see that things will work out. It‘s a form of innate or unlearned optimism. (48) Mental health allows us to view others with sympathy if they are having troubles, with kindness if they are in pain, and with unconditional love no matter who they are. Mental health is the source of creativity for solving problems, resolving conflict, making our surroundings more beautiful, managing our home life, or coming up with a creative business idea or invention to make our lives easier. It gives us patience for ourselves. And toward others as well as patience while driving, catching a fish, working on our car, or raising a child. It allows us to see the beauty that surrounds us each moment in nature, in culture, in the flow of our daily lives. (49)Although mental health is the cure-all for living our lives, it is perfecting ordinary as you will see that it has been there to direct you through all your difficult decisions. It has been available even in the most mundane of life situations to show you right from wrong, good from bad, friend from foe. Mental health has commonly been called conscience, instinct, wisdom, common sense, or the inner voice, we think of it simply as a health and helpful flow of intelligent thought. (50) As you will come to see, knowing that mental health is always available and knowing to trust it allow us to slow down to the moment and live life happily.
Section III Writing Part A Directions: Suppose you are a librarian in your university. Write a notice of about 100 words, providing the newly-enrolled international students with relevant information about the library. You should write neatly on the ANWSER SHEET. Do not sign you own name at the end of the letter, use ―Li Ming ‖ instead. Do not write the address .(10 points) Part B
52. Directions: Write an essay of 160—200 words based on the following picture.in your essay, you should 1. describe the pictures briefly, 2. interpret its intended meaning, and 3. give your comments. You should write neatly on ANSWER SHEET . (20 points）
2015 年全国硕士研究生入学考试英语一真题及答案 Directions:
Section I Use of English
Read the following text. Choose the best word(s) for each numbered blank and mark A, B, C or D on ANSWER SHEET. (10 points) Though not biologically related, friends are as ―related‖as fourth cousins, sharing about 1% of genes. That is _(1)_a study, published from the University of California and Yale University in the Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, has__(2)_. The study is a genome-wide analysis conducted _(3)__1,932 unique subjects which __(4)__pairs of unrelated friends and unrelated strangers. The same people were used in both_(5)_. While 1% may seem_(6)_,it is not so to a geneticist. As James Fowler, professor of medical genetics at UC San Diego, says, ―Most people do not even _(7)_their fourth cousins but somehow manage to select as friends the people who_(8)_our kin.‖ The study_(9)_found that the genes for smell were something shared in friends but not genes for immunity .Why this similarity exists in smell genes is difficult to explain, for now,_(10)_,as the team suggests, it draws us to similar environments but there is more_(11)_it. There could be many mechanisms working together that _(12)_us in choosing genetically similar friends_(13)_‖functional Kinship‖ of being friends with_(14)_!
One of the remarkable findings of the study was the similar genes seem to be evolution_(15)_than other genes Studying this could help_(16)_why human evolution picked pace in the last 30,000 years, with social environment being a major_(17)_factor. The findings do not simply explain people‘s_(18)_to befriend those of similar_(19)_backgrounds, say the researchers. Though all the subjects were drawn from a population of European extraction, care was taken to_(20)_that all subjects, friends and strangers, were taken from the same population. 1. [A] when [B] why [C] how [D] what 2. [A] defended [B] concluded [C] withdrawn [D] advised 3. [A] for [B] with [C] on [D] by 4. [A] compared [B] sought [C] separated [D] connected 5. [A] tests [B] s [C]samples [D] examples 6. [A] insignificant [B] unexpected [C]unbelievable [D] incredible 7. [A] visit [B] miss [C] seek [D] know 8. [A] resemble [B] influence [C] favor [D] surpass 9. [A] again [B] also [C] instead [D] thus 10. [A] Meanwhile [B] Furthermore [C] Likewise [D] Perhaps 11. [A] about [B] to [C]from [D]like 12. [A] drive [B] observe [C] confuse [D]limit 13. [A] according to [B] rather than [C] regardless of [D] along with 14. [A] chances [B]responses [C]missions [D]benefits 15. [A] later [B]slower [C] faster [D] earlier
16. [A]forecast [B]remember [C]understand [D]express 17. [A] unpredictable [B]contributory [C] controllable [D] disruptive 18. [A] endeavor [B]decision [C]arrangement [D] tendency 19. [A] political [B] religious [C] ethnic [D] economic 20. [A] see [B] show [C] prove [D] tell Section II Reading Comprehension Part A Directions: Read the following four texts. Answer the questions below each text by choosing A, B, C or D. Mark your answers on ANSWER SHEET. (40 points) Text 1 King Juan Carlos of Spain once insisted ―kings don‘t abdicate, they dare in their sleep.‖But embarrassing scandals and the popularity of the republican left in the recent Euro-elections have forced him to eat his words and stand down. So, does the Spanish crisis suggest that monarchy is seeing its last days? Does that mean the writing is on the wall for all European royals, with their magnificent uniforms and majestic lifestyle? The Spanish case provides arguments both for and against monarchy. When public opinion is particularly polarised, as it was following the end of the Franco regime, monarchs can rise above ―mere‖politics and ―embody‖a spirit of national unity. It is this apparent transcendence of politics that explains monarchs‘continuing popularity polarized. And also, the Middle East excepted, Europe is the most monarch-infested region in the world, with 10 kingdoms (not counting Vatican City and Andorra). But unlike their absolutist counterparts in the
Gulf and Asia, most royal families have survived because they allow voters to avoid the difficult search for a non-controversial but respected public figure. Even so, kings and queens undoubtedly have a downside. Symbolic of national unity as they claim to be, their very history—and sometimes the way they behave today –embodies outdated and indefensible privileges and inequalities. At a time when Thomas Piketty and other economists are warning of rising inequality and the increasing power of inherited wealth, it is bizarre that wealthy aristocratic families should still be the symbolic heart of modern democratic states. The most successful monarchies strive to abandon or hide their old aristocratic ways. Princes and princesses have day-jobs and ride bicycles, not horses (or helicopters). Even so, these are wealthy families who party with the international 1%, and media intrusiveness makes it increasingly difficult to maintain the right image. While Europe‘s monarchies will no doubt be smart enough to survive for some time to come, it is the British royals who have most to fear from the Spanish example. It is only the Queen who has preserved the monarchy‘s reputation with her rather ordinary (if well-heeled) granny style. The danger will come with Charles, who has both an expensive taste of lifestyle and a pretty hierarchical view of the world. He has failed to understand that monarchies have largely survived because they provide a service – as non-controversial and non-political heads of state. Charles ought to know that as English history shows, it is kings, not republicans, who are the monarchy‘s worst enemies. 21. According to the first two Paragraphs, King Juan Carlos of Spain [A] used turn enjoy high public support [B] was unpopular among European royals [C] cased his relationship with his rivals [D]ended his reign in embarrassment
22. Monarchs are kept as heads of state in Europe mostly [A] owing to their undoubted and respectable status [B] to achieve a balance between tradition and reality [C] to give voter more public figures to look up to [D]due to their everlasting political embodiment 23. Which of the following is shown to be odd, according to Paragraph 4? [A] Aristocrats‘excessive reliance on inherited wealth [B] The role of the nobility in modern democracies [C] The simple lifestyle of the aristocratic families [D]The nobility‘s adherence to their privileges 24. The British royals ―have most to fear‖because Charles [A] takes a rough line on political issues [B] fails to change his lifestyle as advised [C] takes republicans as his potential allies [D] fails to adapt himself to his future role 25. Which of the following is the best title of the text? [A] Carlos, Glory and Disgrace Combined [B] Charles, Anxious to Succeed to the Throne [C] Carlos, a Lesson for All European Monarchs [D]Charles, Slow to React to the Coming Threats
TEXT 2 Just how much does the Constitution protect your digital data? The Supreme Cpurt will now consider whether police can search the contents of a mobile phone without a warrant if the phone is on or around a person during an arrest. California has asked the justices to refrain from a sweeping ruling, particularly one that upsets the old assumptions that authorities may search through the possessions of suspects at the time of their arrest. It is hard, the state argues, for judges to assess the implications of new and rapidly changing technologies. The court would be recklessly modest if it followed California‘s advice. Enough of the implications are discernable, even obvious, so that the justice can and should provide updated guidelines to police, lawyers and defendants. They should start by discarding California‘s lame argument that exploring the contents of a smartphone- a vast storehouse of digital information is similar to say, going through a suspect‘s purse .The court has ruled that police don't violate the Fourth Amendment when they go through the wallet or porcketbook, of an arrestee without a warrant. But exploring one‘s smartphone is more like entering his or her home. A smartphone may contain an arrestee‘s reading history ,financial history, medical history and comprehensive records of recent correspondence. The development of ―cloud computing.‖ meanwhile, has made that exploration so much the easier. But the justices should not swallow California‘s argument whole. New, disruptive technology sometimes demands novel applications of the Constitution‘s protections. Orin Kerr, a law professor, compares the explosion and accessibility of digital information in the 21st century with the establishment of automobile use as a digital necessity of life in the 20th: The justices had to specify novel rules for the new personal domain of the passenger car then; they must sort out how the Fourth Amendment applies to digital information now. 26. The Supreme court, will work out whether, during an arrest, it is legitimate to
[A] search for suspects‘mobile phones without a warrant. [B] check suspects‘phone contents without being authorized. [C] prevent suspects from deleting their phone contents. [D] prohibit suspects from using their mobile phones. 27. The author‘s attitude toward California‘s argument is one of [A] tolerance. [B] indifference. [C] disapproval. [D] cautiousness. 28. The author believes that exploring one‘s phone content is comparable to [A] getting into one‘s residence. [B] handing one‘s historical records. [C] scanning one‘s correspondences. [D] going through one‘s wallet. 29. In Paragraph 5 and 6, the author shows his concern that [A] principles are hard to be clearly expressed. [B] the court is giving police less room for action. [C] phones are used to store sensitive information. [D] citizens‘privacy is not effective protected. 30.Orin Kerr‘s comparison is quoted to indicate that
(A)the Constitution should be implemented flexibly. (B)New technology requires reinterpretation of the Constitution. (C)California‘s argument violates principles of the Constitution. (D)Principles of the Constitution should never be altered. Text 3 The journal Science is adding an extra round of statistical checks to its peerreview process, editor-in-chief Marcia McNutt announced today. The policy follows similar efforts from other journals, after widespread concern that basic mistakes in data analysis are contributing to the irreproducibility of many published research findings. ―Readers must have confidence in the conclusions published in our journal,‖writes McNutt in an editorial. Working with the American Statistical Association, the journal has appointed seven experts to a statistics board of reviewing editors (SBoRE). Manu will be flagged up for additional scrutiny by the journal‘s internal editors, or by its existing Board of Reviewing Editors or by outside peer reviewers. The SBoRE panel will then find external statisticians to review these manus. Asked whether any particular papers had impelled the change, McNutt said: ―The creation of the ?statistics board‘was motivated by concerns broadly with the application of statistics and data analysis in scientific research and is part of Science‘s overall drive to increase reproducibility in the research we publish.‖ Giovanni Parmigiani, a biostatistician at the Harvard School of Public Health, a member of the SBoRE group, says he expects the board to ―play primarily an advisory role.‖He agreed to join because he ―found the foresight behind the establishment of the SBoRE to be novel, unique and likely to have a lasting impact. This impact will not only be through the publications in Science itself, but hopefully through a larger group of publishing places that may want to model their approach after Science.‖
31、It can be learned from Paragraph I that [A] Science intends to simplify its peer-review process. [B]journals are strengthening their statistical checks. [C]few journals are blamed for mistakes in data analysis. [D]lack of data analysis is common in research projects. 32、The phrase ―flagged up ‖(Para.2)is the closest in meaning to [A]found. [B]revised. [C]marked [D]stored 33、Giovanni Parmigiani believes that the establishment of the SBoRE may [A]pose a threat to all its peers [B]meet with strong opposition [C]increase Science‘s circulation. [D]set an example for other journals 34、David Vaux holds that what Science is doing now A. adds to researchers‘worklosd. B. diminishes the role of reviewers. C. has room for further improvement. D. is to fail in the foreseeable future.
35. Which of the following is the best title of the text? A. Science Joins Push to Screen Statistics in Papers B. Professional Statisticians Deserve More Respect C. Data Analysis Finds Its Way onto Editors‘Desks D. Statisticians Are Coming Back with Science Text 4 Two years ago, Rupert Murdoch‘s daughter ,Elisabeth ,spoke of the ―unsettling dearth of integrity across so many of our institutions‖Integrity had collapsed, she argued, because of a collective acceptance that the only ―sorting mechanism ‖in society should be profit and the market .But ―it‘s us ,human beings ,we the people who create the society we want ,not profit ‖. Driving her point home, she continued: ―It‘s increasingly apparent that the absence of purpose, of a moral language within government, media or business could become one of the most dangerous foals for capitalism and freedom.‖This same absence of moral purpose was wounding companies such as News International ,shield thought ,making it more likely that it would lose its way as it had with widespread illegal telephone hacking . As the hacking trial concludes –finding guilty ones-editor of the News of the World, Andy Coulson, for conspiring to hack phones ,and finding his predecessor, Rebekah Brooks, innocent of the same charge –the winder issue of dearth of integrity still standstill, Journalists are known to have hacked the phones of up to 5,500 people .This is hacking on an industrial scale ,as was acknowledged by Glenn Mulcaire, the man hired by the News of the World in 2001 to be the point person for phone hacking. Others await trial. This long story still unfolds. In many respects, the dearth of moral purpose frames not only the fact of such widespread phone hacking but the terms on which the trial took place .One of the astonishing revelations was how little Rebekah Brooks knew of what went on in her
newsroom, wow little she thought to ask and the fact that she never inquired wow the stories arrived. The core of her successful defence was that she knew nothing. In today‘s world, title has become normal that well—paid executives should not be accountable for what happens in the organizations that they run perhaps we should not be so surprised. For a generation, the collective doctrine has been that the sorting mechanism of society should be profit. The words that have mattered are efficiency, flexibility, shareholder value, business–friendly, wealth generation, sales, impact and, in newspapers, circulation. Words degraded to the margin have been justice fairness, tolerance, proportionality and accountability. The purpose of editing the News of the World was not to promote reader understanding to be fair in what was written or to betray any common humanity. It was to ruin lives in the quest for circulation and impact. Ms Brooks may or may not have had suspicions about how her journalists got their stories, but she asked no questions, gave no instructions—nor received traceable, recorded answers. 36. According to the first two paragraphs, Elisabeth was upset by [A] the consequences of the current sorting mechanism [B] companies‘financial loss due to immoral practices. [C] governmental ineffectiveness on moral issues. [D]the wide misuse of integrity among institutions. 37. It can be inferred from Paragraph 3 that [A] Glem Mulcaire may deny phone hacking as a crime [B] more journalists may be found guilty of phone hacking. [C] Andy Coulson should be held innocent of the charge. [D] phone hacking will be accepted on certain occasions. 38. The author believes the Rebekah Books‘s deference
[A] revealed a cunning personality [B] centered on trivial issues [C] was hardly convincing [D] was part of a conspiracy 39. The author holds that the current collective doctrine shows [A] generally distorted values [B] unfair wealth distribution [C] a marginalized lifestyle [D] a rigid moral cote 40. Which of the following is suggested in the last paragraph? [A] The quality of writing is of primary importance. [B] Common humanity is central news reporting. [C] Moral awareness matters in exciting a newspaper. [D] Journalists need stricter industrial regulations. Part B Directions In the following text, some sentences have been removed. For Questions 41-45, choose the most suitable one from the list A-G to fit into each of numbered blanks. There are two extra choices, which do not fit in any of the blanks .Mark your answers on ANSWER SHEET. (10 points) How does your reading proceed? Clearly you try to comprehend, in the sense of identifying meanings for individual words and working out relationships
between them drawing on your implicit knowledge of English grammar.(41)________You begin to infer a context for the text, for instance, by making decisions about what kind of speech event is involved. Who is making the utterance, to whom, when and where. The ways of reading indicated here are without doubt kinds of comprehension. But they show comprehension to consist not just of passive assimilation but of active engagement in inference and problem-solving. You infer information you feel the writer has invited you to grasp by presenting you with specific evidence and clues.(42)_________ Conceived in this way, comprehension will not follow exactly the same track for each reader. What is in question is not the retrieval of an absolute, fixed or "true" meaning that can be read off and checked for accuracy, or some timeless relation of text to the world.(43)_________ Such background material inevitably reflects who we are.(44)_______ This doesn`t, however, make interpretation merely relative or even pointless. Precisely because readers from different historical periods, places and social experiences produce different but overlapping readings of the same words on the page--including for texts that engage with fundamental human concerns--debates about texts can play an important role in social discussion of beliefs and values. How we read a given text also depends to some extent on our particular interest in reading it,(45)________Such dimensions of reading suggest-as others introduced later in the book will also do-that we bring an implicit(often unacknowledged)agenda to any act of reading. It doesn`t then necessarily follow that one kind of reading is fuller, more advanced or more worthwhile than another. Ideally, different minds of reading inform each other, and act as useful reference points for and counterbalances to one another. Together, they make up the reading component of your overall literacy, or relationship to your surrounding textual environment. [A] Are we studying that text and trying to respond in a way that fulfills the requirement of a given course? Reading it simply for pleasure? Skimming it for
information? Ways of reading on a train or in bed are likely to differ considerably from reading in a seminar room. [B] Factors such as the place and period in which we are reading ,our gender, ethnicity, age and social class will encourage us towards certain interpretations but at the same time obscure or even close off others. [C] If you unfamiliar with words or idioms, you guess at their meaning, using clues presented in the context. On the assumption that they will become relevant later, you make a mental note of discourse entities as well as possible links between them. [D] In effect, you try to reconstruct the likely meanings or effects that any given sentence, image or reference might have had: These might be the ones the author intended. [E] You make further inferences that form the basis of a personal response for which the author will inevitably be far less responsible. Section III Translation Directions: Read the following text carefully and then translate the underlined segments into Chinese. Your translation should be written clearly on ANSWER SHEET. (10 points) Within the span of a hundred years, in the seventeenth and early eighteenth centuries, a tide of emigration—one of the great folk wanderings of history—swept from Europe to America. 46) This movement, driven by powerful and diverse motivations, built a nation out of a wilderness and, by its nature, shaped the character and destiny of an uncharted continent. 47) The United States is the product of two principal forces-the immigration of European peoples with their varied ideas, customs, and national characteristics and the impact of a new country which modified these traits. Of necessity, colonial America was a projection of Europe. Across the Atlantic came successive groups of
Englishmen, Frenchmen, Germans, Scots, Irishmen, Dutchmen, Swedes, and many others who attempted to transplant their habits and traditions to the new world. 48) But, the force of geographic conditions peculiar to America, the interplay of the varied national groups upon one another, and the sheer difficulty of maintaining old-world ways in a raw, new continent caused significant changes. These changes were gradual and at first scarcely visible. But the result was a new social pattern which, although it resembled European society in many ways, had a character that was distinctly American. 49) The first shiploads of immigrants bound for the territory which is now the United States crossed the Atlantic more than a hundred years after the 15th- and 16th-century explorations of North America. In the meantime, thriving Spanish colonies had been established in Mexico, the West Indies, and South America. These travelers to North America came in small, unmercifully overcrowded craft. During their six- to twelve-week voyage, they subsisted on barely enough food allotted to them. Many of the ship were lost in storms, many passengers died of disease, and infants rarely survived the journey. Sometimes storms blew the vessels far off their course, and often calm brought unbearably long delay. ―To the anxious travelers the sight of the American shore brought almost inexpressible relief.‖said one recorder of events, ―The air at twelve leagues‘distance smelt as sweet as a new-blown garden.‖The colonists‘first glimpse of the new land was a sight of dense woods. 50) The virgin forest with its richness and variety of trees was a veritable real treasure-house which extended from Maine all the way down to Georgia. Here was abundant fuel and lumber. Here was the raw material of houses and furniture, ships and potash, dyes and naval stores.
