M3U3 Back to the past Period4 Grammar and usage
一、 【设计思想】 通过讨论和总结等方式，激发学生获取知识的兴趣，在潜移默化中掌握该部分的语 法知识。 二、 【教学目标】 1.学生要掌握宾语补足语的概念以及可以在句中充当宾语补足语的成分。 2.帮助学生了解主谓一致的概念和用法。 三.【教学重难点】 如何使学生能够准确地判断
出在句中充当宾语补足语的不同成分以及如何正确地使 用主谓一致原则。 四【教学环节】 【课堂教与学】 一、宾语补足语。 Step1: Introduction to Object Complement. 1.Don’t keep the door open all night. 2.We all consider him a good leader. 3.He made me repeat this sentence. 4.He asked me to carry the box for him. 5.We found a beggar lying on the river bank. 6.Tom had his leg broken yesterday. 总结：上述句中划线部分均充当_______________ , 其的作用是________________, 常 见 的 形 式 有 ________ 、 ________ 、 ________ 、 __________ 、 __________ 、 ____________。宾语补足语的基本结构为___________________。 Step2: The functions of Object Complement. 1.名词 e.g. They named their daughter Jenny. 【Tips】①常用名词充当宾语补足语的动词有：call, name, elect, make, think, appoint, choose, find, consider, keep, wish, feel 等。 ②充当宾语补足语的名词若表示正式的或独一无二的头衔、职位时，前面一 般不用冠词，如： They elected John chairman of the committee. 2.形容词 e.g. You should keep your room clean and tidy. 3.动词不定式 Nobody could make him change his mind.
Would you like me to come along with you? 【Tips】当动词不定时充当宾语补足语时分为两种情况： （ 1 ）接动词不定式 (to do) 做宾语补足语 , 常见的动词有： advise , recommend, permit , allow, forbid, order, persuade, get, tell, beg, force, wish, want, expect…等。 （2）接不带 to 的不定式做宾补的动词，常见的动词有： 使役动词：make, have, let 感官动词：一感 feel 二听：listen to, hear 五看：see, look at, notice, watch, observe 【Notice】①主动语态接不带 to 的不定式，被动语态____________。 ②感官动词既可接不带 to 的不定式，也可接__________。 【Practice】 ①The workers here are made ____________(work) ten hours a day. ②The missing boy was last seen ___________(play) by the riverside. 4.现在分词 e.g. I’m sorry to have kept you waiting for so long. I could feel the cold wind blowing on my face. 【Tips】 只能用现在分词作宾语补足语的动词有： catch, keep, mind, prevent, stop, smell, excuse 等。 5.过去分词 He watched the TV set carried out of the room. Last year they had their house rebuilt. 【Tips】当过去分词充当宾语补足语时，它与宾语之间有着动宾关系，即：宾语是 过去分词所表示的动作的承受者，如： I once heard this song sung in Japanese. (This song was once sung in Japanese.) 【Practice】Finish the exercises on P48. 二、主谓一致。 Step1: 谓语动词常用复数的情况. 1.主语为复数名词或代词 e.g. The teachers are respected in the world. 2.当 people , police, cattle 等集体名词作主语时 e.g. The police are looking for the missing child. The cattle are kept in his farm. 3.山脉、群岛、瀑布、运动会等-s 结尾的复数名词作主语 e.g. The Olympic Games are held once every four years. The Rocky mountains stand in the west of the north America
4.the+adj. 表示一类人 或物做主语。如： the+ blind, deaf, living, dead, wounded, poor, rich，old, young 等。 e.g. The dead are soon forgotten. The rich are not always happy. Step2:谓语动词常用单数的情况 1.可数名词的单数及不可数名词作主语时。 2.表示时间、距离、金钱、长度、重量等复数名词作主语，表达一个整体概念时。 e.g. Twenty years is only a short time in human history. 3.主语从句、动词不定式、动名词 形式作主语时，谓语动词用单数。 e.g. Looking after the children is my full time job. To die for the people is a worthy death. When and where to hold the meeting is unknown. Whatever was left was taken away. 4.以-S 结尾的单数名词， 表示学科、 国家、 机构、 书籍、 报刊等名称作主语, (news, physics, maths，politics) e.g. The United states is made up of 50 states. The Times is a newspaper for the British government Great Expectations was written by Charles Dickens in 1860. 5.each/ neither /either+of + the+复数名词或代词 e.g. Each of us has a dictionary. Either of the books on the table belongs to me. Neither of them is fit for the job. 6. many a / each / every /either / neither/ more than one +单数名词 e.g. Many a student has seen the film. Neither story is true. More than one student has seen the film. More students than one have seen the film. 7.由 some, any, no, every + one/thing/body 所构成的复合代词做主语时，谓语 用单数. e.g. Nobody wants to go there. Something has been done to end the strike. Step3:主谓一致的其它情况 1.用 and 或 both…and…连接的两个名词作主语时，谓语动词用复数形式。但是如 果 and 连接的两个名词作主语，指同一个人或事或整体概念，谓语动词用单数（如 果是可数名词的单数这时 and 后面的名词一般没有冠词） 。 【Practice】用 is/are 填空 English and Chinese ___________ quite different languages. Water and air _________ both important.
