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2011-2016高考英语单选题技巧点拨


GAOKAO ENGLISH ERLINGYISI LIUYUE ERSHIYIRI

2011-2016 高考英语单选题技巧点拨
高考单项填空题所考察的语言知识点多,覆盖面广,且突出语境化因素,旨在考查考生 记忆、理解、掌握中学阶段所学基础语法、基本词汇以及习语的熟练程度和灵活运用语言的 能力。考生除了必须具备扎实的基础外,还要有科学的解题方法。<

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1.句子结构还原法
英语中的许多句子会以各种结构出现,如倒装句,强调句等。试题还常以变化句型的方式来 增加语境和句子结构的复杂性。因此考生平时就留意它们的特征,透过复杂的语言环境,结 合语法分析看透题目的意图。正确的方法有: 1)将疑问句、感叹句还原为陈述句 (1) What great difficulty we had_____ her! A. persuade B. to persuade C. persuading D. persuaded 分析: C。 易选 D。 此句考查感叹句式。 可先将此句还原为陈述句式: We had great difficulty______ her.由 have difficulty(in) doing sth.知 C 项符合条件。 (2) Is this the reason _______ at the meeting for his carelessness in his work?(2002 上海春招) A. he explained B. what he explained C. how he explained D. why he explained 分析:A。易选 D,考生依据常见搭配 the reason why;处理此题首先应该将句子还原为正常语 序,即:this is the reason_____ at the meeting ...。he explained 前省略了一个 that,that 引导的 是一个定语从句。 (3) Who would you rather have________the report instead of you? A. to write B. write C. writing D. written 2)将倒装句、强调句还原为正常语序 (3) Mary thought that it was______ that Jane did her to lend her the beautiful car. A. possible B. kind C. necessary D. a favor 分析: D。 句中的宾语从句是一个强调句式。 将其转换为非强调句式: Mary thought that Jane did her______ to lend her the beautiful car. do sb a favor 是习惯搭配,意为“帮某人一个忙”,由此可以 确定 D 为正确答案? (4)______ you eat the correct foods ______ be able to keep fit and stay healthy. (2008 江苏卷) A. only if; will you B. Only if; you will C. Unless; will you D. Unless; you will 分析: A。 本题考查倒装句式。 先将其转换为正常语序: You will be able to keep fit and stay healthy only if you eat the correct foods.由于是对主句进行倒装,所以选 A。 3)将省略句还原为完整句 省略句可用于简单句及复合句,它的使用虽然能使句子更加简洁,但有时使人理解困难。在 近年来的高考题中已多次出现省略句的考点。条件状语从句、时间状语从句等常用省略形式。 解题时应根据语境逻辑需要将被省略的内容补齐,从而达到正确理解的目的。 (1)—Have you known Dr. Jackson for a long time? —Yes, since she ______ the Chinese Society. (全国 I 卷) A. has joined B. joins C. had joined D. joined 分析: D。 该题考查 since 时间状语从句中的动词时态。 将第二句补充完整为: Yes, I have known since she _____ the Chinese Society.主句为现在完成时,since 的从句常用一般过去时。 (2) One of the sides of the board should be painted yellow, and __________.(2000 春季招生) A. the other is white B. another white C. the other white D. another is white

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分析:C。易选 A 或 D 两项。C 项补充完整应是 the other should be painted white。A 项中少了 painted,B 及 D 项中不能用 another,因为木板只有两面,两面中的另一面只能用 the other。 (3) When first _______ to the market, these products enjoyed great success. (2004 全国Ⅱ卷) A. introducing B. introduced C. introduce D. being introduced 分析:B。将从句补充完整应为:When they were first introduced to the market。D 项为进行时 的被动语态,表示正在进行,与题意不符。 (4) ----What should I do with this passage? ----_________the main idea of each paragraph. A. Find out B. Finding out C. To find out D. Having find out (5)-----What made her so sad? -----_____________. A. She lost her money B. Losing her money C. She had lost her money D. Because she lost her money (6)Many volunteers are taking part in the construction of the library, which, when _________,will open to the public. A. to be finished B. finished C. finishing D. having been finished 4)将冗长题干还原为简单题干 命题者往往有意设置一些无效附加信息,使题干复杂化。在解决这类题时,不妨将这些无效 附加信息大胆合理地舍去,这样有利于抓住试题主干,为准确求解扫除障碍。 (1)The other day, my brother drove his car down the street at ______ I thought was a dangerous speed. (2004 上海春招) A. as B. which C. what D. that

