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中考英语单项填空考点集汇、讲解和训练


中考英语单项填空考点集汇、讲解和训练
【考点扫描】 单项选择题一向是各省市中考的必考题型。它的特点是考点多,覆盖面广,题量大。其主要考查点是: 1. 考查基本语法;2. 考查同义词、近义词的辨析;3. 考查各种词汇的惯用法和固定搭配;4. 考查掌握和运 用日常交际用语的能力。 【名师解难】 由于单项选择题所考查的范围较广,所以要想做好此类题一要具备扎实的英语基础知识,二

要紧扣语 境,抓住关键词。具体应注意以下几点: 1.重点要分清现在完成时、一般过去时的用法。对宾语从句、状语从句、动词不定式、比较等级以及它们 的用法规则都要一一弄清楚。还要注意固定搭配、习惯用语、动词的时态和语态、动词辨析以及不同词性 的词的用法。 2. 在解题方面要突出语境,在语境中选语句和词汇,防止汉语思维的干扰。英语中一些关键词的含义往往 是由它所处的语义环境(即上下文)决定的,答题时如忽视了语境,就很容易答错题。 3.注意宾语从句、感叹句的语序。 4. 掌握习语和日常交际用语。应掌握大纲词汇、习惯用语。由于文化背景和 风俗习惯的不同,对于一些日常交际用语应记牢。 单项选择题的考点主要分布在:名词、动词、形容词、副词、代词、冠词、连词、介词、情态动词; 时态、语态;词义辨析、语序、各种不同的从句及交际用语上。 在做单项选择题时,同学们除应具有较扎实的语言基础知识和善于思考外,掌握一些解题方法是很有 必要的。 1. 直接法: 即直接利用相关语法知识, 通过题干中的已供信息, 捕捉到解题线索, 从而得出正确答案的解题方法, 例如: --- Will you come to the net bars(网吧)with me? --- Sorry. My mother always tells me ___________there. A. not go B. go C. not to go D. to go 根据句意可知此题考查动词不定式的否定形式,即 tell sb. not to do sth.,故此题应选 C。 2. 关键词法 许多题目中都有这样一些词,它们对于快速而准确地判定答案起着至关重要的作用。我们称这些词为 关键词(key words)。找到句中的关键词,也就找到了解题的突破口,例如: He hardly hurt himself in the accident, _______________? A. doesn't he B. didn't he C. did he D. does he 该题中 hardly 与 hurt 是起关键词作用的。凡陈述部分含有 hardly, never, little, few 等否定意义的词时, 反意 疑问句用肯定形式;而 hurt 一词的过去式与原形相同,此处 hurt 未加 s,应为过去式。因此本题答案 C 是 正确的。 --- What did you see, Mary? --- I saw a lot of trees on_______________of the lake. A. either side B. all sides C. both sides D. other side 在平时练习中,我们接触的多是下列表达:on both sides of the road / street / river。但本题中 lake 无两边之 分,只能是“在四周”。所以正确答案是 B。本题中 lake 一词成为关键词。 3. 类推法 如果对题目的备选答案没有十分把握或把握很小,不妨利用“如果 A 对,那么 B 也对”的类推法,从 而可将 A、B 予以否定,例如:

