综合训练十：省略句、独立结构专题 一．省略句 在英语中，有时为了避免 结构上或内容上的重复，并使上下文紧密连接；有时因为语法的 客观要求，句子中的一个或几个成分不需要表达出来，这种现象称为省略。英语中的省略要 求不破坏语法结构， 要保持句子意义的准确无误。 省略有词法上的省略， 也有句法上的省略， 还有一种替代省略。 （一）.说出以下句子的省略成分. 1, What a hot
day ! How wonderful! 感叹句中常省略________________________ 2. Anything else ? This way, please. 在___________________可以省略某些句子成分 3. You shouldn't come to his party unless invited. Though tired, they went on working. 当状语从句中的___________和主句的___________一致，或状语从句中的主语是 it，并且又 含有 _____________动词时，常可以省略从句中的主语和 be 动词 4. Should it rain tomorrow ,we would have to put off the visit till next week. 虚拟条件句中,含助动词,情态动词,动词 be 或 have 等,若将它们提到______,则需省略__， 5. ---Are you and Jane getting married？---We hope to． I have asked her to come， but she does not want to. He doesn’t like fish， but he used to． ---Why didn’t you come to our party？---I was going to，but l had a report to write． ---Will you join me in a walk？---I'll be happy to 不定式结构常可省略，但要保留________________________ 6. Why not try it again? 在 why not 引导的特殊问句中后跟省略_________________________. 7. ---Do you suppose he is going to attend the meeting? --- I don’t think so. 在一些交际用语中的某些动词，如：think, suppose, expect, believe，guess 等后常常和， _______________等连用，以替代上文出现的内容 (二) 单项选择 从 A、B、C、D 四个选项中，选出可以填入空白处的最佳答案： 1.Although ________ to stop, he kept on working. A. tell B. telling C. having told D. told 2. --- Mary didn’t attend the lecture, did she? --- Yes, she ________. A. attended B. didn’t attend C. didn’t D. did 3. —— I usually go there by train. —— Why not＿＿＿＿＿by boat for a change? (MET’92) A. to try going B. trying to go C. to try and go D. try going 4. ＿＿＿＿＿ for your brother, I would not have gone to see Mr. Wang. A. If it is not B. Were it not C. Had it not been D. If they were not 5. Tom wanted to play football with his friends in the street, but his father told him ＿＿＿＿. A. not to B. not to do C. not do it D. do not to
2008 年 新塘中学高三备课组：倒装句、省略句、独立主格结构、IT 的用法 1
6. ——Do you think Jack is going to watch a football match this weekend? —— ＿＿＿＿＿. A.I believe not B.I believe not so C.I don’t believe it D.I don’t believe 7. —— What do you think made the girl so glad? —— ＿＿＿＿＿ a beautiful necklace. A. As she received B. Receiving C. Received D. Because of receiving 8. Father advised me not to say anything until＿＿＿＿＿ at the meeting. A. asking B. to ask C. asked D ask 9.—— Have you watered the flowers? —— No, but ＿＿＿＿＿. C A.I am B. I’m going 10.He broke his legs while ＿＿＿＿＿. A. riding B. ride
C. I’m just going to C. was riding
D.I will go D. rode
二． 独立结构。 请先看一道高考题： The country has already sent up three unmanned spacecraft, the most recent ________at the end of last March. A．has been launched B．having been launched C．being launched D．to be launched 解析： 首先，判断题干不是一个并列句,因为无连词；其次,最近的飞船上天事件已经发生 , 所以要用现在分词的完成式做状语, 加上分词的逻辑主语后, 构成独立主格结构。 现就英语独立主格结构归纳如下： （一）、独立主格结构的概念及基本构成形式 独立主格结构（the absolute structure）是由名词或代词加上分词或分词短语构成的一种独立 结构，用于修饰整个句子，而不是一个词或词组。独立主格结构中的名词或代词与其后的分 词或分词短语构成逻辑上的主谓关系。 这种结构与主句不发生句法上的联系， 独立主格结构 的位置相当灵活，可置于主句前、主句末或主句中，常由逗号将其与主句分开。需特别注意 的是，独立主格结构与主句之间不能使用任何连接词。例如： 1）Night enshrouding the earth，nobody could make out what the dark mass was from a distance. 对比: Because night enshrouded the earth， nobody could make out what the dark mass was from a distance． 2)He lay at full length upon his stomach，his head resting upon his left forearm． 对比：He lay at full length upon his stomach and his head rested upon his left forearm． （二）、独立主格结构的特殊构成形式 1. with 常常用在独立主格结构前，构成介词短语作状语。这种用法中的 with 不表达什么意 义，因而常可省略。请看例句： 1）With a revolver in his right hand， Johnny hurled his muscular body against the door and smashed it down with a crash．（约翰尼右手拿着左轮手枪，健壮的身体猛扑在门上，轰隆一