分析:C。该题考查名词性从句连接词的选用。插入语 I thought 可以舍去不看,at 后面的宾语 从句中缺少主语,因而填 what。What 在名词性从句中作主语、宾语或表语;D 项 that 在名词 性从句总补充当任何成分。 (2)The managers discussed the plan that they would like to see ______ the next year. (2000全 国卷) A. carry out B. carrying out C. to carry out D. carried out 分析: D。 先将此句改变为两个简单句: The managers discussed the plan. 和 They would like to see the plan_______ the next year. 这样我们就发现空白处应该用过去分词作宾语补足语,表示被动 意义,从而可以判断出 C 项为正确答案? (3) The farm as well as its neighboring hills we once spent so much time _______on a new look as recently as last year. A. on has taken B. has taken C. on having taken D. having taken (4)It’s dangerous to let children who are ________go swimming in the river. A. too young to B. so young C. not old enough to D. so old (5)The old man insisted that the book Mr. Thompson talked about_______. A. was worth reading B. was worth to be read C. being worth reading D. be worth reading (6)Is _____48 hours _____that man-made satellite_______is made in our country to orbit the planet around? A. it; that; where B. it; when ; that C. it for; that it takes; that D. it ; that it takes; which 5) 将被动式题干还原为主动式题干 The teacher said time should be made good use of _______ our lessons well. A. learning B. learn C. to learn D. being learned

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分析: C。 考生易选 A, 受介词后接动名词短语形式影响。 题干可以还原为: The teacher said we should make good use of time _______ our lessons well.很明显空白处所填应表示目的。

2.语境分析法
语境即一定的语言环境。近年的高考题往往自然、巧妙地设置一定的语言情景或故意隐蔽某 些有效的信息。考生仅凭语法和词汇知识来判断某些单项填空题往往很难做出正确选择,只 有分析具体的语言情境,同时要注意中西文化的差异,才能找出答案。 (1) —Could I ask you a rather personal question? —Sure, ____. (2008 全国卷 II) A. pardon me B. go ahead C. good idea D. forget it 分析:B。由答语 sure 推知回答者答应对方的请求,go ahead 这里意为“问吧” 。 (2) —Good evening. Huang shan Hotel. —Good evening. ______________? (2008 安徽卷) A. Do you still have a room for tonight B. What would you like, please C. Is there anything I can do for you D. Who is that speaking, please 分析:该题考查情境交际。由语境知,这是一电话对话。Huangshan Hotel.是旅馆前台人员的 回答,故应排除 B、C 两项。由第一句可知,后者应试电话者,故只能是咨询“是否有房间?” 因而 A 项符合语境。D 项与宾馆无关。 (3) A cook will be immediately fined if he is found ______ in the kitchen. A. smoke B. smoking C. to smoke D. smoked 分析:B。动词不定式表示将要发生的动作,过去分词表示完成?被动的动作,现在分词表示正在 进行的动作?从语境“倘若厨师被发现在厨房里抽烟,他将马上被开除”可知,选项 B 为正确答案? (4)-----You were out when I dropped in on you this morning. ------I _________for the airport to see a friend off. A. have left B. left C. had left D. was leaving (5)I agree with most of what you said, but I don’t agree with_______. A. everything B. anything C. something D. nothing

