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高中人教版英语必修一Unit2-单词讲解


Unit2 English Around the World

重点单词

1. official adj.官方的;正式的; 公务的 n. 行政官员→ office n.办公室 → officer n.公务员,军官 2. voyage n.航行;航海 3. native adj.本国的;本地的 n.本地人;本国人(可数) 4. actua

lly adv.实际上;事实上 → actual adj.

5. base vt.以……为根据 n.基部;基地;基础 6. gradual adj.逐渐的;逐步的→ adv.逐渐地;逐步地 gradually 7. vocabulary n.词汇;词汇量; 词表 8. latter adj.较后的;后半的;(两 者中)后者的→ former (反义词)

重点短语

1. because of 因为;由于 2. come up 走近;上来;提出 3. at present 现在;目前 4. make use of 利用;使用 5. such as 例如……;像这种的

1. official adj. 官方的,正式的 official language official news n. 政府官员 An important official will visit our school. officer n. 军官
He is an officer in the army.

2.voyage/journey/travel/trip/tour

voyage: 去国外或较远地方的海上旅行 journey: 指较远的从一地到另一地旅行 travel: 一系列的旅程,尤指旅行的概念 trip: (短途)旅行 tour: 为了公务、娱乐或教育参观多处名胜 的旅行

【练习】 journey by train 1). It is tiring to take a long _______ fromParis to Moscow. voyage from England to Australia 2). The _________ used to take several months. trip to France 3). We’ll have time for a ______ next weekend. tour round 4). We went on a guided ______ the castle.

3. because of后边加名词或动名词短语 because是连词, 所以后边跟句子 He came to work late because he got up late. He came to work late because of getting up late.

4. native adj. 本土的,本国的,土生的 (+to) The giant panda is native to China. The giant panda is a native of China. 大熊猫是中国特有的动物。 n. 本地人,本国人 Are you a native here, or just a visitor? 你是本地人, 或者只是游客?

5. come up 上来, 走近; 被提出; (植物)发芽; (太 阳)升起 come up to 地点 上某地来 come up with 提出 想出 He came up with a good idea in the meeting. 问题在会议中被提出来了。 ?The problem came up in the meeting.

太阳升起来了。 The sun came up. ? 不曾出现过这个问题。 ? The question never came up. ? 他靠近并和我们打招呼。 ? He came up and said hello to us. ? 春天草会再度发芽。 ? The grass will come up again in spring.

come across 偶然遇到,发现,被理解 come about 发生 come true 实现 come back 回来, 恢复记忆 come on 催促, 快速运动;得了吧 come out 出现,出版,开花 come in 进来 come over 从一地到另一地

6 .base 基础;基地;根基 (1) n.___________________ Eg: Our company’s base is in beijing. 建于…之上;以…为基础 (2) vt. ____________________ 用法:base A on B A以B为基础 被动 A be based on B A建于B基础之上 Eg: (1)One should always base his opinion on facts. 被动 One’s opinion should always be based on facts. (2)----What are you mailing, Linda? -----A textbook_____a new method of teaching physics. I want my friend to take a look at it. A.is based on B.based on C.basing on D.which based upon

7. at present =at the moment present (adj.)
现在的,目前的,可作前置定语 出席的,在场的,可作后置定语

the present situation/the people present be present at the meeting present (n.) 礼物=gift

presence n.在场,出席 I was surprised by the presence of so many people at the meeting. 这么多人出席会议使我感到吃惊。 【经典例题】 All the people ________ at the party were his supporters.(2002北京) A.present B. thankful C. interested D. important

【答案】 A

8.make use of 利用 同义词 take advantage of 好好利用 make good use of __________ 充分利用 make full use _______ 被动 be made use of eg:You must make good use of any chance to practise English.
被动

Any chance must be made good use of to practise english.

