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高中动词不定式用法讲解及练习


Grammar Presentation---动词不定式 一、不定式的句法功能 ● 不定式作主语 ? To learn a foreign language is not easy. 学习外语不是一件容易的事。 ◎ 不定式短语作主语时,常用 it 作形式主语来代替它的位置,而将真正的主语(不定 式短语)移到谓语之后 ? It’s a great honor to be invited to Mary’s birthday party. 很荣幸被邀请参加玛丽的生 日聚会。 ● 不定式作宾语 ◎ 作动词宾语 ◇ 下列动词常接不定式作宾语,如:agree, arrange, ask, beg, choose, dare, decide, demand,expect, fail, fear, hope, manage, offer, plan, prepare, pretend, promise, ? They hope to find new resources for mankind. 他们希望为人类找到新资源。 ◇ 如果不定式作宾语且有自己的补语,常用“it”作形式宾语,而把真正的宾语 放在后面。 下列动词常用 it 作形式宾语,如:believe, consider, feel, find, know, make ? I know it impossible to finish so much homework in one day. 我知道在一天中完成这么多的作业是不可能的。 ● 不定式作表语 ◎ 不定式作表语时,一般紧跟在系动词后,说明主语的内容 ? The first step is to check the victim’s breathing. 第一步是检查受害人的呼吸。 ● 不定式作补语 ? I’d like the problem to be discussed at the next meeting. 我希望这个问题在下一次会 上讨论。 ● 不定式作定语 ? The students have a lot of homework to do every day. 学生们每天都有很多家庭作业 要做。 ● 不定式作状语 不定式可以作原因状语、结果状语、目的状语以及方式状语 不定式在下列句式中作目的状语:so as to do, in order to do ? In order to ensure your hair looks its best, pay attention to what you eat. 为了保证你的头发是最佳状态,请注意你的饮食。 二:不定式考点归纳: 考点 1:不定式的时态和语态: 1. ---Is Bob still performing? ---I’m afraid not. He is said ____the stage already as he has become an official. A. to have left B. to leave C. to have been left D. to be left 2. The news reporters hurried to the airport, only ____ the film stars had left. A. to tell B. to be told C. telling D. told 1.A. 根据句子的意思“据说他已经离开了舞台” ,要用不定式的完成式的主动形式。 2.B. 用动词的不定式的被动形式表示结果状语。 考点 2:不定式的功能:不定式具有名词的特征,可以作主语或宾语(例 5) ,具有形容词的
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特征,可以作表语、定语或补足语(例 4) ;具有副词的特征,在句子中可以作状语(例 3) 。 3. It was unbelievable that the fans waited outside the gym for three hours just ____ a look at the sports stars.(2005 上海卷) A. had B. having C. to have D. have 4. I don’t want _____ like I’m speaking ill of anybody, but the manager’s plan is unfair. A. to sound B. to be sounded C. sounding D. to have sounded 5. In fact ____ is a hard job for the police to keep order in an important football match. A. this B. that C. there D. it 3.C.本题考查不定式作目的状语。 “体育球迷们等在体育场外三个小时,目的仅仅是为了看 一眼这些体育明星” 。 4.A. want 后面要选用不定式形式, sound 是连系动词,不能用被动语态。 5.D.句子的真正主语是不定式短语 to keep order in an important football match 形式主语。 考点 3:不定式的省略:分为两种:一种是不定式符号“”后面省略实义动词的形式(见考 例 6) ;另一种则是对不定式符号“”的省略(见例 7) 。 6. The boy wanted to ride his bicycle in the street but his mother told him_______.(NMET2005) A. not to B. not to do C. not do it D. do not 7. Paul doesn’t have to be made ____. He always works hard. (NMET2005) A. learn B. to learn C. learned D. learning 6.A. tell sb. to do sth. 的意思是“告诉某人做某事” ,其否定形式是在 to 前面加 not。英语 中,为了避免重复,常用省略形式,因此这个句子省略了 do it。选项 B 如果加上 it,也是正 确的。 7、B.make, let, have, hear, see, feel, watch, notice 等动词,后面接不定式作宾补语时,常省 略不定式 to。但是,当这类动词用于被动结构作主语补足语时,动词不定式必须带 to。 考点 4:不定式的否定形式 动词不定式的否定形式是在不定式符号“”前面直接加上,有进为了强调也可以用否定词来 否定(见考例 8、9) 8. The purpose of new technologies is to make life easier, _____ it more difficult.(NMET1999) A. not make B. not to make C. not making D. do not make 9. The teacher asked us ____ so much noise.(2003 北京卷) A. don’t make B. not make C. not making D. not to make 8、B.动词不定式 to make life easier 和 not to make it more difficult 都作 is 的表语。做这类题 目时,要比较非谓语动词的形式,前后要保持一致,后面不能省略 to。 9、D.本题考查动词不定式的否定形式作宾语,句子的意思为:老师叫我们不要制造很大 的噪音。 考点 5:不定式的搭配形式:不定式常常独立存在的,如果强调其所表动作的时间、地点、 内容、方式等时,可出现“疑问+不定式”的结构;强调动词不定式所表动作的使用工具、 范围等时应使用“不定式+介词”的结构(见考例 10) 。 10. It is said in Australia there is more land than the government knows______.(NMET2002) A. it what to do with B. What to do it with C. what to do with it D. to do what with it 10、本题考查“疑问+不定式”和动词作短语 do with 的用法。根据本题的句意可以看出, 由于 know 不可以直接跟动词不定式而排除 D; “疑问+不定式”结构当然要把疑问词置于前 面,从而排除 A;what…do with…实际上是一个常用的短语,在短词中 what 作 do 的宾语, 句中的 it 作介词 with 的宾语,故选 C。