3.标点暗示法
标点符号在高考试题中占有一席之地。它在单选题干中看似微不足道,但其作用不可忽视, 特别是在定语从句或分词作状语等的结构时。其中分号有并列连词的功能。高中阶段的并列 连词有 and, but ,so for ,or .看到并列连词说明两个句子是并列的,如果没有并列连词,就要考 虑用从句,非谓语动词,独立主格结构等。破折号表示解释说明。 (1) ________ to reach them on the phone, we sent an email instead. (2008 重庆卷) A. Fail B. Failed C. To fail D. Having failed 分析:D 该题考查非谓语动词。由题中的逗号可知,前面应是一个非谓语动词结构而非句子, we 与 fail 形成主动关系,且“失败”发生在“发 email”之前,故用现在分词的完成时作状语。 (2) The growing speed of a plant is influenced by a number of factors, _____ are beyond our control. (2008 湖南卷) A. most of them B. most of which C. most of what D. most of that 分析:B。该题考查非限制性定语从句。因为题干中逗号没有连词,所以不可能是个并列句, 由此排除 A 项;又因为 what, that 不能引导非限制性定语从句,故选 B。 (3)Please do me a favor-------________my roommate David that I am leaving for Shanghai and stay there for two days.

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A. to inform B. informing C. inform D. informed (4)①Not far from the club there was a garden, ________owner seated in it playing games with his children every afternoon. ②Not far from the club there was a garden, ________owner is seated in it playing games with his children every afternoon. ③Not far from the club there was a garden, and________owner is seated in it playing games with his children every afternoon. A.whose B.its C.which D.that (5) He wrote five novels, two of _______translated into English. He wrote five novels, two of _______ were translated into English. He wrote five novels, and two of _______ were translated into English. A. it B. them C. which D. that

4.突破思维定式法(防止有陷阱就往里跳)
思维定式即以习惯的方式解决问题的思路。命题者常利用考生熟悉的句型结构、固定搭配或 母语等巧设陷阱,给考生造成假象。解题中,注意正确理解句意,克服思维定势才是解题的 关键。 (1) _____ the project as planned, we’ll have to work two more hours a day.(2008 湖南卷) A. Completing B. Complete C. Completed D. To complete 分析:D。此题考生易选 A。究其原因,他们认为 complete 和 we 形成主动关系,故而用现在 分词结构,却不知此处是表示目的。 (2) _____ is known to us all is that the 2008 Olympic Games will take place in Beijing. (2008 福建卷) A. It B. What C. As D. Which 分析:B。该题考察名词性从句。考生易选 A 或 C,误把 it 当初形式主语,或将题目看成常见 的 as is known to …引导的非限制性定语从句, 而没有看清前面是个主语从句且主语从句中又少 主语,这里只有 what 有这个功能。 (3) The home improvements have taken what little there is_______ my spare time. (NMET 2001) A. from B. in C. of D. at 分析:C。很多考生误选了 B 项?考生是受了 in one’s spare time 这个习惯搭配的干扰而不知道 此处的 what little 与 my spare time 构成的是所有关系,即部分与整体的关系?

5.固定搭配法
固定搭配法就是根据词与词的搭配关系来找某问题答案的方法。常见的是一些特定的句型、 句式和某些固定的短语搭配等。 (1) It is often said that the joy of traveling is ____ in arriving at your destination ____ in the journey itself. (2008 江苏卷) A. / … But B. / … Or C. not … or D. not … but 分析:D。本题考查的是固定搭配。not ? but ?是固定词组,意为“不是??而是??”。 (2) You have no idea how she finished the relay race ____ her foot wounded so much.(2008 福建) A. for B. when C. with D. while 分析:C。本题考查 with 的复合结构用法。with+名词+形容词,with 的复合结构在句中做状语, 表示谓语动作发生的伴随情况、时间、原因、方式等。其它三项均为连词,应接句子。 (3) I _____ it as a basic principle of the company that suppliers of raw materials should be given a fair price for their products. (2008 江西卷)

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A. make B. look C. take D. think 分析:C。本题考查固定短语的用法。take ?as “把?当作?” ,题中 it 做形式宾语。

6.逻辑推理法
有时考生需要将选项放入句中看前后的意思是否通顺,是否符合上下文逻辑,通过逻辑来选 出正确答案。 (1) —Hi, Mark. How was the musical evening? —Excellent! Ales and Andy performed _______ and they won the first prize.(2008 安徽卷) A. skillfully B. commonly C. willingly D. nervously 分析: A。 由 excellent 以及后半句的 won the first prize 推知空白处的词应该是赞扬 Ales 和 Andy 的表现,具有迷惑性的 C 项表示“自愿地” ,不符合题意。A 项 skillfully 意为“技术高超地” , 符合题意。 (2) In some places women are expected to earn money ____ men work at home and raise their children. (2008 四川卷) A. but B. while C. because D. though