A young man and a girl ________ to go there. The singer and the writer _________ famous to many young people. The manager and secretary _______ as busy as a bee all day The singer and writer ________ famous to everyone. 2.单、复数同形的名词作主语时，按意义一致的原则。作单数意义时，谓语动词用 单数，反之谓语动词用复数。这类名词有： sheep, fish, deer, means( 方法 ), species(种类),works(工厂), Chinese, Japanese 等。 【Practice】用 has/have 填空。 ①Every means ________been tried out without much result. ②All means ________ been tried out without much result. was/were ①This shoe works _______ set up in 1980. ②Those shoe works ________all set up in 1980. 3.某些集体名词作主语时，如果作为一个整体看待，谓语用单数形式；如果就其中 一个个成员而言，谓语动词用复数。常见的名词有：class, club, company, crowd, enemy, committee government, group, party, public, audience team crew 等。 ①His family ____(be) a big family ②His family ______(be) listening to music when he came back ③The population in China______(be) very large, and eighty of the population in China _____(be) farmers. 4.就近原则: 下列连词连接两个主语时， ，谓语应与最靠近的主语保持一致。 如：……or……/either……or……/neither……nor……/not only……but also……/not……but……等。 【Practice】 ①Either the girl or the boy ______ in Canada.( is /are ) ②Neither he nor I _________ the answer.(knows /know) ③Not only I but also Jane and Mary _______tired of having one examination after another.（is/are） ④You ,he or I ______right.(be) ⑤You or he _______ to blame. _____ you or he to blame? A．is，Is B．are，Are C．is，Are D． are，Is ⑥_____either he or you right?(be)(注意就近原则在疑问中的使用) 5 ．就远原则 , 当主语后面跟有 as well as, as much as,no less than, along with,with, like, rather than, together with, but,except, besides,including, in addition to 等词组时，其谓语动词的单复数按主语的单复数而定。 e.g. ①The teacher , with 6 girls and 8 boys of her class, ______ visiting a museum when the earthquake struck. (NMET2004 北京卷)
A. was B . were C. had been D. would be ②Nobody but John and Helen _______absent.(be) I, rather than you，________responsible for the accident.(be) 6. 当主语是 all of/most of/some of/half of/a part of +名词或代词时，谓语 动词的单、复数形式与该名词/代词保持一致。 e.g. All of us have attended the lecture about Pompeii. Most of the lecture was about how the accident city was discovered. 【课堂巩固】 Fill in the blanks. 1. You’d better leave the window ______during the day.(开着) 2.They elected him _________________(我们班班长 ). 3. We found the street ________(line)with many trees. 4.Mark found his English _____________(太有限)on his arrival in England. 5.He asked the teacher ___________(explain) the sentence again. 6. I’ll get the wrong watch_________(repair) as soon as possible. 7. You, he and I ______ (have) the same hobby. 8. Both coffee and beer________ (sell) well in the shop. 9. The teacher and the writer ________ my friends. 10. The teacher and writer often _________ (write) interesting stories.. 【知识小结】 1.可在句中充当宾语补足语的形式。 2.主谓一致原则的使用规则。 【提升与拓展】 Multiple choices 1. The manager discussed the plan that they would like to see ______ the next year. A. carry out B. carrying out C. carried out D. to carry out 2. Because of my poor English I’m afraid I can’t make myself ________. A. understand B. to understand C. understanding D. understood 3. The missing boys was last seen _______ near the river. A. playing B. to be playing C. play D. to play 4. ------ Good morning. Can I help you? ------ I’d like to have this package _______, madam. A. be weighed B. to be weighed C. to weigh D. weighed 5. The teacher stood there, angry, with his arms ______ . A. to cross B. crossing C. crossed D. to be crossed 6. The modern science can keep us _________ with latest news continuously. A. supply B supplied C. being supplied D. supplying
7. The sudden strong wind sent all the fallen leaves ______ in all direction. A. flying B. fly C. to fly D. being flying 8. His parents were killed in the cruel war, ____________. A. leave him an orphan B. leave him to be an orphan C. leaving him an orphan D. to leave him an orphan 9. His words ______ him so angry that he shouted like crazy. A. drove B. kept C. got D. set 10. Those who were present at the meeting all elected him _________of the board. A. to be chairman B. chairman C. the chairman D. to be the chairman 11. A great deal of food ____kept in his fridge. A. is B. are C. has D. have 12.The news of the football match _____ exciting. A. are B. is C. were D. has 13. There _____ a lot of sugar in the jar. A. has B. have C. are D. is 14. The number of the people invited to the ball ____ over sixty, but a number of them _____ absent. A. are , is B. is , are C. are , are D. is, is 15. The population in China ____ large, and eighty percent of the population ____ farmers. A. is, are B. are, is C. is , is D. are, are 16. The teacher as well as the students ____ excited. A. were B. was C. are D. been 17. Tom, together with his classmates, ____ coming to visit China. A. is B. are C. have been 18. More than 60 percent of the world’s radio programs _____ in English. A. were B. are C. was D. is 19. Half an hour ____ enough to do the experiment. A. is B. are C. be D. has 20.Either you or the headmaster ______ the prize to those gifted students at the meeting. (NMET 1994 ) A. is handing out B. are to hand out C. are handing out D. is to hand out 【课后预习】 找出 Task 部分的重点单词及短语，并在下一个导学案中进行记录。
六． 【家庭作业】 1. 复习本节课的内容 2. 教师根据教辅资料自行安排家庭作业 （可适当安排定语从句的练习， 资源包的练 习可参考）