Section IV Writing Part A 51. Directions: You are going to host a club reading session. Write an email of about 100 words recommending a book to the club members. You should state reasons for your recommendation. You should write neatly on the ANSWER SHEET. Do not sign your own name at the end of the letter. Use Li Ming instead. Do not write the address. (10 points) Part B 52. Directions: Write an essay of 160-200 words based on the following drawing. In your essay you should
1) describe the drawing briefly 2) explain its intended meaning, and 3) give your comments You should write neatly on ANSWER SHEET. (20 points)
2014 年全国硕士研究生入学考试英语一真题及答案 Directions:
Section I Use of English
Read the following text. Choose the best word(s) for each numbered blank and mark A,B,C or D on the ANSWER SHEET.(10 points) As many people hit middle age, they often start to notice that their memory and mental clarity are not what they used to be. We suddenly can‘t remember ___1___ we put the keys just a moment ago, or an old acquaintance‘s name, or the name of an old band we used to love. As the brain ___2___, we refer to these occurrences as ―senior moments.‖ ___3___ seemingly innocent, this loss of mental focus can potentially have a (n) ___4___ impact on our professional, social, and personal ___5___. Neuroscientists, experts who study the nervous system, are increasingly showing that there‘s actually a lot that can be done. It ___6___ out that the brain needs exercise in much the same way our muscles do, and the right mental ___7___ can significantly improve our basic cognitive ___8___. Thinking is essentially a ___9___ of making connections in the brain. To a certain extent, our ability to ___10___ in making the connections that drive intelligence is inherited. ___11___, because these connections are made through effort and practice, scientists believe that intelligence can expand and fluctuate ___12___ mental effort. Now, a new Web-based company has taken it a step ___13___ and developed the first ―brain training program‖ designed to actually help people improve and regain their mental ___14___. The Web-based program ___15___ you to systematically improve your memory and attention skills. The program keeps ___16___ of your progress and provides detailed feedback ___17___ your performance and improvement. Most importantly, it ___18___modifies and enhances the games you play to ___19___ on the strengths you are developing—much like a(n) ___20___exercise routine requires you to increase resistance and vary your muscle use. 1. [A]where [B]when [C]that [D]why 2. [A]improves [B]fades [C]recovers [D]collapses 3. [A]If [B]Unless [C]Once [D]While 4. [A]uneven [B]limited [C]damaging [D]obscure 5. [A]wellbeing [B]environment [C]relationship [D]outlook
6. [A]turns [B]finds [C]points [D]figures 7. [A]roundabouts [B]responses [C]workouts [D]associations 8. [A]genre [B]functions [C]circumstances [D]criterion 9. [A]channel [B]condition [C]sequence [D]process 10. [A]persist [B]believe [C]excel [D]feature 11. [A] Therefore [B] Moreover [C] Otherwise [D] However 12. [A]according to [B]regardless of [C]apart from [D]instead of 13. [A]back [B]further [C]aside [D]around 14. [A]sharpness [B]stability [C]framework [D]flexibility 15. [A]forces [B]reminds [C]hurries [D]allows 16. [A]hold [B]track [C]order [D]pace 17. [A]to [B]with [C]for [D]on 18. [A]irregularly [B]habitually [C]constantly [D]unusually 19. [A]carry [B]put [C]build [D]take 20. [A]risky [B]effective [C]idle [D]familiar Section Ⅱ Reading Comprehension
Read the following four texts. Answer the questions below each text by choosing A, B, C or D. Mark your answers on the ANSWER SHEET. (40 points)
In order to ―change lives for the better‖ and reduce ―dependency‖ George Osborne, Chancellor of the Exchequer, introduced the ―upfront work search‖
scheme. Only if the jobless arrive at the jobcentre with a CV, register for online job search, and start looking for work will they be eligible for benefit and then they should report weekly rather than fortnightly. What could be more reasonable?
More apparent reasonableness followed. There will now be a seven-day wait for the jobseeker‘s allowance. ―Those first few days should be spent looking for work, not looking to sign on.‖ he claimed. ―We‘re doing these things because we know they help people stay off benefits and help those on benefits get into work faster.‖ Help? Really? On first hearing, this was the socially concerned chancellor, trying to change lives for the better, complete with ―reforms‖ to an obviously indulgent system that demands too little effort from the newly unemployed to find work, and subsidises laziness. What motivated him, we were to understand, was his zeal for ―fundamental fairness‖— protecting the taxpayer, controlling spending and ensuring that only the most deserving claimants received their benefits.
Losing a job is hurting: you don‘t skip down to the jobcentre with a song in your heart, delighted at the prospect of doubling your income from the generous state. It is financially terrifying, psychologically embarrassing and you know that support is minimal and extraordinarily hard to get. You are now not wanted; you
support is minimal and extraordinarily hard to get. You are now not wanted; you are now excluded from the work environment that offers purpose and structure in your life. Worse, the crucial income to feed yourself and your family and pay the bills has disappeared. Ask anyone newly unemployed what they want and the answer is always: a job.
But in Osborneland, your first instinct is to fall into dependency — permanent dependency if you can get it — supported by a state only too ready to indulge your falsehood. It is as though 20 years of ever-tougher reforms of the job search and benefit administration system never happened. The principle of British welfare is no longer that you can insure yourself against the risk of unemployment and receive unconditional payments if the disaster happens. Even the very phrase ―jobseeker‘s allowance‖ — invented in 1996 — is about redefining the unemployed as a ―jobseeker‖ who had no mandatory right to a benefit he or she has earned through making national insurance contributions. Instead, the claimant receives a time-limited ―allowance,‖ conditional on actively seeking a job; no entitlement and no insurance, at ?71.70 a week, one of the least generous in the EU.
21. George Osborne‘s scheme was intended to
[A]provide the unemployed with easier access to benefits.
[B]encourage jobseekers‘ active engagement in job seeking.
[C]motivate the unemployed to report voluntarily.
[D]guarantee jobseekers‘ legitimate right to benefits.
22. The phrase, ―to sign on‖ (Line 3, Para. 2) most probably means
[A]to check on the availability of jobs at the jobcentre.
[B]to accept the government‘s restrictions on the allowance.
[C]to register for an allowance from the government.
[D]to attend a governmental job-training program.
23. What prompted the chancellor to develop his scheme?
[A]A desire to secure a better life for all.
[B]An eagerness to protect the unemployed.
[C]An urge to be generous to the claimants.
[D]A passion to ensure fairness for taxpayers.
24. According to Paragraph 3, being unemployed makes one feel
25. To which of the following would the author most probably agree?
[A]The British welfare system indulges jobseekers‘ laziness.
[B]Obosrne‘s reforms will reduce the risk of unemployment.
[C]The jobseekers‘ allowance has met their actual needs.
[D]Unemployment benefits should not be made conditional.
All around the world, lawyers generate more hostility than the members of any other profession—with the possible exception of journalism. But there are few places where clients have more grounds for complaint than America.
During the decade before the economic crisis, spending on legal services in America grew twice as fast as inflation. The best lawyers made skyscrapers-full of
money, tempting ever more students to pile into law schools. But most law graduates never get a big-firm job. Many of them instead become the kind of nuisance-lawsuit filer that makes the tort system a costly nightmare.
There are many reasons for this. One is the excessive costs of a legal education. There is just one path for a lawyer in most American states: a four-year undergraduate degree in some unrelated subject, then a three-year law degree at one of 200 law schools authorized by the American Bar Association and an expensive preparation for the bar exam. This leaves today‘s average law-school graduate with $100,000 of debt on top of undergraduate debts. Law-school debt means that many cannot afford to go into government or non-profit work, and that they have to work fearsomely hard.
Reforming the system would help both lawyers and their customers. Sensible ideas have been around for a long time, but the state-level bodies that govern the profession have been too conservative to implement them. One idea is to allow people to study law as an undergraduate degree. Another is to let students sit for the bar after only two years of law school. If the bar exam is truly a stern enough test for a would-be lawyer, those who can sit it earlier should be allowed to
do so. Students who do not need the extra training could cut their debt mountain by a third.
The other reason why costs are so high is the restrictive guild-like ownership structure of the business. Except in the District of Columbia, non-lawyers may not own any share of a law firm. This keeps fees high and innovation slow. There is pressure for change from within the profession, but opponents of change among the regulators insist that keeping outsiders out of a law firm isolates lawyers from the pressure to make money rather than serve clients ethically.
In fact, allowing non-lawyers to own shares in law firms would reduce costs and improve services to customers, by encouraging law firms to use technology and to employ professional managers to focus on improving firms‘ efficiency. After all, other countries, such as Australia and Britain, have started liberalizing their legal professions. America should follow.
26.a lot of students take up law as their profession due to
[A]the growing demand from clients.
[B]the increasing pressure of inflation.
[C]the prospect of working in big firms.
[D]the attraction of financial rewards.
27.Which of the following adds to the costs of legal education in most American states?
[A]Higher tuition fees for undergraduate studies.
[B]Admissions approval from the bar association.
[C]Pursuing a bachelor‘s degree in another major.
[D]Receiving training by professional associations.
28.Hindrance to the reform of the legal system originates from
[A]lawyers‘ and clients‘ strong resistance.
[B]the rigid bodies governing the profession.
[C]the stem exam for would-be lawyers.
[D]non-professionals‘ sharp criticism.
29.The guild-like ownership structure is considered ―restrictive‖partly because it
[A]bans outsiders‘ involvement in the profession.
[B]keeps lawyers from holding law-firm shares.
[C]aggravates the ethical situation in the trade.
[D]prevents lawyers from gaining due profits.
30.In this text, the author mainly discusses
[A]flawed ownership of America‘s law firms and its causes.
[B]the factors that help make a successful lawyer in America.
[C]a problem in America‘s legal profession and solutions to it.
[D]the role of undergraduate studies in America‘s legal education.
Text 3 The US$3-million Fundamental physics prize is indeed an interesting experiment, as Alexander Polyakov said when he accepted this year‘s award in March. And it is far from the only one of its type. As a News Feature article in Nature discusses, a string of lucrative awards for researchers have joined the Nobel Prizes in recent years. Many, like the Fundamental Physics Prize, are funded from the telephone-number-sized bank accounts of Internet entrepreneurs. These benefactors have succeeded in their chosen fields, they say, and they want to use their wealth to draw attention to those who have succeeded in science. What‘s not to like? Quite a lot, according to a handful of scientist s quoted
in the News Feature. You cannot buy class, as the old saying goes, and these upstart entrepreneurs cannot buy their prizes the prestige of the Nobels, The new awards are an exercise in self-promotion for those behind them, say scientists. They could distort the achievement-based system of peer-review-led research. They could cement the status quo of peer-reviewed research. They do not fund peerreviewed research. They perpetuate the myth of the lone genius. The goals of the prize-givers seem as scattered as the criticism. Some want to shock, others to draw people into science, or to better reward those who have made their careers in research. As Nature has pointed out before, there are some legitimate concerns about how science prizes—both new and old—are distributed. The Breakthrough Prize in Life Sciences, launched this year, takes an unrepresentative view of what the life sciences include. But the Nobel Foundation‘s limit of three recipients per prize, each of whom must still be living, has long been outgrown by the collaborative nature of modern research—as will be demonstrated by the inevitable row over who is ignored when it comes to acknowledging the discovery of the Higgs boson. The Nobels were, of course, themselves set up by a very rich individual who had decided what he wanted to do with his own money. Time, rather than intention, has given them legitimacy. As much as some scientists may complain about the new awards, two things seem clear. First, most researchers would accept such a prize if they were offered one. Second, it is surely a good thing that the money and attention come to science rather than go elsewhere, It is fair to criticize and question the mechanism—that is the culture of research, after all—but it is the prize-givers‘ money to do with as they please. It is wise to take such gifts with gratitude and grace. 31. The Fundamental Physics Prize is seen as [A]a symbol of the entrepreneurs‘ wealth.
[B]a possible replacement of the Nobel Prizes. [C]an example of bankers‘ investments. [D]a handsome reward for researchers. 32. The critics think that the new awards will most benefit [A]the profit-oriented scientists. [B]the founders of the new awards. [C]the achievement-based system. [D]peer-review-led research. 33. The discovery of the Higgs boson is a typical case which involves [A]controversies over the recipients‘ status. [B]the joint effort of modern researchers. [C]legitimate concerns over the new prizes. [D]the demonstration of research findings. 34. According to Paragraph 4,which of the following is true of the Nobels? [A]Their endurance has done justice to them. [B]Their legitimacy has long been in dispute. [C]They are the most representative honor.