分析:B。本句前半句意思是“某些地方女人被期待去挣钱” ,后半句意为“男人在家工作并 抚养孩子” ,可见两部分意思形成对比,此处 while 相当于 and at the same time。

7.语法分析法
对基本语法的灵活运用是高考单项填空考查的一个主要内容。解题时必须仔细分析句子结构 后,注意句子前后的一致性,如主谓一致、时态一致、代词一致等,并且快速划分出意群, 弄清句子结构,找出所缺句子的成分,这样才有利于问题的解决。 (1)______wants to stay in a hotel has to pay their own way. (2008 浙江卷) A. Anyone B. The one C. Whoever D. Who 分析:C。本题考查名词性从句。分析语法成分可知…has to pay their own way 中缺少主语。该 主语由主语从句充当,再分析主语从句,知从句缺少主语,而这里只有 whoever 能既引导从 句,又在从句中作主语,相当于 anyone who。 (2) Later in this chapter cases will be introduced to readers ______ consumer complaints have resulted in changes in the law.(2008 江西卷) A. where B. when C. who D. which 分析:A。该句考查定语从句。划分意群知主句是:Later in this chapter cases will be introduced to readers.后半部分是个分割式定语从句,先行词是 cases。因为定语从句只缺少地点状语, 故选 where。

8.比较、排除法
比较是对语法知识、词义、相似结构进行比较,最后选出正确答案。排除法不能单独使用, 它只是前几种方法的补充,因为排除某一选项必须依据固定搭配和句子结构才能进行。 (1) I’m sorry you’ve been waiting so long, but it’ll still be some time ____ Brian get back. (2008 北京 卷) A. before B. since C. till D. after 分析:A。考查连词及相似句型的辨析。It is some time before 是一个句型,表示“在之前还有 一段时间”。考生还要注意区别一下四个相似句型: 1)It will be/was+一段时间+before…表示“??才”或“??就”; 2)It has been/is+时间段+since…表示“自??以来已有多长时间”;

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3)It is/was +时间点+when…表示“当??时,时间是??”,when 引导时间状语从句; 4)It is/was +强调部分+that/who…为强调句式。 (2) This is such a wonderful film _____ we have never seen. A. that B. as C. which D. what 分析:B。易错选 A。注意区分 such…that 和 such…as 的用法。在 such... that 引导的结果状语 从句中, that 不充当句子成分, 而在 such... as 引导的定语从句中, as 常作定语从句的主语 或宾语。此题 seen 后缺少一个宾语, 故后面是一个定语从句。 (3) _________in thought, he almost ran into the car in front of him. A. Losing B. Having lost C. Lost D. To lose 分析:C。 “in thought”意为“在思考中”,表状态,所以所填的非谓语动词不能是 V-ing 形式, 排除 A 项和 B 项;D 项 To lose 置于句首常表示目的,与题意不符;Lost 为过去分词相当于形 容词,与本题相符,故 C 项正确。

9. 综合分析法
上述每一种解题方法绝不是唯一的,各种方法之间的关系是互补的,是相互渗透的。因此在 解题过程中,灵活、巧妙地使用多种方法往往较只用一种方法效果更好,而命题人越来越倾 向于从多角度、综合地考查考生的知识水平。因此,解体时要瞻前顾后,通盘考虑。 As we all know, every minute, _____ full use of_____ our lessons, will do good to us students. A. which makes; studying B. when made; to study C. that is made; study D. that is made; studying 分析:B。此题题干很长,但分析句子结构可知,其主句应该为: As we all know, every minute will do good to us students. every minute 后面又有一个由 when 引导的省略的状语从句?若将其补全,则 应为: When [every minute is] made full use of to study our lessons.可以将被动语态转换为主动语 态,即: When we students make full use of every minute to study our lessons ... ,这样就不难选出 答案了。