2008 年 新塘中学高三备课组：倒装句、省略句、独立主格结构、IT 的用法 2
声把门撞开了。） 2） The traffic inched along， with horns honking． （汽车缓慢地向前挪着， 喇叭声不断响着。 ） 2．名词＋介词短语 1）The mayor of Hiroshima strode at a leisure pace toward the puzzled journalist，a bunch of flowers in his hands． （广岛市市长双手捧着一束鲜花， 迈着方步走向那个迷惑不解的记者。 ） 3．名词＋形容词（短语） 2）The wretched boy，who has recently been dragged from the forest to scrub floors in the barracks，is now sweeping away the snow，his hands numb with cold．（那个可怜的小男孩最 近刚刚从森林中被抓进兵营里打扫地板，现在他正在扫雪，手都冻麻了。） 4．名词＋副词 1）This little excitement over，nothing was to be done but to return to a steadfast gaze at my mute companion．（一阵小小的兴奋过后，除了再去死死地盯着我的哑伴外，别无它事可 干了。） （三）．独立主格结构常见出题形式及解题策略 独立主格结构是一常考项目，在各级各类考试中多以语法结构填空形式出现。例如： 1）All flights _____，we decided to take a greyhound． A．were canceled B．had been canceled C．having canceled D．having been canceled 2）The production ______ steadily，the factory needs an ever-increasing supply of raw material． A．has gone up B．is going up C．having gone up D．being gone up 此类题型的解题策略可以概括为“结构分析法”， 即首先分析句子结构， 判断句子缺少的成分， 同时注意主句与其他部分之间有无连接词，是否用逗号隔开。若有逗号而无连接词，则可对 选项部分作如下初步判断： 1） 选项部分可能会构成状语从句或非限制性定语从句 （但二者必须由从属连词或关系代词、 关系副词引导）； 2）选项部分可能会构成起状语作用的非谓语动词短语（但非谓语动词作状语时其逻辑主语 通常为主句的主语）； 3）选项部分可能会构成起状语作用的独立主格结构（独立主格结构有自己的主语，并可扩 展为状语从句或独立句子）。初步判断后，即可联系句子，对照选项，作出选择。 上述例题 1）中的选项 A 和 B 与 All flights 构成了句子，但该句没有任何从属连词、关系代 词或关系副词引导， 与主句之间也无连接词， 因而是错误的， 应排除。 选项 C 和 D 与 All flights 都可构成独立主格结构，作原因状语，但根据题意，应选 D，因为“班机”是“被取消”的。 同样，例题 2）中的选项 A 和 B 与名词 the production 构成了句子，但该句无连接词连接两 个句子，因而应排除。选项 C 和 D 与 the production 都可构成独立主格结构，作原因状语， 但根据题意，“产量在稳步增长”，在逻辑上是主谓关系，应用主动语态，所以应选 C。 此外，独立主格结构也时常见于其他诸如 Cloze Test 等题型中，并能广泛运用于写作和翻译 之中。可见，掌握了独立主格结构对于学生提高综合应试能力是大有裨益的。
（四）。单项选择。 1．Ford tried dividing the labor，each worker _____a separate task． A．assigning B．assigned C．was assigned D．would be assigned 2．The lecture _____ ，he left his seat so quietly that no one complained that his leaving disturbed
2008 年 新塘中学高三备课组：倒装句、省略句、独立主格结构、IT 的用法 3
the speaker． A．began B．beginning C．having begun D．being beginning 3．Such _____the case ，there are no grounds to justify your complaints． A．being B．is C．was D．to be 4．Darkness_____in，the young people lingered on merrymaking． A．set B．setting C．has set D．was set 5．With all factors_____，we think this program may excel all the others in achieving the goal． A．being considered B.considering C．considered D．are considered 6．A new technique_____，the yields as a whole increased by 20 percent． A．to have been worked out B．having worked out C．working out D．having been worked out 7．On the top was the clear outline of a great wolf sitting still，ears ______，alert，listening． A．pointed B．pointing C．are pointed D．are pointing 8． Walter offered us a lift when he was leaving the office ， but our work ______， we declined the offer． A．not being finished B．not having finished C．had not been finished D．was not finished 9．There are various kinds of metals ，each ______ its own properties． A．has B．had C．to have D．having 10．The article opens and closes with descriptions of two news reports，each______ one major point in contrast with the other． A．