概述 高考阅读理解题选材，一般遵循三个原则： 1. 文章一般为 5 篇（含信息匹配题） ，阅读量在 2500 单词左右； 2. 题材广泛，包括科普、社会、文化、政治、经济等多方面内容； 3. 体裁多样，包括记叙文、描写文、说明文、应用文、论述文等。因此，学会分析体裁的 能力对
我们做好阅读理解来说是非常重要的。 由于不同的文体有不同的段落组织方式和脉络 层次，所以我们可以根据这种特点来快速分析文章的体裁： ? 记叙文往往按时间顺序展开段落， 文章有明显表示时间先后的词语。 阅读时抓住时间这 条主线，弄清 who、what、where、why 与 how。 ? 描写文通过细节的描写以画面的方式来反应事物的特征、 性质。 对这种文章要迅速弄清 其主题，主题词往往出现在各个句子里，贯穿文章的始末；紧围绕这个主题进行阅读， 找到文章与之有关的信息，并确定信息与主题的关系。 ? 说明文多见于科普文章，用以解释或揭示事物的状态、特征、演变、结果及其相互之间 的关系，这类文体的文章，首句往往是主题句，开门见山，说明文章的关注对象：弄清 作者的思路和段落组织的方式；把握次要信息及其与主题的关系。 ? 论述文的阅读难在这种文章处处都渗透作者的个人观点、 态度。 阅读论述文应该从文体 的写作和结构特点入手。 ★ 文章的结构往往很容易把握，用主题句开门见山。作者往往通过信号词(signal words 或 transitional words)和关联词(referents 来组织段落、 文章.对信号词的迅速反应和对关联词的 准确判断是至关重要的； 要特别注意区分作者的观点与文章里所提到的人物的观点， 同时注 意作者所使用的表示赞同、反对等感情色彩的词汇。 常见问题 1. 关于文章主旨和大意的问题 此类考题主要针对段落(或短文)的主题，主题思想，标题或目的，一般提问方式如下：
1) Which is the best title of the passage? 2) Which of the following is this passage about? 3) What is the main topic of the passage？ 4) The subject discussed in this text is _____ 5) Which of the following best states the theme of the passage ？ 6) The passage tells us that______. 7) The passage is meant to …. 8) This passage mainly talks about_______. 9) The passage is mostly about ____． 10) The passage is mainly concerned about ____． 11) The general/main idea of the passage is about ____ ． 12) The purpose of this article is to … 13) In this passage the writer tries to tell us that______. 14) In this passage the author discusses primarily ____．
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15) The author’s main purpose in writing the passage is to …
2. 关于文章事实和细节的问题 此类考题主要针对文章的细节，一般提问方式如下：
1) Which of the following is right? 2) Which of the following is NOT true according to the information in the passage? 3) Which of the following statements is correct according to the passage? 4) Which of the following is Not True in the passage? 5) Which of the following is not mentioned? 6) Which of the following is mentioned in the passage? 7) The author mentions all of the following except . . . 8) The writer mentions all of the items listed below except ______. 9) What is the example of . . . as described in the passage? 10) Choose the right order of this passage. 11) According to the passage, when (where, why, how, who, etc. ) ... 12) The reason for . . .is . . . 13) From this passage we know that ________. 14) In the passage, the author states that ______.
3. 猜测词义的问题 此类考题目要求考生能根据上下文确定某一特定的词或短语的准确含义。 一般提问方式 如下：
1) The word “ABC” in the passage probably means ________. 2) The underlined word “ABC” in the passage refers to/means _______. 3) Which of the following is closest in meaning to the underlined word in the second paragraph？ 4）The underlined sentence in the last paragraph means ____． 5) The word "it（them）"in the first paragraph refers to ____．
4. 关于对全篇逻辑关系的理解、对文章各段、各句间逻辑关系的理解的问题 此类考题主要考查句语句之间，短语短之间的逻辑关系，一般提问方式如下：
1) Many visitors come to the writer ’s city to ________. 2) Some shops can be built Dongfeng Square so that they may _____. 3) Air pollution is the most serious kind of pollution because _____. 4) Why did the writer get off the train two stops before Vienna station?
5. 关于推理和判断的问题 此类考题一般针对短文内容和考生应有的常识，文章中虽然没有明确的答案，但考生在 理解全文的基础上可以进行推理和判断其答案。一般提问方式如下：
1) We can guess the writer of the letter may be a ______. 2) We can infer from the text that _______. 3) It can be inferred from the text that ______. 4) From the le tters we’ve learned that it’s very ___ to know something about American social customs. 5) From the story we can guess ______. 6) From the text we know that ______. 7) What would be happy if …?