10. 口诀法
(1)-----Where is that _________tie I bought last month? -----Can’t you remember giving it to Rachel as a wedding gift? A. silk new black B. new silk black C. new black silk D. black new silk 形容词的排列顺序口诀:限定描绘大长高,形状年龄与新老,颜色国籍出材料,作用类别往 后靠 1.在记忆介词 but,except 后接不定式时带不带 to 这个知识点时,有同学编了一句话“Do 与 to 不共戴天”,即“有 do 无 to,无 do 有 to”,就彻底解决了这一问题。即在含介词 but 的句型中, but 前有 do,则 but 后的不定式不能带 to;相反,but 前若找不到 do,则 but 后的不定式必定 带 to.例如: She could do nothing but cry.她只好哭了。 (她除了哭以外别的什么也不能做。 ) I have no choice but to accept the fact.我别无选择,只好接受这个事实。 2.在记忆表“某国人”的名词的单复数是否加“s”时, 我们可记住这一句话: 中日不变, 英法不变, 其他“s”加后边。 即 Chinese, Japanese 单复数同形; Englishman, Frenchman 的复数为 Englishmen, Frenchmen;其他像 German,American,Australian 等的复数形式是在后面加“s”。 3.lie lay lain 躺/lay laid laid 放下;产蛋/lie lied lied 撒谎,这几个词在拼写上很容易混淆,有 人编了这样的口诀:规则的“撒谎”,不规则的“躺”,“躺”过就“下蛋”,“下蛋”不规则。“规则” 指规则变化,“不规则”即不规则变化,如 lie 作“撒谎”解时,是规则变化,即其过去式和过去

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分词直接加-d;“躺过”的“过”指的是过去式,即 lie 的过去式 lay 是“下蛋”的原形;“下蛋”是不 规则变化。 He lay there lying that the hen laid an egg.
4. 感观使役动词记忆和使用口诀 二听四看一感觉,使役动词有三个,或:一感二听三使四看。 一感;feel 二听:hear,listen to 三使:make ,let ,have 四看:look at,see,watch,notice 使用口诀:感使动词真奇怪,to 在句中象妖怪。 主动句里它走开,被动句里它回来。 动词 let 要除外,to 词可来可不来。

11.句子结构分析法
有些试题本来十分简单,但是命题者却通过使用定语从句,或者将我们十分熟悉的固定 词组有意拆开,重新组合,使我们在结构上产生错觉。 1.-Where do you think________he_______the computer? -Sorry, I have no idea. A.had ; bought B.has ; bought C.did; buy D./; bought 注意: 在 do you think/believe/suppose/imagine 与特殊疑问词连用时, 习惯把他们放在特殊疑 问词的后面, 句子语序用陈述语序。 2.Everything he______away from him before he returned to his hometown A.took B.had been taken C.had had been taken D.had taken 3.Please tell me the way you thought of__________the garden. A.take care of B.to take care of C.taking care of D.how to take care of 4. It is said that the footballer is willing to play for ________will pay him three million dollars per year. A. whoever B. whomever C.anyone D. no matter who 5. The majority of people here agree that there_____a bus stop near the house will be a great advantage. A. was B. have been C. having been D. being 6. This is the main use that the scientists make _______natural resources. A. in B. up of C, from D. of

12.区分短暂性动词与延续性动词的正确使用
(1)-How long have you been there? -______the end of last month. A.In B.By C.At D.Since (2)until 用于肯定句, 主句用延续性动词;用于否定句,主句用短暂性动词 I will wait until he comes back. I won’t leave until he comes back. (3)since 与短暂性动词连用, “自从做某事多长时间了” since 与延续性动词连用, “自从不做某事多长时间了” It is three years since I began to smoke. It is three years since I smoked. (4)while 从句的动词须用延续性动词

13.注意连词的一词多义的使用(连词的一次多用法)
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(1)How can they learn so much __________they spend such a lot of time hanging about ? A.although B.when C.before D.until (2)-_______advertisements are of great help , I don’t think we should rely on them entirely. A.since B.because C.while. D.as 注意: when :当??的时候;既然;这时突然;在??之后;虽然然而可是; While:当??的时候;然而;尽管虽然 before 在??之前;还没来得及,还未??就;才;不到??就;趁着还没有??就; as:虽然,用于倒装;正如;按照;随着;一边一边;由于,因为;介词作为