(2)The use you_______time is really practical. A.make B.take C.make of D.take of

【联想】与make有关的短语 make friends with 和…交朋友 make fun of 取笑 make a decision 作出决定 make a face/faces 扮鬼脸 make progress in 在…取得进步 make a choice

9.latter adj.较后的,后面的, (两者中) 后者的 I find it hard to understand the latter part of his lecture. 我发现他的讲座后面部分很难理解。 Did he walk or swim across the river?The latter seems unlikely. 他是趟过河,还是游过河?后者似乎不可 能。 【辨析】late,later, latter, lately

1)late是形容词,表示“迟到的,晚的”。 如: You are late again! 你又迟到了。 2)later可作形容词,是late的比较级,意 为“更迟的,更后的”; 也可作副词,意为“稍后,随后”,常 与on连用。如:

I'll tell you later. 我以后再告诉你。 3)latter最常用的含义是“两者中的(后者)”, 常与the连用,固定搭配“the former…, the latter…”。如: Here are Tom and David; the latter is my brother. 这是汤姆和戴维;后者是我的兄弟。 4)lately是副词,意为“近来,最近 recently”。如: Have you been to Beijing lately? 你最近去过北京吗?

【经典例题】 Did he go there by bike or on foot? The ______ seems unlikely. A latter C later B late D lately

【经典例题】 Every minute must be made full use of ______ spoken English.
A to practise C practice B practicing D practised

10.such as例如,诸如此类,像……这样的 Ball games such as basketball and football are very exciting. 球类运动,如篮球和足球,都很激动人心。

【辨析】such as, for example 1)such as用于列举同类人或事物中的若干 例子,但不能全部列出。如: Mr Wang is good at several foreign languages such as English and French. 王先生精通好几门外语,比如英语和法语。

2) for example一般只列举几类人或事物 中的‘‘一个”,其位置可在句首、句 中或句末,经常用逗号分开。如: Mr Wang is good at several foreign languages,for example,English. 王先生精通好几门外语,比如英语。

【经典例题】 Many famous singers, _____ Wang Fei and SHE, have acted in films. A such B for example C that is D such as

command n.& v. 命令;指令;掌握 command sb. to do sth 命令某人做某事 The officer commanded his soldiers to fire. 那名军官命令士兵们开火。 command后接that从句时要用虚拟语气 老师命令他离开教室。 The teacher commanded that he (should)go out of the classroom. be under sb’s command 在某人的指挥之下 have a good command of… 精通…

3. He commanded that all the gates __________
A. should shut C. would be shut B. shut D. be shut

3. request n.& v. 请求;要求 I requested him to help. 我请求他帮忙。

request sb.to do sth.要求某人做某事 request that sb (should) do 要求某人做某事

to write (write) a letter ⑴ He requested me ________ of recommendation. write ⑵ He requested that I (should) ____________(write) a letter of recommendation. are requested ⑶ The passengers _____________(request) to show their passports.

像command一样,其后的名词性从句的谓语 用“(should)+ 动词原形”的常用词有:
一个“坚持(insist)”; 两个“命令(order,command)”; 三个“建议(suggest,advise,propose)”; 四个“要求 (demand,ask,require,request)”;

5. play a part in在……中起作用, 在……中扮演角色 The computer is playing a more and more important part in our daily life. 电脑在我们的日常生活中正起着越来越 重要的作用。 She was unhappy because she played a small part in the play. 她不开心是因为她在戏中扮演一个小角 色。

【联想】与play a part in意思相同的短语 有play a role in。 【经典例题】 The new economic development zone will _____ in the development of the area. A play a leading part B take part C play leading part D take a part

【答案】A

6.a number of…意思是“一些,若干” (= some),后接可数名词复数或代词, 谓语动词用复数形式。 表示数量大或小:

a large/small number of…
许多/少数……) 【辨析】a number of , the number of

the number of… “……的数字/数目”, 当它作主语时,谓语动词用单数。 Many people took part in 10,000metre race, but only a number of them kept on running to the end.

许多人参加了10000米跑,但只有一些人 坚持跑到底。 A number of my friends think I should take a holiday. 我的一些朋友认为我应该休假。

The number of students is about twenty. 学生人数大约是20人左右。 【经典例题】 A number of people_____ been invited to the party, but the exact number ____ still unknown. A has; is B have; are C has; are D have; is

Key Sentences
1.Later in the next century, people from England made voyages to conquer other parts of the world and because of that, English began to be spoken in many other countries.后来,在下个世纪,英国人开 始航海征服世界其他地区。许多别的国家 因此而开始说英语。

(1)注意voyage是可数名词,常和make搭 配构成make a voyage to或make voyages to,表 示“航行到……”。单数表示一次 航行。

(2)初中学过because表示“因为……”,与 because of的区别是:because是连词,后 面要跟句子,多作原因状语从句; because of中of是介词,后面只能跟名词或 代词或ving作宾语。试比较:

Because it was raining outside,we stayed at home. =Because of the rain outside, we stayed at home. 因为外面下着雨,所以我们就呆在家里。 【经典例题】 We must not lose heart only _____ the difficulty we are faced with. A because B because of C since D as 【答案】B

2. Native English speakers can understand each other even if they don’t speak the same kind of English. 以英语 作为母语的人,即使他们所讲的语言不 尽相同,也可以相互理解。 句中“even if they don’t speak the same kind of English”是让步状语从句。如: They will stand by you even if/though you don’t succeed. 即使你不成功,他们也将支持你。

even if是一个连词短语,引导让步状语 从句,含义是“即使;尽管”。当让步 状语从句的动词用一般现在时表示将来 的假设或一般的行为习惯时,通常用 even if或even though。两者意思一样, 用法也一样。 【经典例题】_______ I fail this time, I would try again. A If only B Even if C whether D As if 【答案】B

3.Believe it or not,there is no such thing as standard English.信不信由你,没有标 准英语这样的东西。 1)believe it or not意为“信不信由你”,常 在句中作插入语。如: Believe it or not,John will go abroad for further study next month. 信不信由你,约翰下个月就要出国深造了。 【联想学习】常见的插入语有: 1)to tell you the truth实话告诉你

To tell you the truth,I'll spend my summer vacation in Yunnan. 实话告诉你吧,我将在云南度过暑假。 2)generally speaking一般说来 Generally speaking,language learning needs a lot of practice. 一般说来,语言的学习需要大量的实践。 3)you know/you see你知道 You see,my car broke down on the way. 你知道,我的车在途中坏了。

4) I think我认为 His coat,I think,is really strange. 他的外套,我认为,实在古怪。 【经典例题】 It is so nice to hear from her. _____, we last met more than 30 years ago. A What’s more B That’s to say C In other words D Believe it or not 【答案】D

(2)no such thing意为“没有这样的事情”。 such与no, any, all, some, another, one, many,a few, a little等词连用时,常置于 这些词之后。如: There is no such person in our school. 我们学校没有这样的人。 I have met many such people.我遇见过 许多这样的人。

【经典例题】 We have _____ book you are looking for. A such no B no such C not such D no such a 【答案】B

4· The USA is a large country in which many different dialects are spoken. 美国是一个使用多种方言的大国。 in which引导定语从句修饰先行词 country,关系代词which作介词in的宾 语,in which在定语从句中作地点状语, 可用where代替。如: The factory in which he once worked has been dosed down. 他曾经工作过的工厂已被关闭。

在“介词+关系代词”引导的定语从句中, 应根据句意与搭配的需要选择正确的介 词或短语介词。如: He studies in the school at the back of which there is a river. 他在背后有条河流的那所学校学习。 Can you see the new building on the top of which flies a red flag? 你能看见到那座楼顶飘着一面红旗的新 大楼吗?

【经典例题】 ①The pen ______he is writing is mine. A. with which B. in which C. on which D. by which 【答案】A ②This is the reason ______he didn't come to the meeting. A. in which B. with which C. that D. for which 【答案】D

5. Well,go round the corner on your lefthand side-straight on and cross two streets. 哦,在拐角处向左拐,照直向前走。穿 过两条街道。 straight adv.直接;挺直 adj.直的;笔直的;正直的 Go straight down the road and then turn left. 沿着这条路一直走,然后左转。

He went to bed straight after supper. 他晚饭后直接去睡了。 His friend is a tall.slim girl with a straight nose. 他的朋友是位鼻子挺直、身材高而苗条的 姑娘。 As you know,his uncle is a straight man. 如你所知,他的叔叔是一个正直的人。

【经典例题】 --- Lucy doesn’t have curly hair. --- Yes, we can say she has ______ hair. A nice B blonde C short D straight 【答案】D

Ⅲ.翻译下列必背短语
? 1.在……中担任角色,在……中起作用 ______________ play a role/part ? 2.充分利用 ? 3.因为,由于 ? 4.信不信由你

? 5.走近,上来
? 6.例如,像这种的 ? 7.以……为基础

? 8.与……不同
? 9.即使;尽管 ? 10.大量的,许多 ?

in ______________ make good/full use of ______________ because of believe it or not ______________ come up ______________ such as ______________ be based on ______________ be different from ______________ even if/even though ______________ a______________ (large) number of


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