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8) The story implies that ______.? 9) The paragraph following the passage will most probably be ___. 10) The writer’s attitude toward...is ______.? 11) The author implied（suggested）that． ． ． 12) It may be concluded from the passage that． ． ． 13) Which of the following statements does the passage support？ 14) With which of the following does the author agree？
6. 关于作者意图、观点或态度的问题 此类题目的主要提问方式是一般提问方式如下：
1) How did the writer feel …?
2) The author seems to think that ______.
3) The writer writes this text to ______. 4) The writer believes that ______. 5) The writer suggests that ______. 6) The author wants to appeal to _______ . 7) The writer is trying to present a point of view in ______. 8) The author’s style is ______ . 9) The author’s tone would be best described as _______ . 10) What is the author’s opinion of ______? 11) What is the author's main purpose in the passage? 12) In the author's opinion_________? 题目类型
A 类题：可以直接从原文中找到答案的题目 A 类题为拿分题 丢分原因： 1）凭印象做题，准确率低。 2）时间把握最容易出问题：忘记内容的时候往往会回到文章中去找答案，一篇文 章往往要读好几遍。 A 类题解题技巧：看清题目所问的内容之后，要在原文中划出原句，并标上题号。 这样做的目的： 1）做到万无一失，保证把该拿到的分数拿到手。 2）减少阅读文章的次数，争取宝贵的时间。 B 类题：不能够从原文中直接找到答案的题 需要经过分析、判断、推理之后才能解答的题。该类题是失分题，往往是出题人用 来拉开学生梯度和层次的题。 B 类题包括：文章主题和中心大意等，一般都是主旨题。 B 类题解题技巧： 1、以原文为依据，不参杂个人意见，要客观不要主观。 2、答案是比出来的。答案不选对的，只选最好的。 因为，有时候四个答案都是对的。所以，当看到第一答案是正确的时候，也要 看后面的答案。 遇到这种情况， 往往有学生钻牛角尖。 老师给学生解释的时候， 也可以这样说： 你的答案没错， 但是另一个答案更好， 更全面。 答案不选对的， 只选最好的。
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比答案的原则是：好的>不知道的；不知道的>不对的。 3、注意绝对化的词。 如果答案选项中出现绝对化的词， 比如： all， always， never， nothing， every 等 等，除非文章当中使用了该类词汇，否则，一般都要排除。 比如，原文中出现了这样一个句子：Almost everyone likes the music. 答题时， 要你判断如下这个句子正误（True or False） ：Everyone likes the music. <—— 该句子应该是错误的。 4、答案要避免以点带面，以偏盖全。 尤其是多个选项都有道理，难以挑选正确答案的时候，要注意选择最符合题目 要求的一个。 5、“傻瓜”原则。 文章中没有提到的就当时不知道， 不要枉自猜测， 自作聪明。 一切以文章内容为准。
最有效的办法是找出主题句。一篇文章 (或一段文章) 通常都是围绕一个中心意思展开 的。 而这个中心意思往往由一个句子来概括。 这个能概括文章或段落中心意思的句子叫做主 题句。因此，理解一个段落或一篇文章的中心意思首先要学会寻找主题句。主题句一般具有 三个特点：(1) 概括性强：表述的意思比较概括。(2) 结构简单：句子结构较简单，多数都 不采用长、难句的形式。(3) 受它支撑：段落中其他的句子是用来解释、支撑或发展该句所 表述的主题思想。在一篇短文或一个段落中，大部分主题句的位置情况有三种： 主题句在段首或篇首 主题句在段首或篇首的情况相当普遍，其后的句子则是论证性细节。一般新闻报道、说 明文, 议论文、科技文献等大都采用这种格式，即先总述，后分述的叙事方法。
例文 1： All living things on the earth need other living things to live. Nothing lives alone. Most animals must live in a group, and even a plant grows close together with others of the same kind. Sometimes one living thing kills another, one eats and the other is eaten. Each kind of life eats another kind of life in order to live, and together they form a food chain(食物链). Some food chains become broken up if one of the links disappears. 例文 2：People have different tastes in food. Some feel that they haven't eaten a mea l unless they have had steak or other red meat. Some prefer chicken or fish and eat one or the other at every meal. Others prefer vegetables and fruits or grains and would enjoy a meal of spaghetti, eggplant, and fresh fruit. Others could live on what were called fast--foods: a hamburger or hot dog, French fries and a soft drink.