[D]History has never cast doubt on them. 35.The author believes that the now awards are [A]acceptable despite the criticism. [B]harmful to the culture of research. [C]subject to undesirable changes. [D]unworthy of public attention. Text 4 ―The Heart of the Matter,‖ the just-released report by the American Academy of Arts and Sciences (AAAS), deserves praise for affirming the importance of the humanities and social sciences to the prosperity and security of liberal democracy in America. Regrettably, however, the report‘s failure to address the true nature of the crisis facing liberal education may cause more harm than good. In 2010, leading congressional Democrats and Republicans sent letters to the AAAS asking that it identify actions that could be taken by ―federal, state and local governments, universities, foundations, educators, individual benefactors and others‖ to ―maintain national excellence in humanities and social scientific scholarship and education.‖ In response, the American Academy formed the Commission on the Humanities and Social Sciences. Among the commission‘s 51 members are top-tier-university presidents, scholars, lawyers, judges, and business executives, as well as prominent figures from diplomacy, filmmaking, music and journalism. The goals identified in the report are generally admirable. Because representative government presupposes an informed citizenry, the report supports full literacy; stresses the study of history and government, particularly American history and American government; and encourages the use of new digital
technologies. To encourage innovation and competition, the report calls for increased investment in research, the crafting of coherent curricula that improve students‘ ability to solve problems and communicate effectively in the 21st century, increased funding for teachers and the encouragement of scholars to bring their learning to bear on the great challenges of the day. The report also advocates greater study of foreign languages, international affairs and the expansion of study abroad programs. Unfortunately, despite 2? years in the making, "The Heart of the Matter" never gets to the heart of the matter: the illiberal nature of liberal education at our leading colleges and universities. The commission ignores that for several decades America's colleges and universities have produced graduates who don‘t know the content and character of liberal education and are thus deprived of its benefits. Sadly, the spirit of inquiry once at home on campus has been replaced by the use of the humanities and social sciences as vehicles for publicizing ―progressive,‖ or left-liberal propaganda. Today, professors routinely treat the progressive interpretation of history and progressive public policy as the proper subject of study while portraying conservative or classical liberal ideas—such as free markets and self-reliance—as falling outside the boundaries of routine, and sometimes legitimate, intellectual investigation. The AAAS displays great enthusiasm for liberal education. Yet its report may well set back reform by obscuring the depth and breadth of the challenge that Congress asked it to illuminate. 36. According to Paragraph 1, what is the author‘s attitude toward the AAAS‘s report? [A] Critical [B] Appreciative
[C] Contemptuous [D] Tolerant 37. Influential figures in the Congress required that the AAAS report on how to [A] retain people‘s interest in liberal education [B] define the government‘s role in education [C] keep a leading position in liberal education [D] safeguard individuals‘ rights to education 38. According to Paragraph 3, the report suggests [A] an exclusive study of American history [B] a greater emphasis on theoretical subjects [C] the application of emerging technologies [D] funding for the study of foreign languages 39. The author implies in Paragraph 5 that professors are [A] supportive of free markets [B] cautious about intellectual investigation [C] conservative about public policy [D] biased against classical liberal ideas
40. Which of the following would be the best title for the text? [A] Ways to Grasp ―The Heart of the Matter‖ [B] Illiberal Education and ―The Heart of the Matter‖ [C] The AAAS‘s Contribution to Liberal Education [D] Progressive Policy vs. Liberal Education Part B
The following paragraphs are given in a wrong order. For Questions 41-45, you are required to reorganize these paragraphs into a coherent text by choosing from the list A-G and filling them into the numbered boxes. Paragraphs A and E have been correctly placed Mark your answers on the ANSWER SHEET (10 points)
[A] Some archaeological sites have always been easily observable—for example, the Parthenon in Athens, Greece, the pyramids of Giza in Egypt; and the megaliths of Stonehenge in southern England. But these sites are exceptions to the norm. Most archaeological sites have been located by means of careful searching, while many others have been discovered by accident. Olduvai Gorge, an early hominid site in Tanzania, was found by a butterfly hunter who literally fell into its
deep valley in 1911. Thousands of Aztec artifacts came to light during the digging of the Mexico City subway in the 1970s.
[B]In another case, American archaeologists Rene Million and George Cowgill spent years systematically mapping the entire city of Teotihuacan in the Valley of Mexico near what is now Mexico City. At its peak around AD 600, this city was one of the largest human settlements in the world. The researchers mapped not only the city‘s vast and ornate ceremonial areas, but also hundreds of simpler apartment complexes where common people lived.
[C] How do archaeologists know where to find what they are looking for when there is nothing visible on the surface of the ground? Typically, they survey and sample (make test excavations on) large areas of terrain to determine where excavation will yield useful information. Surveys and test samples have also become important for understanding the larger landscapes that contain archaeological sites.
[D] Surveys can cover a single large settlement or entire landscapes. In one case, many researchers working around the ancient Maya city of Copan, Honduras, have located hundreds of small rural villages and individual dwellings by using aerial photographs and by making surveys on foot. The resulting settlement maps
show how the distribution and density of the rural population around the city changed dramatically between AD 500 and 850, when Copan collapsed.
[E] To find their sites, archaeologists today rely heavily on systematic survey methods and a variety of high-technology tools and techniques. Airborne technologies, such as different types of radar and photographic equipment carried by airplanes or spacecraft, allow archaeologists to learn about what lies beneath the ground without digging. Aerial surveys locate general areas of interest or larger buried features, such as ancient buildings or fields.
[F] Most archaeological sites, however, are discovered by archaeologists who have set out to look for them. Such searches can take years. British archaeologist Howard Carter knew that the tomb of the Egyptian pharaoh Tutankhamun existed from information found in other sites. Carter sifted through rubble in the Valley of the Kings for seven years before he located the tomb in 1922. In the late 1800s British archaeologist Sir Arthur Evan combed antique dealers‘ stores in Athens, Greece. He was searching for tiny engraved seals attributed to the ancient Mycenaean culture that dominated Greece from the 1400s to 1200s BC. Evans‘s interpretations of these engravings eventually led him to find the Minoan palace at Knossos (Knossós) on the island of Crete, in 1900.
[G] Ground surveys allow archaeologists to pinpoint the places where digs will be successful. Most ground surveys involve a lot of walking, looking for surface clues such as small fragments of pottery. They often include a certain amount of digging to test for buried materials at selected points across a landscape. Archaeologists also may locate buried remains by using such technologies as ground radar, magnetic-field recording, and metal detectors. Archaeologists commonly use computers to map sites and the landscapes around sites. Two and three-dimensional maps are helpful tools in planning excavations, illustrating how sites look, and presenting the results of archaeological research.
Read the following text carefully and then translate the underlined segments into Chinese. Your translation should be written neatly on the ANSWER SHEET. (10 points)
Music means different things to different people and sometimes even different things to the same person at different moments of his life. It might be poetic, philosophical, sensual, or mathematical, but in any case it must, in my view, have
something to do with the soul of the human being. Hence it is metaphysical; but the means of expression is purely and exclusively physical: sound. I believe it is precisely this permanent coexistence of metaphysical message through physical means that is the strength of music. (46)It is also the reason why when we try to describe music with words, all we can do is articulate our reactions to it, and not grasp music itself.
Beethoven‘s importance in music has been principally defined by the revolutionary nature of his compositions. He freed music from hitherto prevailing conventions of harmony and structure. Sometimes I feel in his late works a will to break all signs of continuity. The music is abrupt and seemingly disconnected, as in the last piano sonata. In musical expression, he did not feel restrained by the weight of convention. (47)By all accounts he was a freethinking person, and a courageous one, and I find courage an essential quality for the understanding, let alone the performance, of his works.
This courageous attitude in fact becomes a requirement for the performers of Beethoven‘s music. His compositions demand the performer to show courage, for example in the use of dynamics. (48)Beethoven‘s habit of increasing the volume
with an intense crescendo and then abruptly following it with a sudden soft passage was only rarely used by composers before him.
Beethoven was a deeply political man in the broadest sense of the word. He was not interested in daily politics, but concerned with questions of moral behavior and the larger questions of right and wrong affecting the entire society. (49)Especially significant was his view of freedom, which, for him, was associated with the rights and responsibilities of the individual: he advocated freedom of thought and of personal expression.
Beethoven‘s music tends to move from chaos to order as if order were an imperative of human existence. For him, order does not result from forgetting or ignoring the disorders that plague our existence; order is a necessary development, an improvement that may lead to the Greek ideal of spiritual elevation. It is not by chance that the Funeral March is not the last movement of the Eroica Symphony, but the second, so that suffering does not have the last word. (50)One could interpret much of the work of Beethoven by saying that suffering is inevitable, but the courage to fight it renders life worth living.
Section Ⅲ Writing Part A 51. Directions: Write a letter of about 100 words to the president of your university, suggesting how to improve students‘ physical condition. You should include the details you think necessary. You should write neatly on the ANSWER SHEET. Do not sign your own name at the end of the letter. Use ―Li Ming‖ instead. Do not write the address. (10 points) Part B 52. Directions: Write an essay of 160-200 words based on the following drawing. In your
essay, you should 1) describe the drawing briefly, 2) interpret its intended meaning, and 3) give your comments. You should write neatly on the ANSWER SHEET(20 points)
Section I Use of English
Directions: Read the following text. Choose the best word(s) for each numbered blank and mark A, B, C or D on ANSWER SHEET 1. (10 points) People are, on the whole, poor at considering background information when making individual decisions. At first glance this might seem like a strength that 1 the ability to make judgments which are unbiased by 2 factors. But Dr. Uri Simonsohn speculated that an inability to consider the big 3 was leading decisionmakers to be biased by the daily samples of information they were working with. 4 , he theorised that a judge 5 of appearing too soft 6 crime might be more likely to send someone to prison 7 he had already sentenced five or six other defendants only to forced community service on that day. To 8 this idea, he turned to the university-admissions process. In theory, the 9 of an applicant should not depend on the few others 10 randomly for interview during the same day, but Dr. Simonsohn suspected the truth was 11 . He studied the results of 9,323 MBA interviews 12 by 31 admissions officers. The interviewers had 13 applicants on a scale of one to five. This scale 14 numerous factors into consideration. The scores were 15 used in conjunction with an applicant‘s score on the Graduate Management Admission Test, or GMAT, a standardized exam which is 16 out of 800 points, to make a decision on whether to accept him or her. Dr. Simonsohn found if the score of the previous candidate in a daily series of interviewees was 0.75 points or more higher than that of the one 17 that, then the score for the next applicant would 18 by an average of 0.075 points. This might sound small, but to 19 the effects of such a decrease a candidate could need 30 more GMAT points than would otherwise have been 20 . 1. [A]grants [B]submits [C]transmits [D]delivers 2. [A]minor [B]objective [C]crucial [D] external 3. [A]issue [B]vision [C]picture [D]external 4. [A] For example [B] On average [C]In principle [D]Above all 5. [A]fond [B]fearful [C]capable [D] thoughtless 6. [A] in [B] on [C]to [D] for 7. [A] if [B] until [C] though [D] unless
8. [A] promote [B] emphasize [C]share [D]test 9. [A] decision [B] quality [C] status [D] success 10. [A] chosen [B] studied [C] found [D] identified 11. [A] exceptional [B] defensible [C] replaceable [D] otherwise 12. [A] inspired [B] expressed [C] conducted [D] secured 13. [A] assigned [B] rated [C] matched [D] arranged 14. [A] put [B] got [C] gave [D] took 15. [A] instead [B] then [C] ever [D] rather 16. [A] selected [B] passed [C] marked [D] introduced 17. [A] before [B] after [C] above [D] below 18. [A] jump [B] float [C] drop [D] fluctuate 19. [A] achieve [B] undo [C] maintain [D] disregard 20. [A] promising [B] possible [C] necessary [D] helpful Section II Reading Comprehension Part A Directions: Read the following four texts. Answer the questions below each text by choosing A, B, C or D. Mark your answers on ANSWER SHEET 1. (40 points) Text 1 In the 2006 film version of The Devil Wears Prada, Miranda Priestly, played by Meryl Streep, scolds her unattractive assistant for imagining that high fashion doesn‘t affect her, Priestly explains how the deep blue color of the assistant‘s sweater descended over the years from fashion shows to departments stores and to the bargain bin in which the poor girl doubtless found her garment. This top-down conception of the fashion business couldn‘t be more out of date or at odds with the feverish would be described in Overdressed, Elizabeth Cline‘s three-year indictment of ―fast fashion‖. In the last decade or so, advances in technology have allowed mass-market labels such as Zara, H&M, and Uniqlo to react to trends more quickly and anticipate demand more precisely. Quicker turnarounds mean less wasted inventory, more frequent release, and more profit. These labels encourage style-conscious consumers to see clothes as disposablemeant to last only a wash or two, although they don‘t advertise that –and to
renew their wardrobe every few weeks. By offering on-trend items at dirt-cheap prices, Cline argues, these brands have hijacked fashion cycles, shaking an industry long accustomed to a seasonal pace. The victims of this revolution, of course, are not limited to designers. For H&M to offer a $5.95 knit miniskirt in all its 2,300-pius stores around the world, it must rely on low-wage overseas labor, order in volumes that strain natural resources, and use massive amounts of harmful chemicals. Overdressed is the fashion world‘s answer to consumer-activist bestsellers like Michael Pollan‘s The Omnivore‘s Dilemma. ―Mass-produced clothing, like fast food, fills a hunger and need, yet is non-durable and wasteful,‖ Cline argues. Americans, she finds, buy roughly 20 billion garments a year – about 64 items per person – and no matter how much they give away, this excess leads to waste. Towards the end of Overdressed, Cline introduced her ideal, a Brooklyn woman named Sarah Kate Beaumont, who since 2008 has made all of her own clothes – and beautifully. But as Cline is the first to note, it took Beaumont decades to perfect her craft; her example can‘t be knocked off. Though several fast-fashion companies have made efforts to curb their impact on labor and the environment – including H&M, with its green Conscious Collection line –Cline believes lasting change can only be effected by the customer. She exhibits the idealism common to many advocates of sustainability, be it in food or in energy. Vanity is a constant; people will only start shopping more sustainably when they can‘t afford not to. 21. Priestly criticizes her assistant for her [A] poor bargaining skill. [B] insensitivity to fashion. [C] obsession with high fashion. [D] lack of imagination. 22. According to Cline, mass-market labels urge consumers to [A] combat unnecessary waste. [B] shut out the feverish fashion world.
[C] resist the influence of advertisements. [D] shop for their garments more frequently. 23. The word ―indictment‖ (Line 3, Para.2) is closest in meaning to [A] accusation. [B] enthusiasm. [C] indifference. [D] tolerance. 24. Which of the following can be inferred from the last paragraph? [A] Vanity has more often been found in idealists. [B] The fast-fashion industry ignores sustainability. [C] People are more interested in unaffordable garments. [D] Pricing is vital to environment-friendly purchasing. 25. What is the subject of the text? [A] Satire on an extravagant lifestyle. [B] Challenge to a high-fashion myth. [C] Criticism of the fast-fashion industry. [D] Exposure of a mass-market secret. Text 2 An old saying has it that half of all advertising budgets are wasted-the trouble is, no one knows which half. In the internet age, at least in theory, this fraction can be much reduced. By watching what people search for, click on and say online, companies can aim ―behavioural‖ ads at those most likely to buy. In the past couple of weeks a quarrel has illustrated the value to advertisers of such fine-grained information: Should advertisers assume that people are happy to be tracked and sent behavioural ads? Or should they have explicit permission? In December 2010 America's Federal Trade Commission (FTC) proposed adding a "do not track "(DNT) option to internet browsers ,so that users could tell advertisers that they did not want to be followed .Microsoft's Internet Explorer and Apple's Safari both offer DNT ;Google's Chrome is due to do so this year. In February the FTC and Digital Advertising Alliance (DAA) agreed that the industry would get
cracking on responding to DNT requests. On May 31st Microsoft Set off the row: It said that Internet Explorer 10, the version due to appear windows 8, would have DNT as a default. It is not yet clear how advertisers will respond. Getting a DNT signal does not oblige anyone to stop tracking, although some companies have promised to do so. Unable to tell whether someone really objects to behavioural ads or whether they are sticking with Microsoft‘s default, some may ignore a DNT signal and press on anyway. Also unclear is why Microsoft has gone it alone. After all, it has an ad business too, which it says will comply with DNT requests, though it is still working out how. If it is trying to upset Google, which relies almost wholly on default will become the norm. DNT does not seem an obviously huge selling point for windows 8-though the firm has compared some of its other products favourably with Google's on that count before. Brendon Lynch, Microsoft's chief privacy officer, blogged: "we believe consumers should have more control." Could it really be that simple? 26. It is suggested in paragraph 1 that ―behavioural‖ ads help advertisers to: [A] ease competition among themselves [B] lower their operational costs [C] avoid complaints from consumers [D] provide better online services 27. ―The industry‖ (Line 6,Para.3) refers to: [A] online advertisers [B] e-commerce conductors [C] digital information analysis [D] internet browser developers 28. Bob Liodice holds that setting DNT as a default [A] many cut the number of junk ads [B] fails to affect the ad industry [C] will not benefit consumers [D] goes against human nature
29. Which of the following is true according to Paragraph.6? [A] DNT may not serve its intended purpose [B] Advertisers are willing to implement DNT [C] DNT is losing its popularity among consumers [D] Advertisers are obliged to offer behavioural ads 30. The author's attitude towards what Brendon Lynch said in his blog is one of: [A] indulgence [B] understanding [C] appreciation [D] skepticism Text 3 Up until a few decades ago, our visions of the future were largely - though by no means uniformly - glowingly positive. Science and technology would cure all the ills of humanity, leading to lives of fulfillment and opportunity for all. Now utopia has grown unfashionable, as we have gained a deeper appreciation of the range of threats facing us, from asteroid strike to epidemic flu and to climate change. You might even be tempted to assume that humanity has little future to look forward to. But such gloominess is misplaced. The fossil record shows that many species have endured for millions of years - so why shouldn't we? Take a broader look at our species' place in the universe, and it becomes clear that we have an excellent chance of surviving for tens, if not hundreds, of thousands of years. Look up Homo sapiens in the "Red List" of threatened species of the International Union for the Conversation of Nature (IUCN) ,and you will read: "Listed as Least Concern as the species is very widely distributed, adaptable, currently increasing, and there are no major threats resulting in an overall population decline." So what does our deep future hold? A growing number of researchers and organizations are now thinking seriously about that question. For example, the Long Now Foundation has its flagship project a medical clock that is designed to still be marking time thousands of years hence.