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Focused Practice (1)---不定式 Ⅰ .基础巩固 用动词的适当形式填空 1.While she lived, her front gate was always locked and no one ever saw her (leave) or saw anybody (go) in. 2.The thieves happened (quarrel) about the treasures when the police went in. 3.It is not difficult (learn) a foreign language if you spend time and effort on it. 4.He was ever so happy (admit) to the army. 5. The student pretended (study) hard when his mother came in. 6.Charles Babbage is generally considered (invent) the first computer. 7.The magazines are not allowed (take) out of the reading room. 8.Would you like (go) with me or would you rather (stay) at home ? 9.My work is (clean) the room every day. 10.She lets her children (play) in the street. Ⅱ .运用提高 根据汉语提示完成下列句子。 1. 我把做最后决定的事交给你了。 I will leave it to you . 2.我昨天听见她在隔壁唱过一首歌。 I heard her in the next room yesterday. 3.有人看见她胳膊下夹着一本书走进教室。 She was seen with a book under her arm. 4.我会认为他是一个诚实的人。 I will consider him . 5.问题一提出,他第一个举起手。 When the question was out, he was the first one . 6.他没有及时意识到问题重要性。 He was the last of this problem. 7.他是个很难对付的老师。 He is a tough teacher . 8.恐怕我不能参加你的晚会了,因为我有很多事情要做。 I am afraid l can’t attend your party, for l have . 9.我碰巧知道你那个问题的答案。 I happen to your question . 10.他不给他们任何东西,这显得太自私了。 It seemed selfish of him anything . Keys: I. 1.leave; go 2. to be quarreling 3. to learn 4. to have been admitted 5.to be studying 6. to have invented 7.to be taken 8.to go; stay9. to clean 10.play II. 1.to make the final decision 2. sing a song 3.to walk into the classroom 4.to be an honest man 5. to raise his hand 6. to realize the importance 7.to deal with 8.too many things to do 9.to know the answer 10.not to give them

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Home Assignment ( )1.The chair looks rather hard, but in fact it is very comfortable to . A. sit B. sit on C. be seat D. be sat on ( )2.—l usually go there by train. .—Why not by boat for a change ? A. to try going B. trying to go C. to try and go D. try going ( )3.Paul doesn’t have to be made He al— ways works hard. A. learn B. to learn C. learned D. learning ( )4.Tell him the window. A. to shut not B. not to shut C. to not shut D. not shut ( )5.She pretended me when l passed by. A. not to see B. not seeing C. to not see D. having not seen ( )6.Mrs. Smith warned her daughter after drinking. A. never to drive B. to never drive C. never driving D. never drive ( )7.The boy wanted to ride his bicycle in the street, but his mother told him . A . not to B. .not to do C. .not do it D. do not to ( )8.The patient was warned oily food after the operation. A .to eat no B. eating not C. not to eat D. not eating ( )9. — The light in the office is still on. — Oh, l forgot . A. turning it off B. turn it off C. to turn it off D. having turned it off ( )10. She reached the top of the hill and stopped on a big rock by the side of the path. A. to have rested B. resting C. to rest D. rest Keys: 1-5 B D B B A 6-10 A A C C C

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