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前置定语与后置定语


一、单个词作定语后置的情况 1、以 a-开头的表示状态的形容词,一般在句子中当表语成份, 但作定语时须后置,类似的形容词有:alive, asleep, alike, alone. awake, aware, ashamed, adrift, ablaze, absent, afraid, available 等如: He spoke like a man afraid.他说话的时候像是很害怕似的。 Tom was the only boy awake at that tine.那时汤姆是唯一醒着的 男孩。 The house ablaze is next door to mine. 那着火的房子就在我家隔 壁。 2、部分表示方位、处所、时间副词作定语。如 here, there, above, below, upstairs. downstairs. outside, inside, around. today, nearby 等 常作后置定语。如: A boy outside is waiting for you. People there are very friendly. The man upstairs is making a noise. 3、形容词修饰复合不定代词时应后置 I have something important to tell you. There is nothing serious. There is nobody suitable for the job. 4、else 只作后置定语,修饰疑问词或不定代词。

When else shall we meet again, if Friday is not convenient for you? Ask someone else to help you if David is not free. Who else can we turn to? 5、left 和 remaining 都表示有“剩下的”的意思,但 left 只作后置 定语。如: There is five minutes left. remaining 应作前置定语。如: The lady bought a gift for her daughter as a birthday gift with the remaining 30 dollars. 6、involved 意为“有牵连的”,“涉及到的”,只作后置定语,如: the problems involved. 7、有些词既可作前置定语,也可作后置定语。如: possible, enough, more(另外,附加的)proper I don’t have wine enough for five persons at the moment =I don’t have enough wine for five persons at the moment. They thought about all the means possible(= possible means) Today I will have to write two letters more(= two more letters) 8、有些词既可当作前置定语又可当后置定语,但含义不一样。 如:used, concerned, present All the people present(在场的)voted for him.

Present situation is serious.(目前的,现在的) All parties concerned(有关的)are present. Concerned (忧虑的)parents held a meeting. the method used is very efficient (运用的,使用的) This is a used bike.(旧的) 二、短语作后置定语。 1、介词短语、副词短语、形容词短语等用作后置定语。 如 The man in the car is Jim’s father. (介词短语) He made a report on modern science (介词短语) A friend in need is a friend indeed(介词短语) I live in a village far from here(副词短语) He cast it a second time, and drew in an old basket full of sand (形容词短语) 2、不定式用作后置定语。如: Would you like something to drink What do you plan to do in the year to come The building to be built was designed by Mr Wang. =The building which will be built was designed by Mr Wang. (相当一个 定语从句)

3、不定式经常用作一些名词的后置定语,常见的这类名词有 way,chance, opportunity, courage, time, week, wish, need, promise, plan, right.如: You have no right to speak If I have the chance to go abroad I’ll never let it go. 4、一般来讲,谓语动词能接不定式当宾语,当这类动词转化为 名词时,也接不定式当后置定语。如: You promised to write us regularly.(不定式当宾语) You haven’t kept your promise to write us regularly.(不定式当 后置定语) He planned to start a company (不定式当宾语) He told me his plan to start a company. (不定式当后置定语) 5、分词作定语。单个分词一般作前置定语,而分词短语作后置 定语,此时可以转化相应的定语从句。 ①The old man has a walking stick(动名词当定语表示用途) ②Can yon see the falling leaves in the sky.(现在分词当定语表示 动作进行) ③Deer don’t like eating fallen leaves (过去分词当定语表示动作 完成) ④The man running on the playground is our English teacher. (现 在分词当后置定语,与被修饰词存在主动关系)

=The man who is running on the playground is our English teacher. ⑤Do you know the girl dancing in the center? ⑥The food cooked by my mother was delicious. (过去分词当后置 语与被修饰词存在动作的完成与被动关系) =The food which was cooked by my mother was delicious. ⑦The building built was designed by Mr Warg. =The building which was built was designed by Mr Wang. ⑧⑨There were over 300 people trapped above the fire. ⑨The building being built was designed by Mr Wang. (过去分词 的进行式作后置定语表示与被修饰词存在动作的被动且正在进行) =The building which is being built was designed by Mr Wang. 三、从句作定语都是后置.一个句子修饰某个名词或代词,我们称 之为定语从句,定语从句可分为限制性定语从句和非限制性定语从 句,非限制性定语从句常用逗号隔开,表示补充说明。 In the north where it is cold, they grow wheat. I will never forget the day, on which I joined the Party. I know the only route that leads to the top of the mountain. I found some photos of interesting places which were not too far away from Cheng du.

The sun, which had hidden all day, now came out in all its splendor.


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