Perhaps willfully, it may be easier to think about such lengthy timescales than about the more immediate future. The potential evolution of today's technology, and its social consequences, is dazzlingly complicated, and it's perhaps best left to science fiction writers and futurologists to explore the many possibilities we can envisage. That's one reason why we have launched Arc, a new publication dedicated to the near future. But take a longer view and there is a surprising amount that we can say with considerable assurance. As so often, the past holds the key to the future: we have now identified enough of the long-term patterns shaping the history of the planet, and our species, to make evidence-based forecasts about the situations in which our descendants will find themselves. This long perspective makes the pessimistic view of our prospects seem more likely to be a passing fad. To be sure, the future is not all rosy. But we are now knowledgeable enough to reduce many of the risks that threatened the existence of earlier humans, and to improve the lot of those to come. 31. Our vision of the future used to be inspired by [A] our desire for lives of fulfillment [B] our faith in science and technology [C] our awareness of potential risks [D] our belief in equal opportunity 32. The IUCN‘s ―Red List‖ suggest that human being are [A] a sustained species [B] a threaten to the environment [C] the world‘s dominant power [D] a misplaced race 33. Which of the following is true according to Paragraph 5? [A] Arc helps limit the scope of futurological studies. [B] Technology offers solutions to social problem. [C] The interest in science fiction is on the rise. [D] Our Immediate future is hard to conceive.
34. To ensure the future of mankind, it is crucial to [A] explore our planet‘s abundant resources [B] adopt an optimistic view of the world [C] draw on our experience from the past [D] curb our ambition to reshape history 35. Which of the following would be the best title for the text? [A] Uncertainty about Our Future [B] Evolution of the Human Species [C] The Ever-bright Prospects of Mankind [D] Science, Technology and Humanity Text 4 On a five to three vote, the Supreme Court knocked out much of Arizona‘s immigration law Monday-a modest policy victory for the Obama Administration. But on the more important matter of the Constitution, the decision was an 8-0 defeat for the Administration‘s effort to upset the balance of power between the federal government and the states. In Arizona v. United States, the majority overturned three of the four contested provisions of Arizona‘s controversial plan to have state and local police enforce federal immigration law. The Constitutional principles that Washington alone has the power to ―establish a uniform Rule of Naturalization ‖and that federal laws precede state laws are noncontroversial . Arizona had attempted to fashion state policies that ran parallel to the existing federal ones. Justice Anthony Kennedy, joined by Chief Justice John Roberts and the Court‘s liberals, ruled that the state flew too close to the federal sun. On the overturned provisions the majority held the congress had deliberately ―occupied the field‖ and Arizona had thus intruded on the federal‘s privileged powers. However, the Justices said that Arizona police would be allowed to verify the legal status of people who come in contact with law enforcement. That‘s because Congress has always envisioned joint federal-state immigration enforcement and explicitly encourages state officers to share information and cooperate with federal colleagues.
Two of the three objecting Justice-Samuel Alito and Clarence Thomas-agreed with this Constitutional logic but disagreed about which Arizona rules conflicted with the federal statute. The only major objection came from Justice Antonin Scalia, who offered an even more robust defense of state privileges going back to the Alien and Sedition Acts. The 8-0 objection to President Obama turns on what Justice Samuel Alito describes in his objection as ―a shocking assertion of federal executive power‖. The White House argued that Arizona‘s laws conflicted with its enforcement priorities, even if state laws complied with federal statutes to the letter. In effect, the White House claimed that it could invalidate any otherwise legitimate state law that it disagrees with. Some powers do belong exclusively to the federal government, and control of citizenship and the borders is among them. But if Congress wanted to prevent states from using their own resources to check immigration status, it could. It never did so. The administration was in essence asserting that because it didn‘t want to carry out Congress‘s immigration wishes, no state should be allowed to do so either. Every Justice rightly rejected this remarkable claim. 36. Three provisions of Arizona‘s plan were overturned because they [A] deprived the federal police of Constitutional powers. [B] disturbed the power balance between different states. [C] overstepped the authority of federal immigration law. [D] contradicted both the federal and state policies. 37. On which of the following did the Justices agree, according to Paragraph4? [A] Federal officers‘ duty to withhold immigrants ?information. [B] States‘ independence from federal immigration law. [C] States‘ legitimate role in immigration enforcement. [D] Congress‘s intervention in immigration enforcement. 38. It can be inferred from Paragraph 5 that the Alien and Sedition Acts [A] violated the Constitution. [B] undermined the states‘ interests.
[C] supported the federal statute. [D] stood in favor of the states. 39. The White House claims that its power of enforcement [A] outweighs that held by the states. [B] is dependent on the states‘ support. [C] is established by federal statutes. [D] rarely goes against state laws. 40. What can be learned from the last paragraph? [A] Immigration issues are usually decided by Congress. [B] Justices intended to check the power of the Administration. [C] Justices wanted to strengthen its coordination with Congress. [D] The Administration is dominant over immigration issues. Part B Directions: In the following article, some sentences have been removed. For Questions 41-45, choose the most suitable one from the list A-G to fit into each of the numbered blank. There are two extra choices, which do not fit in any of the gaps. Mark your answers on ANSWER SHEET 1. (10 points) The social sciences are flourishing. As of 2005, there were almost half a million professional social scientists from all fields in the world, working both inside and outside academia. According to the World Social Science Report 2010, the number of social-science students worldwide has swollen by about 11% every year since 2000. Yet this enormous resource in not contributing enough to today‘s global challenges including climate change, security, sustainable development and health.(41)______Humanity has the necessary agro-technological tools to eradicate hunger, from genetically engineered crops to artificial fertilizers . Here, too, the problems are social: the organization and distribution of food, wealth and prosperity.
(42)____This is a shame—the community should be grasping the opportunity to raise its influence in the real world. To paraphrase the great social scientist Joseph Schumpeter: there is no radical innovation without creative destruction. Today, the social sciences are largely focused on disciplinary problems and internal scholarly debates, rather than on topics with external impact. Analyses reveal that the number of papers including the keywords ―environmental changed‖ or ―climate change‖ have increased rapidly since 2004,(43)____ When social scientists do tackle practical issues ,their scope is often local: Belgium is interested mainly in the effects of poverty on Belgium for example .And whether the community‘s work contributes much to an overall accumulation of knowledge is doubtful. The problem is not necessarily the amount of available funding (44)____this is an adequate amount so long as it is aimed in the right direction. Social scientists who complain about a lack of funding should not expect more in today‘s economic climate. The trick is to direct these funds better. The European Union Framework funding programs have long had a category specifically targeted at social scientists. This year, it was proposed that system be changed: Horizon 2020,a new program to be enacted in 2014,would not have such a category ,This has resulted in protests from social scientists. But the intention is not to neglect social science; rather, the complete opposite. (45)____That should create more collaborative endeavors and help to develop projects aimed directly at solving global problems. [A] It could be that we are evolving two communities of social scientists: one that is discipline-oriented and publishing in highly specialized journals, and one that is problem-oriented and publishing elsewhere, such as policy briefs. [B] However, the numbers are still small: in 2010, about 1,600 of the 100,000 socialsciences papers published globally included one of these Keywords. [C] the idea is to force social to integrate their work with other categories, including health and demographic change food security, marine research and the bioeconomy, clear, efficient energy; and inclusive, innovative and secure societies.
[D] the solution is to change the mindset of the academic community, and what it considers to be its main goal. Global challenges and social innovation ought to receive much more attention from scientists, especially the young ones. [E] These issues all have root causes in human behavior. All require behavioral change and social innovations, as well as technological development. Stemming climate change, for example, is as much about changing consumption patterns and promoting tax acceptance as it is about developing clean energy. [F] Despite these factors, many social scientists seem reluctant to tackle such problems. And in Europe, some are up in arms over a proposal to drop a specific funding category for social-science research and to integrate it within cross-cutting topics of sustainable development. [G]During the late 1990s , national spending on social sciences and the humanities as a percentage of all research and development funds-including government, higher education, non-profit and corporate -varied from around 4% to 25%; in most European nations , it is about 15%. Section III Translation 46. Directions: Read the following text carefully and then translate the underlined segments into Chinese. Your translation should be written clearly on ANSWER SHEET 2. (10 points) It is speculated that gardens arise from a basic need in the individuals who made them: the need for creative expression. There is no doubt that gardens evidence an impossible urge to create, express, fashion, and beautify and that self-expression is a basic human urge; (46) Yet when one looks at the photographs of the garden created by the homeless, it strikes one that , for all their diversity of styles, these gardens speak of various other fundamental urges, beyond that of decoration and creative expression. One of these urges had to do with creating a state of peace in the midst of turbulence, a ―still point of the turning world,‖ to borrow a phrase from T. S. Eliot. (47)A sacred place of peace, however crude it may be, is a distinctly human need, as opposed to shelter, which is a distinctly animal need. This distinction is so much so that where the latter is lacking, as it is for these unlikely gardens, the former
becomes all the more urgent. Composure is a state of mind made possible by the structuring of one‘s relation to one‘s environment. (48) The gardens of the homeless which are in effect homeless gardens introduce from into an urban environment where it either didn‘t exist or was not discernible as such. In so doing they give composure to a segment of the inarticulate environment in which they take their stand. Another urge or need that these gardens appear to respond to, or to arise from is so intrinsic that we are barely ever conscious of its abiding claims on us. When we are deprived of green, of plants, of trees, (49) most of us give into a demoralization of spirit which we usually blame on some psychological conditions, until one day we find ourselves in garden and feel the expression vanish as if by magic. In most of the homeless gardens of New York City the actual cultivation of plants is unfeasible, yet even so the compositions often seem to represent attempts to call arrangement of materials, an institution of colors, small pool of water, and a frequent presence of petals or leaves as well as of stuffed animals. On display here are various fantasy elements whose reference, at some basic level, seems to be the natural world. (50)It is this implicit or explicit reference to nature that fully justifies the use of word garden though in a ―liberated‖ sense, to describe these synthetic constructions. In them we can see biophilia- a yearning for contact with nonhuman life－assuming uncanny representational forms.
Section IV Writing Part A 51. Directions: Write an e-mail of about 100 words to a foreign teacher in your college, inviting him/her to be a judge for the upcoming English speech contest. You should include the details you think necessary. You should write neatly on the ANSWER SHEET 2. Do not sign your own name at the end of the e-mail, Use "Li Ming" instead. Do not write the address. (10 points) Part B 52. Directions: Write an essay of 160-200 words based on the following drawing. In your essay you should 1) describe the drawing briefly 2) explain its intended meaning, and 3) give your comments You should write neatly on ANSWER SHEET 2. (20 points)
16、答案： 1.[标准答案] [D]as well as [考点分析] 本题考察逻辑关系 [选项分析] 因为考察逻辑关系，所以需要我们先对填空前后的原文信息做定位分析： 文章身处大环境 not only…。。 but also 之中，这是一个明显的并列关系，表示―不 仅……而且……‖该空与前一句―his parents and his friends‖也是并列关系，表示―与 他本人以及伴侣的父母朋友相关‖ 所以答案只能是 D。 as well as。 A。 by way of 通过 B。 with regard to 关于 C。 on behalf of 代表 2.[标准答案] [A] decide on [考点分析] 上下文语义 [选项分析] 根据该句的主语 a young man 与宾语 a likely spouse 的关系，答案只能 是 A。 decide on 决定。表示自己决定自己的对象。B。 provide for 为……提供准备 C。 compete with 与……竞争 D。 adapt to 适用 3.[标准答案] [B]arrange [考点分析] 上下文语义及动词辨析 [选项分析] 该句意思为，他可以自己选择自己中意的伴侣并让父母 _____相关事务。四 个选项中，A。 close 关闭 C renew 更新；恢复 D postpone―推迟‖，语义不正确， 只有 B arrange 安排是符合语境。 4.[标准答案] [A]In theory [考点分析] 上下文语义 [选项分析]逻辑判断题。主要是看前后两句的含义，前面是说―他可以自己选择自己中 意的伴侣并让父母安排相关事务，或者几乎不参与，完全让父母选择自己的对象。‖ 空 格后面说―女方可以拒绝她父母所选择的对象。‖这两句之间没有举例说明的关系，且 有一个 may，更证明 A。 In theory 的正确性。而其他选项 B。 Above all 最重要的 是， C。 In time 准时 D。 For example 举例，均不符合题意。 5.[标准答案] [C]After [考点分析] 上下文语义 [选项分析]根据下文―______a spouse has been selected， each family investigates the other……‖知道，只有对象选择好后，父母才会去调查研究对方的背景。所以只有 after 才对。其他选项 A。 Unless 除非，否则 B。 Lest 以免，唯恐 D。 Although 尽管 都不符合题意。 6.[标准答案] [A]into [考点分析] 上下文语义及介词词义辨析 [选项分析] 这里主要是看 marry 与相关介词的固定搭配。这里 marry into 就是指嫁 到，而其他选项均没有这层含义。
7.[标准答案] [C]but [考点分析] 逻辑关系题 [选项分析]根据上文，说传统的婚礼时间跨度很长，但是到了 1980s， 婚礼只持续一 天半。所以与前文发生转变。因此要选择 but 转折关系。 8.[标准答案] [C]recite [考点分析] 上下文语义及动词词义辨析 [选项分析]空格处需要填一个动词，和后面的 prayers of blessing 所搭配， C 选项 recite 为背诵的意思，与所给短语搭配最为合理，译为―为祈祷者做祈福‖。 9.[标准答案] [D]tying [考点分析] 上下文语义及动词词义辨析 [选项分析]本题需要根据上下文语义分析，空格处需要搭配后文―棉花线头‖，纵观四个 选项[A]折叠 [B]堆积 [C]包裹 [D]系上，根据选项含义，只有 D 和后文的―棉花线头‖ 搭配最为合理。 10.[标准答案] [A]passing [考点分析] 上下文语义及动词词义辨析 [选项分析] 本题根据选项[A]传递[B]点亮 [C]隐藏 [D]服务，原文空格需要填写一个动 词与后文―around a circle‖来搭配，译为―将蜡烛传一圈‖，故[A]传递为正确选项。 11.[标准答案] [D]union [考点分析] 名词词义辨析 [选项分析] 本题根据选项[A]协会，社团[B]会议，会面 [C]集合 [D]结合。本句语义为 ―这些受尊敬的夫妻祈祷…‖根据语境，结婚是一种夫妻二人的结合，因此，选项 [D]结 合更符合语境。 12.[标准答案] [D]live [考点分析] 上下文语义及动词词义辨析 [选项分析] 本题比较简单。根据语义―根据传统，新婚夫妇要搬到妻子父母家，与父 母____一年‖根据语境，应为[D]居住为最佳答案。 13 .[标准答案] [B]until [考点分析] 时间逻辑关系 [选项分析] 根据原文，―_____他们在附近建造一栋新房子‖ [A]然而[B]直到 [C]为 [D] 如果 结合语境，[B]直到最符合原文语境，搭配最为合理。 14.[标准答案] [D]obtain [考点分析] 上下文语义及动词词义辨析 [选项分析] Divorce is legal and relatively easy to __14__， but not common。该句 句意为离婚是合法的，且相对容易____。 A.avoid 避免 B.follow 跟随 C.chanllenge 挑