--- Who's the man at the door? --- ___________________________. A. He is a doctor B. He is a friend of mine C. He is a famous singer D. He is twenty 仔细分析备选答案就可发现:A、C 选项针对的是“职业”。若 A 是对的,那么 C 也会是对的。D 回答的 是年龄。故惟有 B 才是正确的。 4. 前后照应法 此方法多用于两个以上句子或对话形式命题的题目。解题前,透彻理解,然后联系上下文,捕捉隐含 信息,方能准确找出答案,例如: --- He isn't a teacher, is he? --- __________________. He works in a hospital. A. Yes, he is B. No, he isn't C. Yes, He isn't D. No, he is 本题考查否定句的反意疑问句的回答。由后半句的回答,我们知道“他”的身份不是教师;否定反意疑问 句回答中的 Yes 其实际含义为“不”,No 的实际含义为“是”。因此应选择的是 B。再如: --- It's dangerous to play here. --- All right. Let's go and find a _______________place. A. quiet B. safe C. bright D. dark 联系上下文即可弄清语境:既然在这里玩危险,那么就找个安全的地方。此题应选 B。 5. 排除法 根据题干提供的信息,先把一眼就看出的干扰项排除,缩小选择范围,然后将剩余的选项填入空白处 进行检验,辨别真伪,例如: The girl asked the teacher _______________. A. what does the museum looks like B. what did the museum look like C. what the museum looks like D. what the museum looked like 本题主要考查宾语从句中的语序及时态的对应关系。主句动词是过去时,从句的谓语动词也应是过去 时的某种时态,故 A、C 被排除。而 B 中有词序错误,所以 D 为正确答案。 6. 交际法 此方法可用 30 个交际用语,联系上下文直接解题,例如: --- Would you like to have another cup of tea? --- _______________________________. A. Yes, I do B. Not al all C. No, thanks D. Help yourself 本题主要考查简答交际用语的应答。对别人的邀请,如果表示不接受时,应委婉说出,不能断然拒绝。 因此,选 C 是最佳答案。 以上六种方法,大家要在具备扎实的基础知识条件下,灵活运用。同时,我们还要提醒大家注意以下几点: (1)不要受母语思维习惯的影响。学习外语常常会受母语习惯的影响。因此解题时也常会受母语思维模 式的影响,例如: --- __________________is the capital of America? --- Washington. A. Where B. What C. In where D. In which 汉语中常可这样发问“美国的首都是哪儿?”所以有人会选 A,但英语中 where 是副词,表示地点。本句是 问美国首都是哪个城市,所以正确的选择是 B。再如: ___________it's difficult to learn English well, __________you should never drop it. A. Though; but B. Though; × C. Because; so D. Because; ×

汉语中有关联词“虽然??但是”、“因为??所以”,但在英语中 though 与 but, because 和 so 是不可搭 配使用的。由题意可知只有 B 是正确答案。 (2)防止定势思维。有些固定搭配或习惯表达法大家掌握较牢靠,但也正是由于受到这些习惯表达的影 响,犯一些思维定势的错误,例如: I won't come back _______________August 5 and 7. A. until B. both C. between D. for 受 not?until 这一固定搭配的影响,很多人会选 A。但若仔细审题,则答案应选 C。因为“回来”这一动 作不能同时发生在两个不同的日期。再如: Canada is larger than _____________country in Asia(亚洲). A. any other B. other C. any D. all others “比较级 + any other + 单数名词”是一种典型的比较级结构。所以有人会选 A。但 Canada 是美洲国家, 和亚洲国家相比不存在与自身相比较的问题。所以不可用 other 排除自身。正确的答案选 C。 (3)防止“鱼目混珠”。有些词由于词性、词义不同,它的用法也不同,应注意辨别,例如: --- Do you know if he ________________to play basketball with us? --- I think he will come if he ________________free tomorrow. A. comes; is B. comes; will be C. will come; is D. will come; will he 若不注意审题,很容易误选 A。但若仔细分析,就会发现前者 if 作“是否”解,而后者意为“如果”。二 者分别引导宾语从句和条件状语从句。英语中,只有在时间、条件状语从句时,从句中用一般现在时代替 将来时,在其他从句中无此用法。所以 C 是正确答案。再如: He made faces _____________the baby _____________crying. A. to make; stop B. make; stop C. make; to stop D. to make; to stop 题中两个 make 用法不同。 make faces 意为“做鬼脸” ,后接动词不定式作目的状语; 后一个 make 意为“使 得”,是一个使役动词,其后接动词原形作宾补,即 make sb. do sth. 所以此题应选 A。 【中考范例】 (陕西省中考试题) 21. ---Have you ever heard from your aunt since she went to Hong Kong? ---Yes, I’ve just got a letter from __________. A. her B. hers C. she D. herself 【解析】答案:A。该题考查的是代词用法。这个句子的基本结构时 get a letter from sb.因为 from 是个介词,后面所跟代词应用人称代词的宾格 her。 22. I’m reading now. Please tell him _______ the TV a bit. A. turn up B. turn off C. to turn down D. to turn on 【解析】答案:C。该题考查的是短语动词辨析。题干所提供的语境是“我正在看书”,因此应告诉他把 电视拧小一些。所以应选 turn down。 23. I’m sure you know the difference _________ “look for” and “find”. A. from B. for C. to D. between 【解析】答案:D。该题考查的是介词的用法。题干的意思是“我确信你知道‘look for’和‘find’两 者之间地区别。“两者之间的”只能用 between 来 表示。 24. There ________ a football match on TV this evening. A. will have B. is going to be C. has D. is going to have 【解析】答案:B。该题考查的是动词 have 和句型 there be 的区别。 A, C, D 都是句型 there be 和动词 have 的混合,都是错误的。只有 B 一个选项正确。