主题句在段末或篇末 主题句也会出现在段尾，即作者先摆出事实依据, 层层推理论证, 最后自然得出结论 段落的主题。这种位于段末或篇末的主题句往往是对前面细节的归纳总结或者所得出的结
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例文 1：If you buy some well-made clothes, you can save money because they can last longer. They look good even after they have been washed many times. Sometimes some clothes cost more money, but it does not mean that they are always better made, or they always fit better. In other words, some less expensive clothes look and fit better than more expensive clothes. 例文 2： Some students prefer a strict teacher who tells them exactly what to do. Others prefer to be left to work on their own. Still others like a democratic discussion type of class. No one teaching method can be devised to satisfy all students at the same time.
当主题句被安排在段中间时, 通常前面只提出问题， 文中的主题由随之陈述 的细节或合乎逻辑的引申在文中导出, 而后又作进一步的解释, 支撑或发展. 例文：Nothing is as useful as a flashlight on a dark night if a tire goes flat. Few inventions are so helpful to a child who is afraid of the dark. In fact, the modern flashlight brings light to many dark situations. Finding something in the back of a closet is easy with a flashlight in hand. A camper also needs one after the light of the campfire has been out.
无主题句 有时，一篇文章里并没有明显的主题句。这时我们应该怎样来确定文章的主题或中心意 思呢？其实这也不难。 我们可以首先找出每一段的中心意思， 各段的中心意思往往都是围绕 一个中心来展开的， 或者说是来说明一个问题的。 这个中心或这个问题就是这篇文章的主题 或中心意思。
例文：Killer bees started in Brazil 1957. A scientist in Sao Paulo wanted bees to make more honey(蜂蜜). So he put forty-six African bees with some Brazilian bees. The bees bred(繁殖) and made a new kind of bees. But the new bees were a mistake. They didn’t want to make more honey. They wanted to attack. Then, by accident, twenty-six African bees escaped and bred with the Brazilian bees outside. Scientists could not control(控制) the problem. The bees increased fast. They went from Brazil to Venezuela. Then they went to Central America. Now they are in North America. They travel about 390 miles a year. Each group of bees grows four times a year. This means one million new groups every five years.? Why are people afraid of killer bees? People are afraid for two reasons. First, the bees sting(叮) many more times than usual bees. K iller bees can sting sixty times a minute nonstop for two hours. Second, killer bees attack in groups. Four hundred bee stings can kill a person. Already several hundred people are dead. Now killer bees are in Texas. In a few years they will reach all over the United States. People can do nothing but wait. 找出主题句后，再依据主题句定短文的中心
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任意一篇文章通常是围绕一个中心展开并且由段落组成的；段落之间有着内在的紧密联 系，而表达段落主题的句子叫主题句，通常置于段落的开头，有时在段落末尾和中间； 其它的句子是用来说明和阐述主题句的；若把一个个主题句加以整理，你能悟出其中心 思想，同时还可以回避、排除个别生词、难句（等困难信号）所带来的干扰，但也有一 些文章的中心思想常贯穿在全文中，因而要综观全文，对全文有一个透彻的理解才行。 例如： 例题： My friend Matt and I arrived at the Activity Centre on Friday
evening. The accommodation wasn’t wonderful, but we had everything we needed (beds, blankets, food), and we were pleased to be out of the c ity and in the fresh air. On Saturday morning we met the other ten members of our group. Cameron had come along with two friends, Kevin and Simon, while sisters Carole and Lynn had come with Amanda. There were some other members I didn’t know. We had come from different places and none of us knew the area. We knew we were going to spend the weekend outdoors, but none of us was sure exactly how. Half of us spent the morning caving while the others went rock-climbing and then we changed at lunchtime. Matt and I went to the caves (岩洞) first. Climbing out was harder than going in, but after a good deal of pushing, we were out at last. Though we were covered with mud, we were pleased and excited by what we’d done. This passage mainly talks about ______________. A. the writer’s friends at the Activity Center B. the writer’s experience at the Activity Center C. outdoor sports at the Activity Center D. how to go rock-climbing and caving