战，质疑 D.obtain 获得。这里出现 and，所以对于离婚这件事不可能是避免或是挑战， 但是跟随和离婚之间语义不符，但是获得离婚（的批准）是可以的。选 D。 15.[标准答案] [D] viewed [考点分析] 上下文语义及动词词义辨析 [选项分析] Divorced persons are __15__ with some disapproval。离婚的人…一些不 赞同。在段首，已经注明离婚是合法的且相对容易得到批准，但是不常见。这说明离婚 在现实中肯定是不太受到人们的欢迎的。而接下来这句就说离婚的人…一些不赞同。再看 选项：A.isolated 孤立 B.persuaded 劝说 C.viewed 看做 D。 exposed 接触，受到…的 影响 C 选项固定搭配被认为，放进。 16.[标准答案] [B]whatever [考点分析] 语法 [ 选项分析 Each spouse retains ___16___ property he or she __17__ into the marriage， 17 个空对应的都是动词，所以该句意思为：夫妇双方保有…财产，这个财产 是他或她…（动词）进婚姻的。 结合选项 A whenever―无论何地；任何（地方）=any place where （ 定 从 ） ‖ 。 B whatever― 无 论 什 么 ； 任 何 （ 东 西 ） =anything that/any+N that‖ 。 C whenever 无 论 何 时 ； 任 何 （ 时 间 =any time when ） D however 无论如何；无论多么 。根据语义，这里应该不是让步的关系，而且填的这个 词还要能修饰 property。因此，选择 B =retains any property that he or she …。 17.[标准答案] [B]brought [考点分析] 上下文语义及动词义辨析 [ 选项分析 ] Each spouse retains ___16___ property he or she __17__ into the marriage，结合选项 A changed―改变‖。B brought ―带来‖。C shaped―形成‖ D pushed―推，逼迫‖。结合语境只有 B 符合，把财产带入婚姻。 18.[标准答案] [B]divided [考点分析] 上下文语义及动词义辨析 [选项分析] …and jointly-acquired property is __18__ equally。结合选项 A invested 投资。[B]divided 平分 [C] donated 捐赠[D]withdrawn 撤出，提取。根据语义应该是 共同财产被（夫妻双方）平分。 19.[标准答案] [C]shows [考点分析] 动词固定搭配 [选项分析] Divorced persons may remarry， but a gender prejudice __19__up 。 该句语义为离过婚的人或许会再婚，但是性别偏见 …。结合选项 A 。 warm（up）加热 B.clear（up） 变晴 C.show （up） 显现 D.break（up）分裂，分 开；，显然 C 是正确选项。
20.[标准答案] [A]while [选项分析] 上下文语义 [考点分析] 很明显的两类人的对比比较关系。只能选择 while。 21.B physical beauty 22.D doing harm to 23.A New Standards 24.C showing little 25.A A Challenge 26.D is not 27.A gradually destroyed 28.B The Conservatives 29.D reveals the high 37.D make strategic 38.B is meant for 39.C aggressiveness 40.C Make your print 41.Decide if the time is right 42.Know your goals 43.Understand the context 44.Work with professionals 45.Mark it efficient 46. We don‘t have to learn how to be mentally healthy; it is built into us in the same way that our bodies know how to heal a cut or mend a broken bone. 我们不必学习如何保持健康的心理；它与生俱来，正如我们的身体知道如何让伤口痊 愈，如何让骨折好转。 47. Our mental health doesn‘t really go anywhere; like the sun behind a cloud, it can be temporarily hidden from view, but it is fully capable of being restored in an instant. 健康的心理其实一直都在我们身边；正如乌云背后的太阳，人们有时会看不见它，但是 它完全有能力立刻回来。 48. Mental health allows us to view others with sympathy if they are having troubles, with kindness if they are in pain, and with unconditional love no matter who they are. 健康的心理让我们在别人陷入麻烦之时，同情他人；在别人痛苦之时，友善待人； 无论是谁，都能给予无条件的爱。 49. Although mental health is the cure-all for living our lives, it is perfectly ordinary as you will see that it has been there to direct you through all your difficult decisions. 在我们的生活中，尽管健康的心理可以包治百病，但是它也极其普通，你会发现，它一 直都在，指引你度过艰难，做出选择。 50. As you will come to see, knowing that mental health is always available and knowing to trust it allow us to slow down to the moment and live life happily. 你会逐渐发现，健康的心理无处不在，我们可以信任它，这会让我们恰到好处地放慢生 活的节奏，过上幸福的生活。 30.D the town 31.B skeptical 32.A winning 33.C less severe 34.A has an impact 35.B The necessary 36.A
1、What 2、Concluded 6、Insignificant 3、On 4、Compared 5、Samples 9、Also 10、Perhaps 15、Faster 19、Ethnic 20、see
7、Know 8、Resemble 13、Ratherthan
11、To 12、Drive 16、understand
II Reading comprehension Part A Text 1 21. C ended his regin in embarrassment 22. A owing to their undoubted and respectable status 23. C the role of the nobility in modern democracy 24. D fails to adapt himsself to his future role 25. B Carlos, a lesson for all European Monarchies Text 2 26. B check suspect's phone contents without being authorized. 27.C disapproval 28.A getting into one's residence 29. D citizens' privacy is not effectively protected 30.B new technology requires reinterpretation of the constitution Text 3
31.B journals are strengthening their statistical checks 32.C marked 33. D set an example for other journals 34. C has room for further improvement 35.A science joins Push to screen statistics in papers Text 4 36. A the consequences of the current sorting mechanism 37. B more journalists may be found guilty of phone hacking 38. C was hardly convincing 39. A generally distorted values 40. C moral awareness matters in editing a newspaper Part B 41.C if you are unfamiliar... 42.E you make further inferences... 43.D Rather ,we ascribe meanings to... 44.B factors such as... 45.A are we studying that ... Part C 46)在多种强大的动机驱动下，这次运动在一片荒野上建起了一个国家，其本身塑造 了一个未知大陆的性格和命运。
47)美国是两种主要力量的产物——即思想习俗、民族特色各异的欧洲移民和修改这 些特征的新国家的影响的产物。 48)但由于美国特有的地理条件,不同民族的相互作用,以及维护原始老式方式的纯粹困 难,新大陆引起了重大变化。 49)在 15—16 世纪北美探索的一百多年之后，运往该领土—即当今的美国—的第一 船移民横渡了大西洋。 50)拥有丰富多样树种的原始森林是一个真正的宝库，它从缅因州一直延伸到乔治亚 州。 III Writing Part A Dear Members, i am writing this letter to recommend you a fantastic book, Pride and Prejudice, that I have already read several times as I am planning to organize a club reading session. The primary factors for my recommendation are as follows. For one thing, this book is very moving. It tells a wonderful love story between an arrogant man and a prejudiced lady. For another, it also features brilliant language of English, thanks to the talented author, Jane Austen. I sincerely hope that you will love the book and look forward to discussing more with you later. Sincerely yours, Li Ming Part B Here is a picture, interesting but with deep implication. As is vividly depicted in the photo, four persons are having dinner, which successfully captures our eyes. If
we give it a closer watch, it is not difficult to find that they all focus on their phone and do not have communicate. Obviously, what the drawing has subtly conveyed should be given more concern. What might account for this problem? Theoretically, several reasons may trigger the problem conveyed in the picture, but for my part, the following two are of utmost importance. On the top of the list is that people are dependent too much on their mobile to communicate and ignore the face-to-face communication. There is the other point that no one can ignore. It is widely admitted that the young men have been get used to this kind of ―invisible communication‖, which may make them feel safe. On other case can better illustrate what I have analyzed than the picture above. According to the analysis above, it is advisable for us to take steps to reverse this evil trend. Of all the steps, to appeal to the media may be the most effective one, which can lead to the public to treat mobile phones in a reasonable way. Only in this way can we resolve this problem and embrace a bright future.
14、答案:1、A 2、B 3、D 4、B 5、A 6、A 7、C 8、B 9、D 10、C
11、D 12、A 13、B 14、A 15、D16、B 17、D 18、C 19、C 20、D
21、B 22、C 23、A 24、A 25、B 26、D 27、C 28、B 29、A 30、C
31、A 32、B 33、D 34 、A 35、A 36 [A] Critical 37 38 39 40 [C] keep a leading position in liberal education [C] the application of emerging technologies [B] cautious about intellectual investigation [B] Illiberal Education and ―The Heart of the Matter‖
41 --- A --- 42. --- F ---43---G --- 44---D --- 45---B 46【句型分析】本句主句主干为 it is the reason，why 引导定语从句，修饰 the reason。定语从句的主干是 all we can do is articulate our reactions and not grasp music itself，其表语是不定式短语，由于主语中含有 do，不定式符号 to 省略：
articulate our reactions and not grasp music itself。our reactions 之后 to it 为其定 语，it 指代 music。定语从句中还包含 when 引导的时间状语从句。 【翻译要点】①本句主干的主句是主系表结构，reason 后 why 引导的定语从句较长，翻 译时可以与主干部分结合，调整表达为：这也就是为什么….。 ②定语从句中，when 引导时间状语从句，其中 with words 做状语，翻译时需调整 语序到其修饰的 to describe 之前，可以表达为―当我们尝试用语言来描述音乐时‖。定 语从句的主干顺译即可，其中 reaction 根据语境，可以翻译为―感受‖，其定语 to it 在 表达时前置，it 指代还原为―音乐‖，则可以翻译为―所有我们能做的，就是明确表达我 们对于音乐的感受‖，或者调整表达为―我们只能明确表达我们对于音乐的感受‖。and 之后，grasp 依据语境，需要翻译为―理解‖。 【译文总结】这也是为什么当我们试图用语言来描述音乐时，我们只能明确表达我 们对于音乐的感受，而不能完全理解音乐本身。 47【句型分析】本句为并列句。第一个分句 he was a freethinking person, and a courageous one，句首 by all accounts 为固定搭配，意思是―根据各方面说‖。第二 个分句的主干为 I find courage an essential quality，其中宾语为 courage，而 an essential quality 是宾语补足语。quality 后介词短语 for the understanding of his work 为其定语，其中还包含一个插入结构 let alone the performance。 【翻译要点】① 第一个分句结构比较简单，句首固定搭配 by all accounts，可以调 整表达，翻译为―据大家所说‖。主干顺译即可，其中 he 指代―贝多芬‖，one 指代 person。这一部分可以翻译为―贝多芬是个思想自由、充满勇气的人‖。 ②第二个分句，主干为―我发现勇气是一个关键品质‖，quality 后为其定语 for the understanding of his work，其中 the understanding of his work 意思为―对于其作品 的理解‖，做词性转化后，可以表达为―理解其作品‖，这个介词短语需要调整语序前 置于 quality，可以翻译为―理解他作品的关键品质‖，则第二个分句可以表达为―我发 现勇气，是理解他作品的关键品质‖。还可以调整表达为―我发现勇气这一品质，是理 解他作品的关键‖。 ③在定语 for the understanding of his work 中的插入成分，在逻辑上 let alone 并 列 the understanding 和 the performance，二者共用定语 of his works，顺译句末即 可：更不必说是演出其作品的关键品质。
【译文总结】人们普遍认为，他(贝多芬)是个思想自由、充满勇气的人，我发现勇气 这一品质，是理解他作品的关键，更不必说是演出其作品的关键。 48 【句型分析】本句主干为 Beethoven‘s habit was used by composers before him。本句的谓语为被动语态，主语 habit 后介词短语 of increasing the volume with an extreme intensity and then abruptly following it with a sudden soft passage 为其 定语，是由介词 of 与 and 并列的两个动名词短语 increasing the volume with an extreme intensity 和 then abruptly following it with a sudden soft passage 构成。 【翻译要点】①本句主干较为简单，但是主语 habit 后有很长的后置定语：Habit of increasing the volume…，其中―habit‖可以词性转换为动词―习惯‖，而中文常常先 表达次要信息，则这一部分可以翻译一句话―贝多芬习惯增加…‖，置于句首。第一个动 名词短语中，with an extreme intensity 为状语，表达时需调整语序到其修饰的 increasing the volume 前，根据语境，volume 意思为―音量‖，则 increasing 可以翻 译为―增高‖。这一部分可以翻译为―最大限度来逐渐增高音量‖。第二个动名词短语 then abruptly following it with a sudden soft passage，状语 with a sudden soft passage 需调整到 following it 前表达，其中 passage 根据语境，意思为―乐段‖。则 这一部分可以表达为―然后突然跟上轻柔的乐段‖。整合本句主语与其定语，可以翻译 为―贝多芬习惯最大限度来逐渐增高音量，然后突然跟上轻柔的乐段‖。 ②本句主干意思为―在他之前，作曲家很少使用贝多芬的习惯‖。中文语义重心在 后，将本部分翻译在句末即可。由于前句译文已经提到这种习惯，则这部分可以表达为 ―在他之前，作曲家很少使用这种习惯‖，结合语境还可以表达为―在他之前，作曲家 很少使用这种方式‖，或者―在他之前，只有极个别作曲家会使用这种方式‖。 【译文总结】贝多芬习惯最大限度来逐渐增高音量，然后突然跟上轻柔的乐段，在 他之前，作曲家很少使用这种方式。 49【句型分析】本句为完全倒装，主句的主干是 his view of freedom was Especially significant。 his view of freedom 后为 which 引导的非限定性定语从句，修饰 freedom，关系代 词 which 在定语从句中作主语。of the individual 修饰 the rights and responsibilities，冒号后进行解释说明。 【翻译要点】
① 本句主干为完全倒装，但是在翻译时，顺译即可，其中 his 指代―贝多芬的‖， 主干可以表达为：尤为重要的是，他(贝多芬)对于自由的看法….。 ② which 引导英语从句，修饰 freedom，表达时翻译成另一句话―对于他而言，这 种自由是与个人的权利和责任联系起来的‖，其中 for him 还可以调整表达为―他认 为‖。 ③冒号后进行解释，可以翻译为：他倡导思想自由和个人言论自由。 【译文总结】尤为重要的是贝多芬对于自由的看法，他认为，这种自由是与个人的 权利和责任联系起来的：他倡导思想自由和个人言论自由。 50【句型分析】本句主句主干为 One could interpret much of the work of Beethoven，之后 by saying that suffering is inevitable, but the courage to fight it renders life worth living 为状语，修饰 interpret。其中 that 引导宾语从句 suffering is inevitable, but the courage to fight it renders life worth living，为 saying 的宾语，宾 语从句中 it 指代 suffering。 【翻译要点】①本句主语 one，可以翻译为―人们‖或者―我们‖。主干可以翻译 为―我们可以解释贝多芬的大部分作品‖。 ②主干之后的状语，可以翻译为―通过说痛苦是无法避免的，但是与之相抗争的勇 气使得生命值得继续。‖ ③整合主干，可以表达为―我们可以这样解释贝多芬的大部分作品：苦难是不可避 免的，但是与痛苦抗争的勇气使得生命值得继续。‖ 【译文总结】我们可以这样解释贝多芬的大部分作品：苦难是不可避免的，但是与 痛苦抗争的勇气使得生命值得继续。 51、Part A Dear Mr. President, It is reat honor to write to you. As far as I am concerned, we have enough extraordinary lecturmy ges and what we need now is physical exercise. Since most of the time is spent in watching TV and playing computer games, our physical conditions are not good enough. i still have some suggestions for you. To begin with, our university should arrange more PE classes. To continue, we
should have a fixed schedule for a certain time of outdoor activity. What is more, teaching faculty should be involved in the same kind of physical exercise. I hope that our university could take the responsibility for our students‘ physical health. I will be highly grateful if you could take my suggestions into account. Yours sincerely, Li Ming 52、Part B 参考例文： As is vividly described in the left part of the drawing, thirty years ago, there stood a delicate mother, holding the tiny hand of a lovely girl, who wore a red scarf. On the contrary, the right part of the picture illustrates that with time flying quickly, the little girl, who has already grown up as a gorgeous lady, is supporting her old mother. We are informed: accompanying. It is without saying that the old and the young are two indispensable parts in society. On the one hand, what we have and enjoy now was created by our parents in the early days, as the old Chinese saying goes, "One generation plants tress under whose shade another generation rests". On the other hand, all of us are supposed to take good care of the youngsters, too. It is children who make us see the future of our state, for they are the future builders of our country. The young should consider it a moral obligation respecting and taking care of old parents. Meanwhile, it is also the duty of the parents to protect, educate and look after the youths. Let's bear this in mind and cultivate that virtue together, because only by doing so, can we feel as if we were living in a happy and harmonious family. 13、参考答案 Section I Use of English 1. A. grants 2. D. external 3. C. picture
4. A. For example 5. B. fearful 6. B. on 7. A. if 8. D. test 9. D. success 10. A. chosen 11. D. otherwise 12. C. conducted 13. B. rated 14. D. took 15. B. then 16. C. marked 17. A. before 18. C. drop 19. B. undo 20. C. necessary Section II Reading Comprehension Part A Text 1 (In the 2006) 21. B. insensitivity to fashion 22. D. shop for their garment more frequently 23. A. accusation 24. D. pricing is vital to environment-friendly purchasing 25. C. criticism of the fast-fashion industry Text 2 (An old saying) 26. B. lower their operational costs 27. D. internet browser developers 28. C. will not benefit consumers 29. A. DNT may not serve its intended purpose 30. D. skepticism
Text 3 (Now utopia) 31. B. our faith in science and technology 32. A. sustained species 33. D. our immediate future is hard to conceive 34. C. draw on our experience from the past 35. C. the ever-bright prospects of mankind Text 4 (On a five to three) 36. C. overstepped the authority of federal immigration 37. C. states‘ legitimate role in immigration enforcement 38. D. stood in favor of the states 39. A. outweighs that held by the states 40. D. The Administration is dominant over immigration issues. Part B 41. E. These issues all have root causes in human behavior... 42. F. Despite these factors... 43. B. However, the numbers are still small... 44. G. During the late 1990s... 45. C. The idea is to force social to integrate... Section III Translation 46. 然而，看着无家可归者绘制出的花园图片时，人们会突然意识到，尽管这些花园风格 多样，它们都显示了人类除了装饰和创造性表达之外的其他各种基本诉求 47. 一块神圣 的和平之地，不管它有多么粗糙，它都是一种人类本能的需求，和庇护所相反，那只是 动物的本能需求。 47. 无论地方多么简陋不堪，寻求一片静谧圣土是人类特有的需求，而动物需要的仅是仅 是避难栖息之地。 48. 无家可归者描绘的花园实质上是无所依附的，这些花园把一种形式引入城市环境中， 而这样的城市环境中，形式要么根本不存在， 要么就完全不是以这种明显的方式存在。 49. 我们大多数人会深陷于精神萎靡的状态，并常常将此归咎为一些心理原因，直到某天 我们发现自己置身花园中，感到如魔法般烦闷尽消。 50. 正是对自然的这种或隐晦含蓄或清晰直白的提及，充分证实了用―花园‖一词来描述 这些虚拟建筑是合乎情理的，即使是从毫无拘泥的意义来讲的。
Section IV Writing 51.【参考范文】 Dear Prof. Smith, On behalf of Students‘ Union, I am writing this letter to invite you to be a judge for the speech contest which will be held in Students‘ Union Hall on Monday, January 21. As an internationally acclaimed scholar in English language and culture, your participation will bring us the pleasure. What‘s more, since you have been teaching for a long time and you enjoy a great popularity among all teachers and students, we firmly believe that you can offer us valuable suggestions on improving our students‘ oral and writing abilities. It would be a great honor if you could accept this invitation. We are looking forward to your favorable early reply. Sincerely yours, Li Ming 52. 【参考范文】 As is shown above, this simple picture represents a vigorous situation that nearly every graduate student will face: hunting for a job, further studying, starting a business or going aboard. Which one should they choose? Without exception, everyone has to make choices in life, no matter concerning school, career, or love. While some choices are easy, one cannot avoid the task of making difficult decisions. There is sufficient evidence showing that choices are often directly related to one‘s happiness. University students, face a hard and crucial decision upon graduating. Many students have difficulty in deciding whether to continue studying or begin a career. As is known to all, every individual is different, and one must take the factors of one‘s personal life into consideration. In addition to an awareness of specific circumstances, however, making the right choice also depends on correct appraisal of oneself. It is without doubt that in order to choose correctly, therefore, one must be both realistic and self-aware. Furthermore, there is other aspect to be taken into consideration. Once having made a decision, one should seriously accept and
pursue the path one has chosen, and strive towards the realization of one‘s goal with spirit.