25. A talk on science _______ in our school next Monday. A. will give B. will be given C. has given D. has been given 【解析】答案:B。该题考查的是动词时态和语态。时间状语是 next Monday,所以动词应用一般将来时, 因此应排除 C 和 D。而主语是动作的承受者,所以应用被动语态。只有选项 B 正确。 26. Since China has been a member of WTO, English is ________ useful than before. A. more B. most C. much D. very 【解析】答案:A。该题考查的是形容词的比较级。在句末有 than before 字样,表明要用形容词的比较 级,而 useful 的比较级是 more useful, 所以应选 more。 27. It _______ Yang Liwei about 21 hours _______ the earth 14 times in his spaceship. A. spent, circling B. took, travelling C. spent, to travel D. took, to circle 【解析】答案:D。该题考查的是动词的用法。本句子的结构是 It took sb. some time to do sth. 只有 D 能用在这一结构中。 28. The students are sorry to hear that the famous singer _______ for half an hour. A. has left B. has gone C. has been away D. has gone away 【解析】答案:C。该题考查的是延续性动词和非延续性动词的用法。因为本句中的时间状语是 for half an hour,表示的是一段时间,所以应和延续性动词连用。四个选项中只有 has been away 能表示延续性的动 作。 29. I am waiting for my friend. _________, I will go swimming alone. A. If he doesn’t come B. If he won’t come C. If he will come D. If he is coming 【解析】答案:A。该题考查的是在时间状语从句里的时态。在时间状语从句里,通常用一般现在是代 替一般将来时。 30. ---Could you tell me _______? ---Sorry, I don’t know. I was not at the meeting. A. what does he say at the meeting B. what did he say at the meeting C. what he says at the meeting D. what he said at the meeting 【解析】答案:D。该题考查的是宾语从语的语序和时态。第一,宾语从句应用陈述句的语序;第二, 表示“在会上所说的话”应用一般过去时。 【满分演练】 单项天空 1. Ann is so careful that she always goes over her exercises to _______________there are no mistakes. A. look for B. make sure C. find out D. think about 2. --- Which of the two English dictionaries will you buy? --- I'll buy _________ of them, so I can give one to my friend, Hellen. A. either B. neither C. all D. both 3. He __________ two thousand trees since 1985. A. plants B. planted C. will plant D. has planted 4. ___________ you free last night? A. Were B. Was C. Are D. Do 5. --- Dad, when will you be free? You agreed to go to the seaside with me four days ago. --- I am sorry, Jean. But I think I will have a _____________holiday soon. A. four-days B. four-day C. four days D. four day

6. In the bookshop, a reader asked the shopkeeper ____________Who Moved My Cheese was an interesting book. A. that B. how C. what D. if 7. ___________comes from cows. A. Wool B. Chicken C. Pork D. Milk 8. Which of the following does paper burn in? A. CO2 B. N2 C. O2 D. He 9. Today, the forests have almost gone. People must ___________down too many trees. A. stop to cut B. stop from cutting C. be stopped to cut D. be stopped from cutting 10. --- You must come back every month. --- Yes, I __________________. A. will B. must C. should D. can 11. The doctor did what he could _________________that child. A. save B. to save C. saved D. saving 12. --- Can you guess if they _____________to play basketball with us? --- I think they'll come if they _______________tree. A. come; are B. will come; will be C. will come; are D. come; will be 13. I will tell you how to get to the place; you'd better _____________it __________. A. try; on B. get; off C. take; down D. pick; up 14. --- Ann has gone to Shanghai. --- So _____________her parents. A. do B. had C. did D. have 15. --- How long can I ______________these books? ---Two weeks. A. borrow B. lend C. keep D. buy 16. It takes us _________hour or more to go to my hometown by ________train. A. an; a B. a; an C. an; 不填 D. a; 不填 17. Lucy tried her best to find a good job in the city, but she had no _________. A. trouble B. idea C. luck D. time 18. There are three _______________students in the school. A. thousands B. thousands of C. thousand of D. thousand 19. I have to speak to my grandpa loudly because there's ___________with his ears. A. wrong something B. something wrong C. anything wrong D. nothing wrong 20.--- I've had enough bread. Would you like_____________? --- No thanks. A. a few more B. one more C. another more D. some more 21. I'm old enough to wash _________clothes by myself. You can just wash ______. A. my, your B. mine, yours C. my, yours D. your, my 22. The father wished the twins to be doctors, but __________of them liked to study medicine. A. both B. neither C. either D. none 23. Now Helen works ______________than before.