在解主题大意时，以下方法可供参考。 1) 认真阅读文章的第一段或每段的第一个句子。 2) 文章的主题作者往往有意识地反复论述。抓住反复出现的中心词，即高频词，也叫 做主题词。 例文：If you are a recent social science graduate who has had to listen to jokes
about unemployment from your computer major classmates, you may have had the last laugh. There are many advantages for the social science major because this high-tech "Information Age" demands people who are flexible (灵 活的) and who have good communication skills. There are many social science majors in large companies who fill important positions. For example, a number of research studies found that social science majors had achieved greater managerial success than those who had technical training or pre-professional courses. Studies show that social science majors are most suited for change, which is the leading feature (特点) of the kind of high speed, high-pressure, high-tech world we now live in. Social science majors are not only experiencing success in their long-term company jobs, but they are also finding jobs more easily. A study showed that many companies had filled a large percentage of their entry-level positions
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with social science graduates. The study also showed that the most sought-after quality in a person who was looking for a job was communication skills, noted as "very important" by 92 percent of the companies. Social science majors have these skills, often without knowing how important they are. It is probably due to these skills that they have been offered a wide variety of positions. Finally, although some social science majors may still find it more difficult than their technically trained classmates to land the first job, recent graduates report that they don' t regret their choice of study. 3).文章或段落的主题句常常会出现在一些标志性的提示后。 例如：On the whole, in short, in a word, in brief, to sum up, to conclude therefore… I agree with the opinion that… Given all these points above, I would support the idea that… For all the reasons mentioned above, I would prefer… 掌握了找主题句的方法后，就可以依据主题句归纳主题。但归纳主题容易出 现以下三种错误，需要同学们注意。 1) 以偏概全。即只抓住了主题的一个侧面就误以为是主题。 2) 过于笼统。 即归纳的主题太泛， 与细节脱节或是没有对细节加以充分论证。 3) 把观点强加给作者。 读者往往根据自己的常识对文章进行判断而忽视了作
做细节事实题的方法 在阅读理解题目中，有相当一部分是考查细节和事实的题目。细节理解题就是我们常见 的 wh-题，它们大多是根据文章中的具体信息如事实、例证、原因、过程、论述等进行提问 的。 有些问题可以在文章中直接找到答案， 有些则要我们在理解的基础上将有关内容系统化 才能找到，比如计算、排序、是非判断、图形比较等。做此类题的方法一般是先用寻读法找 出与问题相关的词语或句子，再对相关的部分进行细读，排除干扰项，找出正确答案。 2.1).是非题出题形式： a.三正一误：
Which of the following is true except…? Which of the following is mentioned except…
Which of the following is true?
Which of the following is mentioned except… Which of the following is not mentioned…?
这种问题的正确选项所包含的信息通常连续出现在同一段，而且往往无列举标志词， 如 first，second，third 等。做题时只需阅读有关段落，根据一个选项中的关键词在其前后 找其他两个正确先项，剩下一个原文中未提到的，为正确答案。 2.2) 例证题 对举例的考查为高考阅读理解的常见考点之一，这类题的基本结构为:
The author provides in line…(或 Paragraph…)an example in order to…
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意思是问文中举出某现象或例子的目的。 文章中举出一些例子无非是为了说明一定的道理。 关键在于这个例子在原文出现的位置， 但不管如何，这个例子之前或之后不远处通常都有一句总结说明性的话，这句话就是答案， 即举例的目的。如果例子与全文主题有关，则例证主题，答案为主题句。如果例子与段落主 题有关，就例证段落主题，则答案为段落主题句；此外，答案为例子前后总结说明性的话。 2.3）年代与数字：这个考点有几种出题方式，但不管以何种形式出现，只要题干问年代 与数字，答案就对应于文章中的年代与数字。 2.4）比较：比较考点的表现形式主要有： a.比较级与含有比较意义的词汇手段和句型结构； b.表示绝对意义的字眼：first(第一)，least(最不)，most(最)等； c.表示惟一性的词汇：only, unique 等； 阅读最好能圈出表示最高级、惟一性和绝对意义的词汇，便于做题时回原文定位。 2.5）原因： 这种题的答案在原文通常有一些表示因果关系的词汇手段提示：
result, reason; result in(结果)，result from(由于， base…on…(以……为基础)，be due to (由于)； because, for, why; as a result, consequently 等。