3.B 4.D 5.C6.B 7.D 8.B 9.A 10.B 14.D 15.A16.C 25.D26.C 17.A 37.D 18.C 19.D 20.D 27.A 28.A 29.B 30.B 38.B 39.A 40.A
21.D 22.D 23.A 24.C 41.C
31.A 32.D 33.B 34.D 35.D36.C 42.D 43.A 44.F 45.G
46.在物理学上，一种方法是将这种冲动完美发挥到极点并且导找到一种万能的理论 ---一 条我们都可以看的见，明白的普遍公式。 47.在这里，达尔文主义似乎提供了一个准则，如果所有的人类都有共同的起源，那么文 化差异能够追寻到更早的可控的起源也是合理的。 48.从我们的共同特征中过滤独特性能够使我们明白文化行为的复杂性起源以及是什么在 进化方面和认知方面指导我们人类。 49、其实，由约书亚格林伯说，将更多的经验主义用在了普遍性上，验证许多语言所共 有的特点，这些特点被认为是代表了由认知限制造成的偏见。 50. 乔姆斯基的语法应该表现了语言更改的模式，是通过独立的家谱或由它所跟踪的路 径，而通过性预测的特定类型间的合作关系。 作文 2： 这幅漫画象征性的描述了一个倒在地上的瓶子，一些牛奶洒了出来。在这个瓶子的 旁边站着两个人，一个垂头丧气的说―全完了!‖，而另一个则说―幸好还剩点儿!‖。这 幅画所表达的内容既意义深远又发人深省。 这幅漫画的目的是告诉我们在生活、工作和学习中遇到挫折时，不同的人持有不同 的态度。积极乐观的人总是能够发掘事情好的一面，而消极悲观的人总是为他失去的东 西伤心抱怨。总之，一个人的态度能够决定他的成败。 在我看来，我们应该向那个积极乐观的人学习。在生活中无论遇到什么样的困难， 我们都应该用积极乐观的态度来面对。只有这样，我们才能取得成功。 This cartoon token describes a bottle that fell to the ground, some milk spilled out. The bottle stands next to two people, a dejected saying "is all over! "While another said" Fortunately have left! ‖。 The contents expressed in the painting is both meaningful and thought-provoking. This cartoon is designed to tell us to live, work and learning are down, you, different people hold different attitudes. Optimistic people can always discover
what's good side, and negative and pessimistic people always losing things sad for him to complain. In short, a person's attitudes can make or break him. In my opinion, we should learn from the positive and optimistic man. No matter what difficulties she met in life, we should use a positive and optimistic attitude to face. Only in this way, we can be successful.
2010 年全国硕士研究生入学统一考试英语试题答案 Section I: Use of English (10 points)
1. A 6. B 11. C 16. A 2. B 7. D 12. A 17. D 3. C 8. A 13. A 18. C 4. B 9. C 14. D 19. B 5. C 10. D 15. B 20. D
Section II: Reading Comprehension (60 points) Part A (40 points) 21. B 26. D 31. B 36. A 22. C 27. D 32. D 37. D 23. D 28. C 33. A 38. C 24. A 29. B 34. C 39. B 25. A 30. A 35. C 40. A
Part B (10 points) 41. B 42. F 43. D 44. G 45. A
Part C (10 points) 46.科学家们提出一些明显站不住脚的证据迅速来拯救，其大意是：如果鸟类无法控 制害虫，那么这些害虫就会吃光我们人类。 47. 但我们至少几乎也承认这样一点：不管鸟类是否给我们带来经济上的好处，但鸟 类作为生物其固有的权利应该继续存在。 48. 曾几何时，生物学家们有点过度使用这个证据，即这些物种通过杀死体质弱者来 保持猎物的正常繁衍或 者这些生物捕杀的仅仅是毫无价值的物种。
49. 在欧洲，林业在生态方面更加发达，无商业价值的树种被看作是原生森林群落的 一部分，而得到合理的保护。 50. 这一系统易于忽视，因而最终会消除掉这个土地共同体里的许多要素 (成员)，虽 然这些要素(成员)缺乏商业价值，但这些要素(成员)对这个共同体的健康运行来说是必要 的。 Section III: Writing (30 points) Part A (10 points) 51. 参考范文 Volunteers Wanted/Needed An international conference on globalization will be held in the coming winter vacation. This conference will be organized by the Postgraduates‘ Association。 At present we will recruit 10 volunteers to work as assistants for this conference. The applicants are required to speak English fluently. Those who can speak another foreign language such as French or Japanese are preferable. In addition to the language skills, those volunteers are expected to be patient, helpful, open-minded with a loving heart. The volunteers will be provided free three meals a day as well as transportation from and back to the conference site。 Those who are interested in working as volunteers, please send your resume and application letter to the e-mail address The firstname.lastname@example.org"> before Febulary, 1th。 We are sincerely waiting for you to join us! Postgraduates‘ Association Part B (20 points) 52. 参考范文 As is vividly depicted in the drawing, in the middle of the cartoon stands a hot pot, containing many Chinese cultural symbols, such as Beijing operas, Daoism, and some foreigh cultural symbols, etc. How impressive the drawing is in describing the common phenomenon that Chinese culture is becoming
Postgraduates‘ Association will contact those chosen candidates for an interview
increasingly integrated into the world. The drawer‘s intention seem s to be highly self-evident and the meaning causes us to be thought-provoking。 It holds to be apparent that the cartoon is indicative of a pervasive phenomenon with regard to culture. When it comes to(一谈到) culture，its great impacts and benefits can‘t be too estimated. As China opens to the outside world, our traditional culture is embracing the foreign culture, thus making our Chinese culture more diversified, colorful and internationalized just like a melting pot. What the picture conveys goes far beyond this. The fact that people from different countries are attracted to each other, indicating that to some extent different cultures can be accepted，respected，appreciated and shared internationally. Or put it in another way, Chinese unique culture can become international through worldwide cultural exchanges. Since the trend of globalization become irresistible, cultural integration can effectively improve mutual understanding and friendship among different countries. In my personal sense, Chinese national culture as priceless spiritual treasure should be preserved and cherished. Meanwhile，there are good reasons to embrace foreign cultures on the ground that those ideas from other cultures can provide different perspectives for us to observe the world in the long run. However，confronted with a different culture，we should be sensible enough to absorb its essence and to resist its dark side. Only in this way can we promote cultural integration positively, thus making our motherland dimensional, colorful and vigorous. (298 words)
2012 考研英语（一）真题参考答案 Section Ⅰ Use of English Directions: Read the following text. Choose the best word(s) for each numbered blank and mark [A], [B], [C] or [D]on ANSWER SHEET 1. ( 10 points) The ethical judgments of the Supreme Court justices became an important issue recently. The court cannot_____ its legitimacy as guardian of the rule of law______ justices behave like politicians. Yet, in several instances, justices acted in ways that_____ the court‘s reputation for being independent and impartial。 Justices Antonin Scalia and Samuel Alito Jr., for example, appeared at political events. That kind of activity makes it less likely that the court‘s decisions will be____ as impartial judgments. Part of the problem is that the justices are not _____ by an ethics code. At the very least, the court should make itself_______ to the code of conduct that ______to the rest of the federal judiciary。 This and other cases ______the question of whether there is still a _____ between the court and politics。 The framers of the Constitution envisioned law____ having authority apart from politics. They gave justices permanent positions ____ they would be free to ____those in power and have no need to_____ political support. Our legal system was designed to set law apart from politics precisely because they are so closely _____。 Constitutional law is political because it results from choices rooted in fundamental social ______like liberty and property. When the court deals with social policy decisions, the law it _____is inescapably political — which is why decisions split along ideological lines are so easily _____ as unjust。 The justices must _____doubts about the court‘s legitimacy by making themselves _____to the code of conduct. That would make their rulings more likely to be seen as separate from politics and, _____, convincing as law。 1 A emphasizeB maintainC modifyD recognize 2 A whenB bestC beforeD unles 3 A renderedB weakenedC establishedD eliminated 4 A challengedB compromisedC suspectedD accepted 5. A advancedB caught C boundD founded 6. A resistantB subjectC immuneD prone
7. A resortsB sticksC leadsD applies 8. A evadeB raiseC denyD settle 9. A lineB barrier C similarity D conflict 10. A byB asC throughD towards 11. A soB sinceC providedD though 12. A serveB satisfyC upsetD replace 13. A confirm B express C cultivate D offer 14 A guardedB followedC studiedD tied 15. A concepts B theories C divisions D convenience 16. A excludes B questions C shapes D controls 17. A dismissed B released C ranked D distorted 18. A suppress B exploitC addressD ignore 19. A accessibleB. amiableC agreeable D accountable 20. A by all meansB at all costsC in a wordD as a result Section II Reading Comprehension Part A Directions: Read the following four texts. Answer the questions below each text by choosing A, B, C or D. Mark your answers on ANSWER SHEET 1. (40 points) Text 1 Come on –Everybody‘s doing it. That whispered message, half invitation and half forcing, is what most of us think of when we hear the words peer pressure. It usually leads to no good-drinking, drugs and casual sex. But in her new book Join the Club, Tina Rosenberg contends that peer pressure can also be a positive force through what she calls the social cure, in which organizations and officials use the power of group dynamics to help individuals improve their lives and possibly the word. Rosenberg, the recipient of a Pulitzer Prize, offers a host of example of the social cure in action: In South Carolina, a state-sponsored antismoking program called Rage Against the Haze sets out to make cigarettes uncool. In South Africa, an HIV-prevention initiative known as LoveLife recruits young people to promote safe sex among their peers. The idea seems promising，and Rosenberg is a perceptive observer. Her critique of the lameness of many pubic-health campaigns is spot-on: they fail to
mobilize peer pressure for healthy habits, and they demonstrate a seriously flawed understanding of psychology.‖ Dare to be different, please don‘t smoke!‖ pleads one billboard campaign aimed at reducing smoking among teenagersteenagers, who desire nothing more than fitting in. Rosenberg argues convincingly that public-health advocates ought to take a page from advertisers, so skilled at applying peer pressure. But on the general effectiveness of the social cure, Rosenberg is less persuasive. Join the Club is filled with too much irrelevant detail and not enough exploration of the social and biological factors that make peer pressure so powerful. The most glaring flaw of the social cure as it‘s presented here is that it doesn‘t work very well for very long. Rage Against the Haze failed once state funding was cut. Evidence that the LoveLife program produces lasting changes is limited and mixed. There‘s no doubt that our peer groups exert enormous influence on our behavior. An emerging body of research shows that positive health habits-as well as negative ones-spread through networks of friends via social communication. This is a subtle form of peer pressure: we unconsciously imitate the behavior we see every day. Far less certain, however, is how successfully experts and bureaucrats can select our peer groups and steer their activities in virtuous directions. It‘s like the teacher who breaks up the troublemakers in the back row by pairing them with betterbehaved classmates. The tactic never really works. And that‘s the problem with a social cure engineered from the outside: in the real world, as in school, we insist on choosing our own friends. 21. According to the first paragraph, peer pressure often emerges as [A] a supplement to the social cure [B] a stimulus to group dynamics [C] an obstacle to school progress [D] a cause of undesirable behaviors 22. Rosenberg holds that public advocates should [A] recruit professional advertisers [B] learn from advertisers‘ experience [C] stay away from commercial advertisers [D] recognize the limitations of advertisements 23. In the author‘s view, Rosenberg‘s book fails to
[A] adequately probe social and biological factors [B] effectively evade the flaws of the social cure [C] illustrate the functions of state funding [D]produce a long-lasting social effect 24. Paragraph 5shows that our imitation of behaviors [A] is harmful to our networks of friends [B] will mislead behavioral studies [C] occurs without our realizing it [D] can produce negative health habits 25. The author suggests in the last paragraph that the effect of peer pressure is [A] harmful [B] desirable [C] profound [D] questionable Text 2 A deal is a deal-except, apparently ,when Entergy is involved. The company, a major energy supplier in New England, provoked justified outrage in Vermont last week when it announced it was reneging on a longstanding commitment to abide by the strict nuclear regulations. Instead, the company has done precisely what it had long promised it would not challenge the constitutionality of Vermont‘s rules in the federal court, as part of a desperate effort to keep its Vermont Yankee nuclear power plant running. It‘s a stunning move. The conflict has been surfacing since 2002, when the corporation bought Vermont‘s only nuclear power plant, an aging reactor in Vernon. As a condition of receiving state approval for the sale, the company agreed to seek permission from state regulators to operate past 2012. In 2006, the state went a step further, requiring that any extension of the plant‘s license be subject to Vermont legislature‘s approval. Then, too, the company went along. Either Entergy never really intended to live by those commitments, or it simply didn‘t foresee what would happen next. A string of accidents, including the partial collapse of a cooling tower in 207 and the discovery of an underground pipe system leakage, raised serious questions about both Vermont Yankee‘s safety and Entergy‘s management– especially after the company made misleading
statements about the pipe. Enraged by Entergy‘s behavior, the Vermont Senate voted 26 to 4 last year against allowing an extension. Now the company is suddenly claiming that the 2002 agreement is invalid because of the 2006 legislation, and that only the federal government has regulatory power over nuclear issues. The legal issues in the case are obscure: whereas the Supreme Court has ruled that states do have some regulatory authority over nuclear power, legal scholars say that Vermont case will offer a precedent-setting test of how far those powers extend. Certainly, there are valid concerns about the patchwork regulations that could result if every state sets its own rules. But had Entergy kept its word, that debate would be beside the point. The company seems to have concluded that its reputation in Vermont is already so damaged that it has noting left to lose by going to war with the state. But there should be consequences. Permission to run a nuclear plant is a poblic trust. Entergy runs 11 other reactors in the United States, including Pilgrim Nuclear station in Plymouth. Pledging to run Pilgrim safely, the company has applied for federal permission to keep it open for another 20 years. But as the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) reviews the company‘s application, it should keep it mind what promises from Entergy are worth. 26. The phrase ―reneging on‖(Line 3.para.1) is closest in meaning to [A] condemning. [B] reaffirming. [C] dishonoring. [D] securing. 27. By entering into the 2002 agreement, Entergy intended to [A] obtain protection from Vermont regulators. [B] seek favor from the federal legislature. [C] acquire an extension of its business license . [D] get permission to purchase a power plant. 28. According to Paragraph 4, Entergy seems to have problems with its [A] managerial practices. [B] technical innovativeness. [C] financial goals. [D] business vision 29. In the author‘s view, the Vermont case will test
[A] Entergy‘s capacity to fulfill all its promises. [B] the mature of states‘ patchwork regulations. [C] the federal authority over nuclear issues . [D] the limits of states‘ power over nuclear issues. 30. It can be inferred from the last paragraph that [A] Entergy‘s business elsewhere might be affected. [B] the authority of the NRC will be defied. [C] Entergy will withdraw its Plymouth application. [D] Vermont‘s reputation might be damaged. Text 3 In the idealized version of how science is done, facts about the world are waiting to be observed and collected by objective researchers who use the scientific method to carry out their work. But in the everyday practice of science, discovery frequently follows an ambiguous and complicated route. We aim to be objective, but we cannot escape the context of our unique life experience. Prior knowledge and interest influence what we experience, what we think our experiences mean, and the subsequent actions we take. Opportunities for misinterpretation, error, and self-deception abound. Consequently, discovery claims should be thought of as protoscience. Similar to newly staked mining claims, they are full of potential. But it takes collective scrutiny and acceptance to transform a discovery claim into a mature discovery. This is the credibility process, through which the individual researcher‘s me, here, now becomes the community‘s anyone, anywhere, anytime. Objective knowledge is the goal, not the starting point. Once a discovery claim becomes public, the discoverer receives intellectual credit. But, unlike with mining claims, the community takes control of what happens next. Within the complex social structure of the scientific community, researchers make discoveries; editors and reviewers act as gatekeepers by controlling the publication process; other scientists use the new finding to suit their own purposes; and finally, the public (including other scientists) receives the new discovery and possibly accompanying technology. As a discovery claim works it through the community, the interaction and confrontation between shared and competing beliefs about the science and the technology involved transforms an individual‘s discovery claim into the community‘s credible discovery.