A. more carefully B. more careful C. much careful D. much carefully 24. We are doing much better __________English ________our teacher's help. A. in, at B. at, in C. in, with D. with, with 25. If you like the chicken, you may have as_____________as you can. A. much B. many C. more D. little 26. --- Mum, Bill is coming to dinner this evening. --- OK. Let's give him _____________to eat. A. something different B. different anything C. anything different D. different something 27. The letter is ___________in French. I cannot read it. A. writing B. written C. wrote D. writes 28. --- Your spoken English is much better. --- Thank you. My teacher often asks us ___________English as __________as possible. A. to speak, many B. not to speak, much C. to speak, much D. not to speak, more 29. It's getting dark. Please ______________the light. A. turn off B. turn on C. turn down D. turn up 30. Martin is good at fishing, ________________? A. is he B. does he C. isn't he D. doesn't he 31. -- Do you know him well? --- Sure. We _____________friends since ten years ago. A. were B. have been C. have become D. have made 32. Cars and buses ___________stop when the traffic lights turn red. A. can B. need C. may D. must 33. John fell asleep _____________he was listening to the music. A. after B. before C. while D. as soon as 34. --- May I speak to John? --- Sorry, he ____________Japan. But he _________in two days. A. has been to, will come back B. has gone to, will be back C. has been in, would come back D. has gone to, won't cone back 35. --- Do you know __________________? --- They moved here soon after their son was born. A. when would the Greens move here B. when the Greens moved here C. the Greens would move here D. when the Greens would move here 36. Your bedroom is very big, but ___________is rather small. A. she B. Jane C. her D. hers 37. _____________book on the desk is___________ useful one. A.The; an B.A; a C.The; a D.The; / 38. --- When was our Party founded? --- It was founded _________________. A.on October 1,1949 B.in May, 1922 C.on July 1,1921 D.in August, 1927 39. This maths problem is____________ and I can do it_____________ . A.easy; easily B.easily; easily C.easy; easy D.easily; easy

40. --- They are thirsty. Will you please give them_____________ ? --- Certainly. A.some bottles of waters B.some bottles of water C.some bottle of water D.some bottle of waters 41. There is still a little orange here, but_____________ people want to drink it. A.little B.a little C.few D.a few 42. Mr. Yu gave some new words to Lucy and asked her to_____________ on the blackboard. A.write it down B.write them down C.write down it D.write down them 43. --- Must I finish my homework now? --- No, you__________ .You may have a rest first. A.mustn't B.can't C.may not D.needn't 44. --- When did you go to bed last night? --- I didn't go bed ____________my father got home. A.until B.while C.after D.when 45. --- Does you sister remember to return the library book today? --- Oh, yes. Thank you. She's_______________ it for two weeks. A.kept B.had C.borrowed D.keeping 46. The teacher told Xiao Ming_______________ late for school again. A.not to be B.not be C.don't be D.not to 47. Could you tell me__________________ ? A.where does Li Lei work B.where did Li Lei work C.where Li Lei works D.where Li Lei worked 48. --- Jone could swim when she was only four years old. --- ______________clever the girl was! A.How B.What a C.What D.How a 49. --- Where's Tom now? --- He________________ the post office. A.has been to B.has gone to C.went to D.goes to 50. --- Hi, Kate. We're going to help Grandma Li with her housework this Saturday afternoon. --- _________________________. A.So I am B.So do I C.So I do D.So am I 【练习答案】 1.B 2.D 3.D 4.A 5.B 6.D 7.D 8.C 9.D 10.A 11.B 12.C 13.C 14.D 15.C 16.C 17.C 18.D 19.B 20.D 21.C 22.B 23.A 24.C 25.B 26.A 27.B 28.C 29.B 30.C 31.B 32.D 33. C 34.B35.A 36.D 37.C 38.C 39.A 40.B 41.C 42.B 43.D 44.A 45.A 46.A 47.C 48.A 49.B 50.D


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