Invited by Mr. Ye Huixian, host of the well received TV programme “Stars Tonight”，Miss Luo Lin, Miss Asia of 1991，appeared as the guest hostess on the Shanghai TV screen last Sunday.? Born in Shanghai and taken to Hong Kong when she was only six years old， Luo Lin has never dreamed of being Miss Asia. Her childhood dream was to be an air hostess. Before she took part in the competition, she had been an airhostess in Cat Hay Airline for seven years. However， it still took her three months to learn the art of walking on the stage, dancing, singing, making-up and other proper manners, designed by the Asia TV Station.? “It’s really a hard job for me. I won’t enter for such competition any more. Anyhow, I am quite lucky. I am also glad to have had more chance to work for the social welfare since I won the title. This time, in Shanghai, I'd love to make a deep impression on my TV audience, " said Luo Lin with a sweet smile.? Which of the following is NOT true? A. Luo Lin is a native of Shanghai.? B. Luo Lin moved to Hong Kong with her parents.? C. Luo Lin won the title of Miss Asia in 1991.? D. Asia TV Station helped Luo Lin to become Miss Asia.? 解析： A、 C 和 D 都可在原文找到答案， 而 B 项原文列的是： taken to Hong Kong 可判断不是 moved to Hong Kong with her parents，因此选 B。 3 做推理判断题的方法
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所谓推断，就是根据阅读材料中所提供的信息，推断出未知的信息。即把有关的文字作 为已知部分，从中推断出未知部分。据以推断的有关文字可能是词或句子，也可能是若干句 子，甚至是全文。因此，解推断题时应注意：? ? 不能以自己的观点代替作者的观点，要严格按照阅读材料中所提供的信息进行推 理；? ? 推理的根据来自于上下文； ? 如果某选项中的内容是阅读材料的简单重复， 那它就不是推论， 也就不是正确答案； ? 如果某选项所表达的内容与经验相吻合，文中却没有涉及，那它属于主观臆断的结 论，也不是正确答案； ? 如果某个选项表达的内容虽在文中提到， 但很片面或很不完整， 那也不是正确答案； ? 文中的虚拟语气和情态动词（should, must, may, etc.）往往能流露出作者的弦外之 音，这有助于我们确定正确答案； ? 注意作者在文章中的措辞，比如作者在形容词前用了 too，excessively, rather 则常 带有否定的口气； ? 某些过渡词（例如：however, but, on the contrary, what’s more）后面所表达的内 容往往能反映作者的观点和态度。 当然，解推断题的方法有多种，但最主要的就是根据词义关系推断具体细节。 通常，高考英语试题中的推断题主要有以下几种： 1．事实推断 这种推断常常针对某一个或几个具体细节，是比较简单的推断。例如：
例题：Secondly, a news story has to be interesting and unusual. People don’t want to read stories about everyday life. As a result, many stories are about some kind of danger and seem to be “bad” news. According to the passage, which of the following can you most possibly watch on TV? A. You often play football with your friends after school. B. Your teacher has got a cold. C. A tiger in the city zoo has run out and hasn’t been caught. D. The bike in front of your house is lost.
2．指代推断 确定代词的含义和指代对象是阅读理解题常见的题目。 要确定指代词所指代的对象， 关 键在于对所在上下文的正确理解。指代名词的指代词，其单复数形式英语被指代的词一致， 因此数的形式可作为识别指代对象第一个辅助标志。文章中的代词 it， that， he， him 或 them 可以指上文提到的人或物，其中 it, this 和 that 还可以指一件事。有时代词指代的对象相隔 较远，要认真查找；也有时需要对前面提到的内容进行总结，才能得出代词所指代的事。 例题： In 1901, H.G. Wells, an English writer, wrote a book describing a trip to
the moon. When the explorers（探险者）landed on the moon, they discovered that the moon was full of underground cities. They expressed their surprise to the "moon people" they met. In turn, the "moon people" expressed their surprise. "Why, "they asked, "are you traveling to outer space when you don't even use your inner space？" H.G. Wells could only imagine travel to the moon. In 1969, human beings really did land on the moon. People today know that there are no underground cities on the moon. However, the question that the "moon
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people" asked is still an interesting one. A growing number of scientists are seriously thinking about it. What does the underlined word "it" refer to？ A．Discovering the moon's inner space． B．Using the earth's inner space． C．Meeting the "moon people“ again． D．Traveling to outer space．
由此可以看出 it 指上句中的 the question，而 the question 又指第一段中"月球人"所提的问 题。所以根据第一段中的问题"Why are you traveling to outer space when you don't even use your inner space？"就可以判断出答案为 B。 3．逻辑推断 这类题目往往是要求根据文章所提供的背景， 人物的表情， 动作和语言来推断出人物的 态度或感觉，因此需根据文章中所陈述的事实、论点、例证等一系列论据材料进行推理，从 而得出合乎逻辑的结论，而不是根据自己的经验、态度、观点或爱好去理解文章的内涵。做 这类题时，应把握作者的写作思路，预测下文可能发展的内容。文章可按事件发展的经过描 写，也可按因果关系, 对比关系来描写。 例题： We are in the computer age． We often see computers at work． They are especially useful in automatic control ， data processing （ 数 据 处 理 ） and solving complicated problems．And they are finding their way into the home．