Two paradoxes exist throughout this credibility process. First, scientific work tends to focus on some aspect of prevailing Knowledge that is viewed as incomplete or incorrect. Little reward accompanies duplication and confirmation of what is already known and believed. The goal is new-search, not re-search. Not surprisingly, newly published discovery claims and credible discoveries that appear to be important and convincing will always be open to challenge and potential modification or refutation by future researchers. Second, novelty itself frequently provokes disbelief. Nobel Laureate and physiologist Albert Azent-Gyorgyi once described discovery as ―seeing what everybody has seen and thinking what nobody has thought.‖ But thinking what nobody else has thought and telling others what they have missed may not change their views. Sometimes years are required for truly novel discovery claims to be accepted and appreciated. In the end, credibility ―happens‖ to a discovery claim – a process that corresponds to what philosopher Annette Baier has described as the commons of the mind. ―We reason together, challenge, revise, and complete each other‘s reasoning and each other‘s conceptions of reason.‖ 31. According to the first paragraph, the process of discovery is characterized by its [A] uncertainty and complexity. [B] misconception and deceptiveness. [C] logicality and objectivity. [D] systematicness and regularity. 32. It can be inferred from Paragraph 2 that credibility process requires [A] strict inspection. [B]shared efforts. [C] individual wisdom. [D]persistent innovation. 33.Paragraph 3 shows that a discovery claim becomes credible after it [A] has attracted the attention of the general public. [B]has been examined by the scientific community. [C] has received recognition from editors and reviewers. [D]has been frequently quoted by peer scientists. 34. Albert Szent-Gy?rgyi would most likely agree that [A] scientific claims will survive challenges.
[B]discoveries today inspire future research. [C] efforts to make discoveries are justified. [D]scientific work calls for a critical mind. 35.Which of the following would be the best title of the test? [A] Novelty as an Engine of Scientific Development. [B]Collective Scrutiny in Scientific Discovery. [C] Evolution of Credibility in Doing Science. [D]Challenge to Credibility at the Gate to Science. Text 4 If the trade unionist Jimmy Hoffa were alive today, he would probably represent civil servant. When Hoffa‘s Teamsters were in their prime in 1960, only one in ten American government workers belonged to a union; now 36% do. In 2009 the number of unionists in America‘s public sector passed that of their fellow members in the private sector. In Britain, more than half of public-sector workers but only about 15% of private-sector ones are unionized. There are three reasons for the public-sector unions‘ thriving. First, they can shut things down without suffering much in the way of consequences. Second, they are mostly bright and well-educated. A quarter of America‘s public-sector workers have a university degree. Third, they now dominate left-of-centre politics. Some of their ties go back a long way. Britain‘s Labor Party, as its name implies, has long been associated with trade unionism. Its current leader, Ed Miliband, owes his position to votes from public-sector unions. At the state level their influence can be even more fearsome. Mark Baldassare of the Public Policy Institute of California points out that much of the state‘s budget is patrolled by unions. The teachers‘ unions keep an eye on schools, the CCPOA on prisons and a variety of labor groups on health care. In many rich countries average wages in the state sector are higher than in the private one. But the real gains come in benefits and work practices. Politicians have repeatedly ―backloaded‖ public-sector pay deals, keeping the pay increases modest but adding to holidays and especially pensions that are already generous. Reform has been vigorously opposed, perhaps most egregiously in education, where charter schools, academies and merit pay all faced drawn-out battles. Even though there is plenty of evidence that the quality of the teachers is the most important variable, teachers‘ unions have fought against getting rid of bad ones
and promoting good ones. As the cost to everyone else has become clearer, politicians have begun to clamp down. In Wisconsin the unions have rallied thousands of supporters against Scott Walker, the hardline Republican governor. But many within the public sector suffer under the current system, too. John Donahue at Harvard‘s Kennedy School points out that the norms of culture in Western civil services suit those who want to stay put but is bad for high achievers. The only American public-sector workers who earn well above $250,000 a year are university sports coaches and the president of the United States. Bankers‘ fat pay packets have attracted much criticism, but a public-sector system that does not reward high achievers may be a much bigger problem for America. 36. It can be learned from the first paragraph that [A] Teamsters still have a large body of members. [B] Jimmy Hoffa used to work as a civil servant. [C] unions have enlarged their public-sector membership. [D]the government has improved its relationship with unionists. 37. Which of the following is true of Paragraph 2? [A] Public-sector unions are prudent in taking actions. [B] Education is required for public-sector union membership. [C] Labor Party has long been fighting against public-sector unions. [D]Public-sector unions seldom get in trouble for their actions. 38. It can be learned from Paragraph 4 that the income in the state sector is [A] illegally secured. [B] indirectly augmented. [C] excessively increased. [D]fairly adjusted. 39. The example of the unions in Wisconsin shows that unions [A]often run against the current political system. [B]can change people‘s political attitudes. [C]may be a barrier to public-sector reforms. [D]are dominant in the government. 40. John Donahue‘s attitude towards the public-sector system is one of [A]disapproval. [B]appreciation.
[C]tolerance. [D]indifference. Part B Directions: In the following text, some sentences have been removed. For Questions 41-45, choose the most suitable one from the list A-G to fit into each of the numbered blanks. There are two extra choices, which do not fit in any of the blanks. Mark your answers on ANSWER SHEET1.(10 points) Think of those fleeting moments when you look out of an aeroplane window and realise that you are flying, higher than a bird. Now think of your laptop, thinner than a brown-paper envelope, or your cellphone in the palm of your hand. Take a moment or two to wonder at those marvels. You are the lucky inheritor of a dream come true. The second half of the 20th century saw a collection of geniuses, warriors, entrepreneurs and visionaries labour to create a fabulous machine that could function as a typewriter and printing press, studio and theatre, paintbrush and gallery, piano and radio, the mail as well as the mail carrier. (41) The networked computer is an amazing device, the first media machine that serves as the mode of production, means of distribution, site of reception, and place of praise and critique. The computer is the 21st century's culture machine. But for all the reasons there are to celebrate the computer, we must also tread with caution. (42)I call it a secret war for two reasons. First, most people do not realise that there are strong commercial agendas at work to keep them in passive consumption mode. Second, the majority of people who use networked computers to upload are not even aware of the significance of what they are doing. All animals download, but only a few upload. Beavers build dams and birds make nests. Yet for the most part, the animal kingdom moves through the world downloading. Humans are unique in their capacity to not only make tools but then turn around and use them to create superfluous material goods - paintings, sculpture and architecture - and superfluous experiences - music, literature, religion and philosophy. (43) For all the possibilities of our new culture machines, most people are still stuck in download mode. Even after the advent of widespread social media, a pyramid of production remains, with a small number of people uploading material, a slightly
larger group commenting on or modifying that content, and a huge percentage remaining content to just consume. (44) Television is a one-way tap flowing into our homes. The hardest task that television asks of anyone is to turn the power off after he has turned it on. (45) What counts as meaningful uploading? My definition revolves around the concept of "stickiness" - creations and experiences to which others adhere. [A] Of course, it is precisely these superfluous things that define human culture and ultimately what it is to be human. Downloading and consuming culture requires great skills, but failing to move beyond downloading is to strip oneself of a defining constituent of humanity. [B] Applications like tumblr.com, which allow users to combine pictures, words and other media in creative ways and then share them, have the potential to add stickiness by amusing, entertaining and enlightening others. [C] Not only did they develop such a device but by the turn of the millennium they had also managed to embed it in a worldwide system accessed by billions of people every day. [D] This is because the networked computer has sparked a secret war between downloading and uploading - between passive consumption and active creation whose outcome will shape our collective future in ways we can only begin to imagine. [E] The challenge the computer mounts to television thus bears little similarity to one format being replaced by another in the manner of record players being replaced by CD players. [F] One reason for the persistence of this pyramid of production is that for the past half-century, much of the world's media culture has been defined by a single medium - television - and television is defined by downloading. [G]The networked computer offers the first chance in 50 years to reverse the flow, to encourage thoughtful downloading and, even more importantly, meaningful uploading. Part C Directions: Read the following text carefully and then translate the underlined segments into Chinese. Your translation should be written clearly on ANSWER SHEET 2. (10
points) Since the days of Aristotle, a search for universal principles has characterized the scientific enterprise. In some ways, this quest for commonalities defines science. Newton‘s laws of motion and Darwinian evolution each bind a host of different phenomena into a single explicatory frame work. (46)In physics, one approach takes this impulse for unification to its extreme, and seeks a theory of everything—a single generative equation for all we see.It is becoming less clear, however, that such a theory would be a simplification, given the dimensions and universes that it might entail, nonetheless, unification of sorts remains a major goal. This tendency in the natural sciences has long been evident in the social sciences too. (47)Here, Darwinism seems to offer justification for it all humans share common origins it seems reasonable to suppose that cultural diversity could also be traced to more constrained beginnings. Just as the bewildering variety of human courtship rituals might all be considered forms of sexual selection, perhaps the world‘s languages, music, social and religious customs and even history are governed by universal features. (48)To filter out what is unique from what is shared might enable us to understand how complex cultural behavior arose and what guides it in evolutionary or cognitive terms. That, at least, is the hope. But a comparative study of linguistic traits published online today supplies a reality check. Russell Gray at the University of Auckland and his colleagues consider the evolution of grammars in the light of two previous attempts to find universality in language. The most famous of these efforts was initiated by Noam Chomsky, who suggested that humans are born with an innate language—acquisition capacity that dictates a universal grammar. A few generative rules are then sufficient to unfold the entire fundamental structure of a language, which is why children can learn it so quickly. (49)The second, by Joshua Greenberg, takes a more empirical approach to universality identifying traits (particularly in word order) shared by many language which are considered to represent biases that result from cognitive constraints Gray and his colleagues have put them to the test by examining four family trees that between them represent more than 2,000 languages.(50)Chomsky‘s grammar should show patterns of language change that are independent of the
family tree or the pathway tracked through it. Whereas Greenbergian universality predicts strong co-dependencies between particular types of word-order relations. Neither of these patterns is borne out by the analysis, suggesting that the structures of the languages are lire age-specific and not governed by universals
Section III Writing Part A 51. Directions: Some internationals students are coming to your university. Write them an email in the name of the Students‘ Union to 1) extend your welcome and 2) provide some suggestions for their campus life here. You should write about 100 words on ANSWER SHEET2.Do not sign your name at the end of the letter. Use ―Li Ming‖ instead. Do not write the address(10 points) Part B 52. Directions: write an essay of 160-200 words based on the following drawing. In your essay you should
1) describe the drawing briefly 2) explain its intended meaning, and 3) give your comments You should write neatly on ANSWER SHEET2.(20 points)
2011 年考研英语一真题及答案 Section I Use of English Directions: Ancient Greek philosopher Aristotle viewed laughter as ―a bodily exercise precious to health.‖ But ???_____some claims to the contrary, laughing probably has little influence on physical filness Laughter does _____short-term changes in the function of the heart and its blood vessels, ____ heart rate and oxygen consumption But because hard laughter is difficult to ____, a good laugh is unlikely to have _____ benefits the way, say, walking or jogging does. ____, instead of straining muscles to build them, as exercise does, laughter apparently accomplishes the ____, studies dating back to the 1930‘s indicate that laughter. muscles, Such bodily reaction might conceivably help____the effects of psychological stress.Anyway,the act of laughing probably does produce other types of ______feedback,that improve an individual‘s emotional state. ______one classical theory of emotion,our feelings are partially rooted _______ physical reactions. It was argued at the end of the 19th century that humans do not cry ______they are sad but they become sad when te tears begin to flow. Although sadness also _______ tears,evidence suggests that emotions can flow _____ muscular responses.In an experiment published in 1988,social psychologist Fritz. 1．[A]among [B]except [C]despite [D]like 2．[A]reflect [B]demand [C]indicate [D]produce 3．[A]stabilizing [B]boosting [C]impairing [D]determining 4．[A]transmit [B]sustain [C]evaluate [D]observe 5．[A]measurable [B]manageable [C]affordable [D]renewable 6．[A]In turn [B]In fact [C]In addition [D]In brief 7．[A]opposite 8．[A]hardens 10．[A]physical [B]impossible [C]average [D]expected [B]weakens [C]tightens [D]relaxes [D]internal
9．[A]aggravate [B]generate [C]moderate [D]enhance [B]mentl [C]subconscious [C]in [D]at [C]precedes
11．[A]Except for [B]According to [C]Due to [D]As for 12．[A]with [B]on 13．[A]unless [B]until C]if [D]because [D]suppresses
15．[A]into [B]from 16．[A]fetch [B]bite 17．[A]disappointed
[C]pick [D]hold [B]excited [C]joyful
18．[A]adapted [B]catered [C]turned [D]reacted 19．[A]suggesting [B]requiring [C]mentioning [D]supposing 20．[A]Eventually Part A Directions: Read the following four texts. Answer the questions below each text by choosing [A], [B], [C] or [D]. Mark your answers on ANSWER SHEET 1. (40 points) Text 1 The decision of the New York Philharmonic to hire Alan Gilbert as its next music director has been the talk of the classical-music world ever since the sudden announcement of his appointment in 2009. For the most part, the response has been favorable, to say the least. ―Hooray! At last!‖ wrote Anthony Tommasini, a sober-sided classical-music critic. One of the reasons why the appointment came as such a surprise, however, is that Gilbert is comparatively little known. Even Tommasini, who had advocated Gilbert‘s appointment in the Times, calls him ―an unpretentious musician with no air of the formidable conductor about him.‖ As a description of the next music director of an orchestra that has hitherto been led by musicians like Gustav Mahler and Pierre Boulez, that seems likely to have struck at least some Times readers as faint praise. For my part, I have no idea whether Gilbert is a great conductor or even a good one. To be sure, he performs an impressive variety of interesting compositions, but it is not necessary for me to visit Avery Fisher Hall, or anywhere else, to hear interesting orchestral music. All I have to do is to go to my CD shelf, or boot up my computer and download still more recorded music from iTunes. Devoted concertgoers who reply that recordings are no substitute for live performance are missing the point. For the time, attention, and money of the artloving public, classical instrumentalists must compete not only with opera houses, dance troupes, theater companies, and museums, but also with the recorded performances of the great classical musicians of the 20th century. There recordings
[B]Consequently [C]Similarly [D]Conversely
Section II Reading Comprehension
are cheap, available everywhere, and very often much higher in artistic quality than today‘s live performances; moreover, they can be ―consumed‖ at a time and place of the listener‘s choosing. The widespread availability of such recordings has thus brought about a crisis in the institution of the traditional classical concert. One possible response is for classical performers to program attractive new music that is not yet available on record. Gilbert‘s own interest in new music has been widely noted: Alex Ross, a classical-music critic, has described him as a man who is capable of turning the Philharmonic into ―a markedly different, more vibrant organization.‖ But what will be the nature of that difference? Merely expanding the orchestra‘s repertoire will not be enough. If Gilber t and the Philharmonic are to succeed, they must first change the relationship between America‘s oldest orchestra and the new audience it hops to attract. 21. We learn from Para.1 that Gilbert‘s appointment has [A]incurred criticism. curiosity. 22. Tommasini regards Gilbert as an artist who is [A]influential. [B]modest. [C]respectable. [D]talented. [B]reject most kinds of recorded 23. The author believes that the devoted concertgoers [A]ignore the expenses of live performances. performances. [C]exaggerate the variety of live performances. [D]overestimate the value of live performances. 24. According to the text, which of the following is true of recordings? [A]They are often inferior to live concerts in quality. [B]They are easily accessible to the general public. [C]They help improve the quality of music. masterpieces. 25. Regarding Gilbert‘s role in revitalizing the Philharmonic, the author feels [A]doubtful. Text 2 When Liam McGee departed as president of Bank of America in August, his explanation was surprisingly straight up. Rather than cloaking his exit in the usual vague excuses, he came right out and said he was leaving ―to pursue my goal of running a company.‖ Broadcasting his ambition was ―very much my decision,‖
[D]They have only covered
McGee says. Within two weeks, he was talking for the first time with the board of Hartford Financial Services Group, which named him CEO and chairman on September 29. McGee says leaving without a position lined up gave him time to reflect on what kind of company he wanted to run. It also sent a clear message to the outside world about his aspirations. And McGee isn‘t alone. In recent weeks the No.2 executives at Avon and American Express quit with the explanation that they were looking for a CEO post. As boards scrutinize succession plans in response to shareholder pressure, executives who don‘t get the nod also may wish to move on. A turbulent business environment also has senior managers cautious of letting vague pronouncements cloud their reputations. As the first signs of recovery begin to take hold, deputy chiefs may be more willing to make the jump without a net. In the third quarter, CEO turnover was down 23% from a year ago as nervous boards stuck with the leaders they had, according to Liberum Research. As the economy picks up, opportunities will abound for aspiring leaders. The decision to quit a senior position to look for a better one is unconventional. For years executives and headhunters have adhered to the rule that the most attractive CEO candidates are the ones who must be poached. Says Korn/Ferry senior partner Dennis Carey:‖I can‘t think of a single search I‘ve done where a board has not instructed me to look at sitting CEOs first.‖ Those who jumped without a job haven‘t always landed in top positions quickly. Ellen Marram quit as chief of Tropicana a decade age, saying she wanted to be a CEO. It was a year before she became head of a tiny Internet-based commodities exchange. Robert Willumstad left Citigroup in 2005 with ambitions to be a CEO. He finally took that post at a major financial institution three years later. Many recruiters say the old disgrace is fading for top performers. The financial crisis has made it more acceptable to be between jobs or to leave a bad one. ―The traditional rule was it‘s safer to stay where you are, but that‘s been fundamentally inverted,‖ says one headhunter. ―The people who‘ve been hurt the worst are those who‘ve stayed too long.‖ 26. When McGee announced his departure, his manner can best be described as being [A]arrogant. [B]frank. [C]self-centered.