14. 抓关键词(短语)法,抓住“题眼” 15. 注意英汉文化差异,排除母语干扰法
在日常的英语学习中,必须重视对英语国家文化背景的了解, 注意汉语和英语在风俗习惯上 的差异。一定要注意避免受母语影响而出现“汉语式”的表达。在高考中有很多试题这一点 而设的,所以要特别小心。 -I apologize for not being able to join you for dinner. -________, we’ll get together later. A. Go ahead B. Not to worry C. That ’s right D. Don’t mention it 答案 B. 选择项 D 符合汉语的回答习惯 “别提了” 。 一般用于别人道谢时候的回答, 翻译成 “不 客气” 句意:没有能和你一起吃饭深表歉意。 不必担心,我们以后还有机会一起吃。

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高考英语单选题【提升练习】
1. You cannot imagine what great trouble I took ______ your house. A. to find B. finding C. found D. having found 2. ______we are ______ our achievements after so many years’ efforts. A. How proud; of B. What proud; in C. How proud; in D. What proud; of 3.—What have you _______ air, Tom? —Basketball. A. have filled with B. had filled with C. had filled of D. to have filled 4. Is this hotel _____ you said we were to stay in your letter? A. where B. which C. in that D. in which 5.—If your radio doesn’t work, who will you _______to repair it? —_______fits for the job. A. have; Anyone who B. get; Whoever C. suggest; The one who D. hope; Anyone 6.—Do you know ______ he went to Beijing? —Yes, I do, he went there by plane. A. how B. when C. that D. if 7. Is there a library around __________ I can borrow a book for reference? A. that B. which C. where D. what 8. What made him glad was that the theory he had stuck to______ wrong. A. turned out B. turning out C. was turned out D. to be turned out 9.—How did you sleep last night? —Wonderful. Never slept___. A. well B. better C. best D. a better 10._____ the financial crisis_____ has caused many people to lose jobs so far broke out last year came as a great shock to the whole world. A. That; what B. What; that C. Which; that D. That; which 11. When_________ why he was late, he made no answer. A. questioned B. questioning C. asking questions D. question? 12. There were a lot of people in the reading room, most of_____ seated there chatting and laughing. A. them B. whom C. that D. which 13. The teacher often tells him to spend as much time as he_____ his lessons. A. can do to study B. can studying C. can to study D. possible to study 14. _____in a peaceful way, the long war between the two countries ended at last. A. To settle B. Settle C. Settling D. Settled 15. It is in the company______ you referred to_____ this kind of beer is produced. A. which; where B. which; that C. where; that D. that; which 16. The prize will come to _________comes first in the competition. A. who B. whom C. whoever D. whomever 17. It is such a difficult problem _______ no one can work out.

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A. as B. that C. so D. thus 18. _________ and you’ll succeed in time. A. If you try again B. Trying once more C. Another try D. To try again 19.—Does your brother serve in the army? —No, not now. But he ________ in the army for 8 years. A. would serve B. served C. had served D. was serving 20. To our great______, Mary’s illness proved not to be as serious as we had feared. A. anxiety B. relief C. view D. judgment 21. Not until his parents turned off the TV, _________________. A. did he go to bed B. didn’t he go to bed C. he did go to bed D. he didn’t go to bed 22. Don’t you know that your school is, as a matter of fact, ______ used to be a church? A. where B. what C. that D. which 23.—How long do you suppose it is______ he arrived here? —No more than half a week. A. since B. before C. after D. when 24.—People should be encouraged to use public transport instead of cars. —__________. The roads are really too crowded. A. All right B. No problem C. Go ahead D. Exactly 25.—Has Sam finished his homework today? —I have no idea. He ________ it this morning. A. did B. has done C. was doing D. had done 26. It is not what you say is right but what you do _______ is of importance. A. which B. it C. that D. this 27. A warm thought came to me _______ I might give my book to the poor girl. A. if B. when C. that D. which

【参考答案】 1-5: AABAB 6-10:ACABD 11-15:AACDB 16-20:CACBB 21-27: ABADC CC

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