The part played by computers is becoming even more important with each passing day． More and cleverer computers will continue to appear． They will run faster， have more functions and work much more skillfully．They will take over more tasks from us，helping to change the face of our world．Some people even think that sooner or later computers will replace us． However．．． Which of the following statements will best continue the third paragraph？ A． Computers will soon stop developing． B． Many people like computers very much． C． Computers are as clever as man． D． I do not think computers will replace us completely． 解析 本文采用了对比关系法来描写，前面描写了计算机的长处，但作者用 However 一词 预示着将引出相反的观点，故答案为 D。 4．对作者的意图和态度的推断 这一类考题大都要求考生就作者对论述对象持什么样的态度做出推断， 如作者对所陈 述的观点是赞同、反对，还是犹豫不定，对记述或描写的人、物或事件是赞颂、 同情、 冷漠，还是厌恶。作者的这种思想倾向和感情色彩不一定直接表述出来，而往往隐含 在字里行间。 因此， 进行这种推断时， 我们既要依靠短文的主题思想作为推力的前提， 又要注意作者的措辞，尤其是形容词一类的修饰语。 确定作者态度，可以有两种思路： 1、问全文主体事物的(包括主题)，可以根据阐述主题或有关主体事物的相关句中的 形容词、副词或动词确定作者的态度； 2、如果问的是对某一具体事物的态度，则可以定位到具体相关句，然后确定答案。
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因此，在阅读文章时，应能够辨认和记忆具体事实、重要细节。具体事实、重要细节是 主题句的扩展、补充、说明或例证，是用来支持和说明中心思想的，而且是阅读理解测 试的重要组成部分。例如： 例题 1：If someone asks me: “Do you like music?” I’m sure I will answer him
or her: “Of course, I do.” because I think music is an important part of our lives. Different people have different ideas about music. For me, I like rock music because it’s so exciting. And my favorite rock band, the “Foxy Ladies” (酷妹) is one of the most famous rock bands in the world. I also like pop music. My classmate LiLan loves dance music, because she enjoys dancing. My best friend, Jane, likes jazz music (爵士乐). She thinks jazz is really cool. “I like dance music and rock very much.” says my brother, “because they are amazing.” But my mother thinks rock is boring. “I like some relaxing (轻松的) music,” she says. That’s why she likes country music, I think. ①The writer likes music because he thinks ____________. A. it’s an exciting part of our lives B. it’s an amazing part of our lives C. it’s an important part of our lives ②What kind of music does the writer like? A Rock and pop music. B Rock and dance music. CJazz and country music. ③Who likes dancing? A. The writer. B. Li Lan. C. Jane. ④The writer’s mother thinks that country music is __________. A. amazing B. boring C. relaxing ⑤ How many people’s ideas about music are talked about in this passage? A. 4. B. 5. C. 6. 例题 2 ： One day a man walked into a pet shop and said to the shop assistant，“I need two small mice and about five dozen roaches (蟑螂) and two spiders.”? “What do you need these things for?” the shop assistant was very surprised.? “Well，”replied the man，“I’m moving out of my apartment and the landlord insists that I should leave the house in exactly the same condition as I found it.”? The passage suggests that when the writer moved into the house, it was ______. A. very clean? B. just cleaned by the landlord? C. tidy and comfortable ? D. dirty and full of insects?
解析：他要搬出所租的房子，而房东要求房屋必须是他租进来时的原样，所以他须买些 老鼠和蟑螂等昆虫对房屋进行“恢复”，因此推出答案为 D。
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例题 3：Some people are never right. They never have good luck. They
usually do the wrong thing and say the wrong thing. And even if what they say or do is OK，they as a rule say it or do it at the wrong time. So these people always have problems. They often break dishes. They sometimes miss buses and airplanes. Mr. Neff is different. He is always right. He is never wrong. He usually has good luck. He seldom has problems. He never breaks dishes. He never misses buses or airplanes. Even if he does miss them，it is always the fault of the buses or air planes. Mr. Neff knows almost everything. He doesn’t ask questions；he answers questions. He never says，“I don’t know.”? Which of the following best describes the writer’s attitude to Mr. Neff? A. He finds Mr. Neff hard to understand.? B. He thinks Mr. Neff wonderful.? C. He feels pity for Mr. Neff.? D. He does not like Mr. Neff.?