27. According to Paragraph 2, senior executives‘ quitting may be spurred by [A]their expectation of better financial status. private life. [C]their strained relations with the boards. [D]their pursuit of new career goals. [D]guarded against. 28. The word ―poached‖ (Line 3, Paragraph 4) most probably means [A]approved of. [B]attended to. [C]hunted for. 29. It can be inferred from the last paragraph that [A]top performers used to cling to their posts. [B]loyalty of top performers is getting out-dated. [C]top performers care more about reputations. [D]it‘s safer to stick to the traditional rules. 30. Which of the following is the best title for the text? [A]CEOs: Where to Go? Performers Text 3 The rough guide to marketing success used to be that you got what you paid for. No longer. While traditional ―paid‖ media – such as television commercials and print advertisements – still play a major role, companies today can exploit many alternative forms of media. Consumers passionate about a product may create ―owned‖ media by sending e-mail alerts about products and sales to customers registered with its Web site. The way consumers now approach the broad range of factors beyond conventional paid media. Paid and owned media are controlled by marketers promoting their own products. For earned media , such marketers act as the initiator for users‘ responses. But in some cases, one marketer‘s owned media become another marketer‘s paid media – for instance, when an e-commerce retailer sells ad space on its Web site. We define such sold media as owned media whose traffic is so strong that other organizations place their content or e-commerce engines within that environment. This trend ,which we believe is still in its infancy, effectively began with retailers and travel providers such as airlines and hotels and will no doubt go further. Johnson & Johnson, for example, has created BabyCenter, a stand-alone media property that promotes complementary and even competitive products. Besides generating income, the presence of other marketers makes the
[B]their need to reflect on their
[B]CEOs: All the Way Up? [D]The Only Way Out for Top
[C]Top Managers Jump without a Net
site seem objective, gives companies opportunities to learn valuable information about the appeal of other companies‘ marketing, and may help expand user traffic for all companies concerned. The same dramatic technological changes that have provided marketers with more (and more diverse) communications choices have also increased the risk that passionate consumers will voice their opinions in quicker, more visible, and much more damaging ways. Such hijacked media are the opposite of earned media: an asset or campaign becomes hostage to consumers, other stakeholders, or activists who make negative allegations about a brand or product. Members of social networks, for instance, are learning that they can hijack media to apply pressure on the businesses that originally created them. If that happens, passionate consumers would try to persuade others to boycott products, putting the reputation of the target company at risk. In such a case, the company‘s response may not be sufficiently quick or thoughtful, and the learning curve has been steep. Toyota Motor, for example, alleviated some of the damage from its recall crisis earlier this year with a relatively quick and well-orchestrated social-media response campaign, which included efforts to engage with consumers directly on sites such as Twitter and the social-news site Digg. 31.Consumers may create ―earned‖ media when they are [A] obscssed with online shopping at certain Web sites. [B] inspired by product-promoting e-mails sent to them. [C] eager to help their friends promote quality products. [D] enthusiastic about recommending their favorite products. 32. According to Paragraph 2,sold media feature [A] a safe business environment. [C] strong user traffic. [B] random competition. [D] flexibility in organization.
33. The author indicates in Paragraph 3 that earned media [A] invite constant conflicts with passionate consumers. [B] can be used to produce negative effects in marketing. [C] may be responsible for fiercer competition. [D] deserve all the negative comments about them. 34. Toyota Motor‘s experience is cited as an example of [A] responding effectively to hijacked media.[B] persuading customers into boycotting products.
[C] cooperating with supportive consumers. [D] taking advantage of hijacked media. 35. Which of the following is the text mainly about ? [A] Alternatives to conventional paid media.[B] Conflict between hijacked and earned media. [C] Dominance of hijacked media. Text 4 It‘s no surprise that Jennifer Senior‘s insightful, provocative magazine cover story, ―I love My Children, I Hate My Life,‖ is arousing much chatter – nothing gets people talking like the suggestion that child rearing is anything less than a completely fulfilling, life-enriching experience. Rather than concluding that children make parents either happy or miserable, Senior suggests we need to redefine happiness: instead of thinking of it as something that can be measured by moment-to-moment joy, we should consider being happy as a past-tense condition. Even though the day-to-day experience of raising kids can be soulcrushingly hard, Senior writes that ―the very things that in the moment dampen our moods can later be sources of intense gratification and delight.‖ The magazine cover showing an attractive mother holding a cute baby is hardly the only Madonna-and-child image on newsstands this week. There are also stories about newly adoptive – and newly single – mom Sandra Bullock, as well as the usual ―Jennifer Aniston is pregnant‖ news. Practically every week features at least one celebrity mom, or mom-to-be, smiling on the newsstands. In a society that so persistently celebrates procreation, is it any wonder that admitting you regret having children is equivalent to admitting you support kittenkilling ? It doesn‘t seem quite fair, then, to compare the regrets of parents to the regrets of the children. Unhappy parents rarely are provoked to wonder if they shouldn‘t have had kids, but unhappy childless folks are bothered with the message that children are the single most important thing in the world: obviously their misery must be a direct result of the gaping baby-size holes in their lives. Of course, the image of parenthood that celebrity magazines like Us Weekly and People present is hugely unrealistic, especially when the parents are single mothers like Bullock. According to several studies concluding that parents are less happy than childless couples, single parents are the least happy of all. No shock there, considering how much work it is to raise a kid without a partner to lean on;
[D] Popularity of owned media.
yet to hear Sandra and Britney tell it, raising a kid on their ―own‖ (read: with round-the-clock help) is a piece of cake. It‘s hard to imagine that many people are dumb enough to want children just because Reese and Angelina make it look so glamorous: most adults understand that a baby is not a haircut. But it‘s interesting to wonder if the images we see every week of stress-free, happiness-enhancing parenthood aren‘t in some small, subconscious way contributing to our own dissatisfactions with the actual experience, in the same way that a small part of us hoped getting ― the Rachel‖ might make us look just a little bit like Jennifer Aniston. 36.Jennifer Senior suggests in her article that raising a child can bring [A]temporary delight [C]happiness in retrospect 37.We learn from Paragraph 2 that [A]celebrity moms are a permanent source for gossip. [B]single mothers with babies deserve greater attention. [C]news about pregnant celebrities is entertaining. [D]having children is highly valued by the public. 38.It is suggested in Paragraph 3 that childless folks [A]are constantly exposed to criticism. [C]fail to fulfill their social responsibilities. their life. 39.According to Paragraph 4, the message conveyed by celebrity magazines is [A]soothing .[B]ambiguous. [C]compensatory. [D]misleading. 40.Which of the following can be inferred from the last paragraph? [A]Having children contributes little to the glamour of celebrity moms. [B]Celebrity moms have influenced our attitude towards child rearing. [C]Having children intensifies our dissatisfaction with life. [D]We sometimes neglect the happiness from child rearing. Part B Directions: The following paragraph are given in a wrong order. For Questions 41-45, you are required to reorganize these paragraphs into a coherent text by choosing from the list A-G to filling them into the numbered boxes. Paragraphs E and G have been correctly placed. Mark your answers on ANSWER SHEET 1. (10 points)
[B]enjoyment in progress [D]lasting reward
[B]are largely ignored by the media. [D]are less likely to be satisfied with
[A] No disciplines have seized on professionalism with as much enthusiasm as the humanities. You can, Mr Menand points out, became a lawyer in three years and a medical doctor in four. But the regular time it takes to get a doctoral degree in the humanities is nine years. Not surprisingly, up to half of all doctoral students in English drop out before getting their degrees. [B] His concern is mainly with the humanities: Literature, languages, philosophy and so on. These are disciplines that are going out of style: 22% of American college graduates now major in business compared with only 2% in history and 4% in English. However, many leading American universities want their undergraduates to have a grounding in the basic canon of ideas that every educated person should posses. But most find it difficult to agree on what a ―general education‖ should look like. At Harvard, Mr Menand notes, ―the great books are read because they have been read‖-they form a sort of social glue. [C] Equally unsurprisingly, only about half end up with professorships for which they entered graduate school. There are simply too few posts. This is partly because universities continue to produce ever more PhDs. But fewer students want to study humanities subjects: English departments awarded more bachelor‘s degrees in 1970-71 than they did 20 years later. Fewer students requires fewer teachers. So, at the end of a decade of theses-writing, many humanities students leave the profession to do something for which they have not been trained. [D] One reason why it is hard to design and teach such courses is that they can cut across the insistence by top American universities that liberal-arts educations and professional education should be kept separate, taught in different schools. Many students experience both varieties. Although more than half of Harvard undergraduates end up in law, medicine or business, future doctors and lawyers must study a non-specialist liberal-arts degree before embarking on a professional qualification. [E] Besides professionalizing the professions by this separation, top American universities have professionalised the professor. The growth in public money for academic research has speeded the process: federal research grants rose fourfold between 1960and 1990, but faculty teaching hours fell by half as research took its toll. Professionalism has turned the acquisition of a doctoral degree into a prerequisite for a successful academic career: as late as 1969a third of American professors did not possess one. But the key idea behind professionalisation, argues
Mr Menand, is that ―the knowledge and skills needed for a particular specialization are transmissible but not transferable.‖So disciplines acquire a monopoly not just over the production of knowledge, but also over the production of the producers of knowledge. [F] The key to reforming higher education, concludes Mr Menand, is to alter the way in which ―the producers of knowledge are produced.‖Otherwise, academics will continue to think dangerously alike, increasingly detached from the societies which they study, investigate and criticize.‖Academic inquiry, at least in some fields, may need to become less exclusionary and more holistic.‖Yet quite how that happens, Mr Menand dose not say. [G] The subtle and intelligent little book The Marketplace of Ideas: Reform and Resistance in the American University should be read by every student thinking of applying to take a doctoral degree. They may then decide to go elsewhere. For something curious has been happening in American Universities, and Louis Menand, a professor of English at Harvard University, captured it skillfully. Part C Directions: Read the following text carefully and then translate the underlined segments into Chinese. Your translation should be written carefully on ANSWER SHEET 2. (10 points) With its theme that ―Mind is the master weaver,‖ creating our inner character and outer circumstances, the book As a Man Thinking by James Allen is an in-depth exploration of the central idea of self-help writing. (46) Allen‘s contribution was to take an assumption we all share-that because we are not robots we therefore control our thoughts-and reveal its erroneous nature. Because most of us believe that mind is separate from matter, we think that thoughts can be hidden and made powerless; this allows us to think one way and act another. However, Allen believed that the unconscious mind generates as much action as the conscious mind, and (47) while we may be able to sustain the illusion of control through the conscious mind alone, in reality we are continually faced with a question: ―Why cannot I make myself do this or achieve that? ‖ Since desire and will are damaged by the presence of thoughts that do not accord with desire, Allen concluded : ― We do not attract what we want, but wha t we are.‖ Achievement happens because you as a person embody the external
achievement; you don‘t ― get‖ success but become it. There is no gap between mind and matter. Part of the fame of Allen‘s book is its contention that ―Circumstances do not make a person, they reveal him.‖ (48) This seems a justification for neglect of those in need, and a rationalization of exploitation, of the superiority of those at the top and the inferiority of those at the bottom. This ,however, would be a knee-jerk reaction to a subtle argument. Each set of circumstances, however bad, offers a unique opportunity for growth. If circumstances always determined the life and prospects of people, then humanity would never have progressed. In fat, (49)circumstances seem to be designed to bring out the best in us and if we feel that we have been ―wronged‖ then we are unlikely to begin a conscious effort to escape from our situation .Nevertheless, as any biographer knows, a person‘s early life and its conditions are often the greatest gift to an individual. The sobering aspect of Allen‘s book is that we have no one else to blame for our present condition except ourselves. (50) The upside is the possibilities contained in knowing that everything is up to us; where before we were experts in the array of limitations, now we become authorities of what is possible.
Section Ⅲ Writing Part A 51. Directions: Write a letter to a friend of yours to 1) recommend one of your favorite movies and 2) give reasons for your recommendation Your should write about 100 words on ANSWER SHEET 2 Do not sign your own name at the end of the leter. User ―LI MING‖ instead. Do not writer the address.(10 points) Part B 52. Directions: Write an essay of 160---200 words based on the following drawing. In your essay, you should 1) describe the drawing briefly, 2) explain it‘s intended meaning, and 3) give your comments. Your should write neatly on ANSWER SHEET 2. (20 points)
2010 年全国硕士研究生入学统一考试英语试题 Section I Use of English Directions: In 1924 America's National Research Council sent two engineers to supervise a series of industrial experiments at a large telephone-parts factory called the Hawthorne Plant near Chicago. It hoped they would learn how stop-floor lighting workers' productivity. Instead, the studies ended experimented upon changed subjects' behavior. The idea arose because of the behavior of the women in the Hawthorne plant. According to of the experiments, their hourly output rose when lighting was what was done in the that they were being increased, but also when it was dimmed. It did not experimented upon seemed to be giving their name to the to being "Hawthorne effect", the extremely influential idea that the very
experiment; something was changed, productivity rose. A(n)
to alter workers' behavior itself. to econometric the analysis.
After several decades, the same data were systematic lighting.
Hawthorne experiments has another surprise store the descriptions on record, no was found that levels of productivity were related to changes in
It turns out that peculiar way of conducting the experiments may be have let to interpretation of what happed. , lighting was always changed on a Sunday. When work started again on Monday, output rose compared with the previous Saturday and 17 to rise for the next couple of days. , a comparison with data for weeks to be diligent for the first few days of the week in any case, when there was no experimentation showed that output always went up on Monday, workers before a plateau and then slackening off. This suggests that the alleged
"Hawthorne effect" is hard to pin down. 1. [A] affected 2. [A] at [B] achieved [C] extracted [D] restored
[B] up [C] with [B] sight
3. [A] truth
[C] act [D] proof [D] ambiguous [D] assessments
4. [A] controversial
[B] perplexing [C] mischievous [C] accounts
5. [A] requirements [B] explanations
6. [A] conclude 7. [A] as far as
[B] matter [C] indicate [B] for fear that
[C] in case that [D] so long as [C] sentiment [D] illusion
8. [A] awareness [B] expectation 9. [A] suitable [B] excessive
[C] enough [D] abundant
10. [A] about [B] for [C] on [D] by 11. [A] compared [B] shown [C] subjected [D] conveyed 12. [A] contrary to [B] consistent with [C] parallel with 13. [A] evidence [B] guidance [D] peculiar to
[C] implication [D] source [C] reliable [D] misleading [C] In consequence [D] As usual
14. [A] disputable [B] enlightening 15. [A] In contrast [B] For example 16. [A] duly 17. [A] failed [B] accidentally
[C] unpredictably [D] suddenly
[B] ceased [C] started [D] continued [B] climbing [C] surpassing [D] hitting
20. [A] breaking Section II Part A Directions:
Read the following four texts. Answer the questions below each text by choosing [A], [B], [C] or [D]. Mark your answers on ANSWER SHEET 1. (40 points) Text 1 Of all the changes that have taken place in English-language newspapers during the past quarter-century, perhaps the most far-reaching has been the inexorable decline in the scope and seriousness of their arts coverage. It is difficult to the point of impossibility for the average reader under the age of forty to imagine a time when high-quality arts criticism could be found in most big-city newspapers. Yet a considerable number of the most significant collections of criticism published in the 20th century consisted in large part of newspaper reviews. To read such books today is to marvel at the fact that their learned contents were once deemed suitable for publication in general-circulation dailies. We are even farther removed from the unfocused newspaper reviews published in England between the turn of the 20th century and the eve of World
War II, at a time when newsprint was dirt-cheap and stylish arts criticism was considered an ornament to the publications in which it appeared. In those far-off days, it was taken for granted that the critics of major papers would write in detail and at length about the events they covered. Theirs was a serious business, and even those reviewers who wore their learning lightly, like George Bernard Shaw and Ernest Newman, could be trusted to know what they were about. These men believed in journalism as a calling, and were proud to be published in the daily press. ―So few authors have brains enough or literary gift enough to keep their own end up in journalism,‖ Newman wrote, ―that I am tempted to define ?journalism‘ as ?a term of contempt applied by writers who are not read to writers who are.‘‖ Unfortunately, these c