makes B．made C．is to make D．making 三． 综合训练 （一）请用省略句或独立结构翻译以下的句子。 如果天气允许的话，我们明天去露营。 如果全面来考虑的话，这个计划还不错 由于明天要考试，我今晚就不能去看电影了。 老师进来了，手里拿着一本书。 昨天晚上，我拿着剑跟踪他来到这儿,然后又爬进来。 如果必要的话。我们会提前完成这件工作。 一旦它被加热，他就会融化。 .骑车的时候他摔断了腿。 我愿意为你做这件事，但我不知道该怎么做。 如果他们想走，他们可以走。 （二）单句改错 1．I wanted to kill the snake, but Tom told me not to do. 2. Why not to join us in the game? 3. If is possible, don’t shout at the deaf people. 4. When entered the room, he found everything is out of order. 5. John won’t go to the party even though inviting. 6. As time going on , the village is getting more and more beautiful. 7. Her child was ill, she asked for a three-day leave.
2008 年 新塘中学高三备课组：倒装句、省略句、独立主格结构、IT 的用法 4
8. There were no buses, they had to walk home. 9. With his hands tie, he was brought in. 10. The work finishing, he could go home. （三） 语法填空 语法填空专练一 In the small towns of the United States in the 1 (nineteen) century, the general store was 2 everyone bought the things he couldn’t make 3 grow at home. What the stores sold 4 (tell) a great deal about 5 life at that time. People bought tools that they needed for farm work; salt, sugar and 6 foods that the farm didn’t produce; articles of clothing that they couldn’t make 7 ; shirts for the men; or clothes for the children. Life was simple then. One feels that people were 8 (thank) for what they had and that they looked 9 with courage to whatever the future brought. It would be interesting to know how they would feel about the life today. Would it seem to them that life is too complex? Would they enjoy 10 (live) a life as we do now? 语法填空专练二 Do you feel 1 difficult to be happy all the time? Now I’ll give you some tips 2 how to make yourself happy. One way is being 3 (self) because unselfishness is the key factor 4 (require) if you want to get along well with others. By 5 (say) being unselfish we mean we 6 not want everything our own way or demand the best share of everything. Another way is to look for good points in 7 people. You’ll find most people pleasant to go with and it will surely make you happy. Third, you can not expect to be too perfect, 8 don’t be too unhappy when you make a mistake. Everything will be OK if you try to make things right. Finally, it is important to remember that while you are not 9 (bad) that others, chances you have may not be much better. In this case, 10 surest way to be happy is to think yourself above other people. 语法填空专练三 We may be very 1 (please) with the rapid progress we have made in every field of study, but we have almost done nothing to improve our present 2 (exam) systems which focus 3 testing the students’ memory instead of their 4 (able). As soon as a child begins schoo, he enters a world of examination 5 will decide his future of job. In fact a good examination stystem should encourage students to think for themselves. But the examination now does anything but that. It forces the students to remember 6 is taught to get high marks. Thus the students who come out first in the examination often many be the 7 (good) in their studies. In addition, such 8 examination system often drives teachers to cram all the time and forces them to train students what to do with the 9 (come) examination. There must be a better way to test a student’s true ability as 10 as their knowledge.
2008 年 新塘中学高三备课组：倒装句、省略句、独立主格结构、IT 的用法