解析：从作者的语气中我们可以体会他的态度，特别是 Even if he does miss them，it is always the fault of the buses or the airplanes. 误了车或飞机本该是人的失误怎能归咎 于车或飞机呢？明显是讥讽，也是暗示他对 Mr. Neff 的讨厌之情。答案为 D。 例题 4： Why isn’t your newspaper reporting any good news？All I read
about is murder， bribery（行贿），and death．Frankly，I’m sick of all this bad news． This author’ s attitude towards the newspaper reporting is to ______ ． A． complain B． apologize C． amuse D． inform
解析：作者一是向读者说明这份报纸上只登载坏新闻，如凶杀、行贿受贿和死亡等；二 是在字里行间流露出自己的抱怨情绪 （对坏新闻厌恶透了），故应选 A。
在阅读中，我们或多或少会碰到一些生词和不熟悉的短语，这些生词和短语会妨碍 我们对文章中心的理解，因此，如能理解文章，我们应掌握猜测词义的能力。一般来说， 生词所在的句子、段落会提供很多的暗示和线索，依据这些暗示和线索（例如同义词反 义词线索；解释性线索；例证性线索；标点符号线索）就可以理解生词的词义了。例如： This material is unreadable.
The herdsman, who looks after sheep, earns about 650 yuan a year. Like her younger sister who is gregarious, Alice a lso likes to make friends.
猜测词义的常用方法： 1）根据构词法（合成、派生、转化）进行判断 英语中，有很多词可以在前面加前缀，后面加后缀，从而构成一个词，乍看起来，这个 词可能是生词，但掌握了一定的构词法知识，就不难猜出它的词义。如： 例文： Market research shows that Gold and others who buy organic food can
generally give clear reasons for their preferences--but their knowledge of organic food is far from complete．
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Skimming means looking over a passage quickly to get the main idea before you begin to read it carefully． The harbor is protected by a jetty—a wall built out into the water． 例题：A bag is useful and the word “bag” is useful. It gives us some interesting phrases(短语). One is “ to let the cat out of the bag”. It is the same as “to tell a secret”…. Now when someone lets out (泄漏) a secret, he “lets the cat out of the bag.” John “lets the cat out of the bag” means he ______. A. makes everyone know a secret B. the woman bout a cat C. buys a cat in the bag D sells the cat in the bag
3）根据情景和逻辑进行判断 例题： As they go around town, the police help people. Sometimes they find lost
children. They take the children home. If the police see a fight, they put an end to it right away. Sometimes people will ask the police how to get to a place in town. The police can always tell the people which way to go. They know all the streets and roads well. In the text, “put an end to” means “______”. A. stop B. cut C. kill D. fly
．．．，and other Germanic and Nordic peoples，who spoke what we now call Anglo-Saxon（o r Old English），a Germanic language． The "Chunnel"，a tunnel（隧道）connecting England and France，is now complete． 例题：There is a place on our earth where hot water and steam come up under the ground. It is on a large island in the Pacific Ocean. The island is North Island in New Zealand. What does the word “steam” mean in Chinese? A. 自来水 B. 大气 C. 冰川 D. 蒸汽
The old man put on his spectacles and began to read． The door was so low that I hit the head on the lintel． The doctor is studying glaucoma and other diseases of the eye． Mr. Smith always arrives home punctually，neither early nor late． 例题 1：The following morning when I went to see how my captive ( 被捕获的, = caged) bird was doing, I discovered it on the floor of the cage, dead. I was terribly surprised! What had happened! I had taken extremely care of my little bird. Arthur Wayne, the famous ornithologist, who happened to be visiting my father at the time, hearing me crying over the death of my bird, explained what had happened. “A mother mockingbird, finding her young in a cage, will sometimes bring it poison berries(毒莓). She thinks it is better for her young to die than to live in captivity.” An ornithologist is probably a person who ______.
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A studies birds B loves creatures C majors in habits D takes care of trees 例题 2：Water is all around us. Water is in the ocean. Water is in the lakes and rivers. Water is in the air. There is more water than land on the earth. All living things must have it. We must have it, too. We cannot live without drinking water. Sometimes, we do not have all the water that we need. The land will dry up without water. Sometimes, there can be too much water in the land. If it rains very, very hard, the rain water will run down the hill. It takes some of the land with it when it runs down the hills. It is called erosion when the water takes the land away. “Erosion” in the passage means ____________.
A. 地震 B. 雪崩 C. 侵蚀 6）根据标点符号和提示词猜测词义 D. 霜冻
One of the obstacles to false reading is vocalizing—saying the words to themselves in a low voice． The early scientific study of chemistry， known as alchemy， grew up in Egypt in the first few centuries A．D．
根据上下句的连接词，如：but，however，otherwise 等就可以看到前后句在 意义上的差别，从而依据某一句的含义，来确定另一句的含义。分号（；） 还可以表示转折、对比或不相干的意义。 He has been getting better，but during the night his condition deteriorated．
根据原因可以预测结果，根据结果也可以找出原因。 The biggest power failure happened yesterday. All of our ice-cream and frozen foods melted． 后一句承接前一句，前一句的原因导致后一句的结果。根据因果关系，停电 很可能导致冰淇淋和冷冻食品溶化，所以 melted 的词义应为"溶化"。
绝对词否决法;答案项中有绝对语气词的一般不是正确答案项。这些语气词有: must, always, never, the most, all, only, have to, any, no, very, completely, none, hardly 等。 例题 1：One of the great changes brought about by the knowledge society
is that _____ . A. the difference between the employee and the empl oyer has become insignificant. B. people's traditional concepts about work no longer hold true. C. most people have to take part-time jobs. D. people have to change their jobs from time to time.
(分析：四个选项中，C、D 两项中都含有"have to"，语气太绝对化，一般被排除。考生在剩 下两项中进行选择，就大大降低了难度。) 例题 2：The main idea of this passage is that _____ .
A. better use of green space facilities should be made so as to improve the quality of our life.
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B. attention must be directed to the improvement of recreative possibilities. C. the urban environment is providing more recreation activities than it did many years ago. D. priority must be given to the development of obligatory activities.
怀疑词判断法： 选项中含有不十分肯定的语气词一般是正确答案项。这些语气词有 can, could, may,
should, usually, might, most(大多数), more or less, relatively, be likely to, possible, whether or, not necessarily 等。 例题 1：It can be inferred from the passage that the author believes _____ A. Americans are more ambitious than people in other countries B. in many countries success often depends on one's social status C. American businesses are more democratic than those in other countries D. businesses in other countries are not as competitive as those in America
(分析：选项 B 中 often 一词，语气委婉，不十分肯定，故为答案。而其它三项中所表达出 的语气都明显绝对化。) 例题 2： According to the passage the problems of college education
partly arise from the fact that _____ . A. society can't provide enough jobs for properly trained college graduates B. high school graduates do not fit the pattern of college education? C. too many students have to earn their own living D. college administrators encourage students to drop out 分析：答案项 C 中有 have to, 语气太绝对化，故被排除。而 A 项中 can't 的 语气则不十分绝对化，故为答案。
★ 此外，在作者态度题中，象中立态度(neutral)一般不是选项。在四个选项中，忽然有一个 选项特别长或特别短，则此选项往往是正确选项。在两个选项中，如果除个别字外，其他部 分完全一样，其中往往有一个是正确选项。"None of the above"往往是用作干扰项。) 关键词对应法 (ABC=ABC 法; ABC=A’B’C’法; ABC=CBA 法; ABC≠ABD 法) 选项中照抄原文的一般不是答案项，而同义替换的一般是选项。 锅盖法：较全面、有针对性地表达文章中心思想的，选项一般是答案项。
A. to be more successful in his career B. to solve technical problems C. to be more specialized in his field D. to develop his professional skill
B“解决技术问题”；C“深化专业”；D“发展职业技能”。这三项表达的意思都比较具体，而 A 项则概括地有深度， 包括了 B、 C、 D 三项内容。 选项中表达意义较具体的、 肤浅的 （字 面意思）一般不是答案项，而概括性的、抽象的、含义深刻的是答案项。 其他技巧： 1. 如果文长题少，则以略读的方式先读一遍，而后带着问题去查阅，求得要找的答案。 2. 如果文短题多，则应先仔细阅读该短文，再去做题。遇到某个题答不来时，可带着该 问题去查阅某些细节。 3. 重点读段首句和段未句，看是否有主题句 4. 问题要求解答案数字、人名、地名、时间 5. 抓关键词的办法
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