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高中语法复习-时态和语态老师版


英语语法四--时态和语态 一、一般现在时 一般现在时的几种主要用法: 1)一般现在时表示客观事实、客观存在的普遍真理、用于一般现在时的时间状语常见的有: often, usually,always ,sometimes , seldom,ever,never,every day(week,month,year) , once a year ,now and them,from t

ime to time。例如: The earth moves around the sun. 地球绕太阳转动。 Shanghai lies in the east of China. 上海位于中国东部。 2)表示格言或警句 Pride goes before a fall. 骄者必败。 注意:此用法如果出现在宾语从句中,即使主句是过去时,从句谓语也要用一般现在时。 例:Columbus proved that the earth is round. 哥伦布证实了地球是圆的。 3)表示现在习惯性的、经常重复的或定期发生的动作或存在的状态。 I leave home for school at 7 every morning. 每天早上我七点离开家。 4)表示能力、性格、个性等。例如: I don't want so much. 我不要那么多。 Ann writes good English but does not speak well. 安英语写得不错,讲的可不行。 注意:1)表示“感觉”和“状态”或“关系”等的动词(如be,like,love,hate,want,think, remember ,find,sound,forget,refuse,see,allow ,prove,have,matter,taste,look,feel) 常用一般现在时,不用现在进行时。例如: Carl and Wang Bing are students. 卡尔和王斌是学生。 In the evening I love sitting by the fire and playing my guitar. 在晚上,我喜欢坐在篝火旁弹着吉 他。 2)有时用这个时态表示“按计划、规定,时刻表”要发生的动作,句中(都带有时时间状 语) ,但限于少数动词,如:begin,come,leave,go,arrive,start,stop,return,open,close 等。例如: The meeting begins at seven. 会议在七点钟开始。 The train leave at 17:40. 火车17:40离开。 3)书报的标题、小说、戏剧、图片等情节介绍常用一般现在时。例如: China Declares Manned Spaceflight Successful中国宣布载人航天飞行圆满成功
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Laura Bush Arrives in Moscow 劳拉?布什抵达莫斯科 Francis slips past, passes the ball to Yao Ming, who jumps, catches and shoots it into the basket. 弗 朗西斯穿过去,把球传给姚明,姚明跳起来,接住球投进篮里。 4) 在由if, unless , even if等引导的条件状语从句和在由when, before, after, until, till, as soon as , by the time, each time, the moment, immediately等引导的时间状语从 句中,常用一般现在时表示将来时间。例如: I'll come to help you if I'm free tomorrow. 如果我明天有空的话,我将帮助你。 Unless you try, you will never succeed. 你若不尝试,就决不会成功。 Next time I go there, I ' ll ask him about it. 下次我去那里时,我要问问他这件事。 Please let me know immediately you get the results. 你一得到结果,就请马上告诉我。 I'll telephone you as soon as he comes back. 他一回来我就打电话给你。 When they leave school, they will go back to the country. 他们离校将去农村。 另外,还要注意其动词形式的变化。该时态主要由动词原形表示,但第三人称单数后要加词 尾-s ,be和have有特殊的变化形式。例表如下: 构成 一般情况在词尾末加-s , 包括以 “元音字母+y”结尾的词 示例 work—works run—runs play—plays 在以ch,sh,x,s 等辅音字母结 miss —misses 尾的词末加-es , 如词尾为-e, 只 加-s finish—finishes teach—teaches lose—loses pledge—pledges 以o结尾的词加-es 如词尾为 e,只加-s go—goes love— loves hate—hates make—makes 以“辅音字母+y”结尾的动词, study—studies 先变y为i,在加-es -es 在元音后读[z] -s 的读音取决于 e 前的辅 音,如该字母是清辅音,则 读[s],如是浊辅音则读[z] -ies 读[iz] 读音说明 -在清辅音后读[s], 在浊辅音后读[z] 在元音后读[z] -es 读[iz]

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在词尾加-s 时要按下表规则进行: 动词情况 一般情况 以 -e 结尾的动词 以辅音字母 -y 结尾的动 词 以一个辅音字母结尾的重 读闭音节的动词 不规则动词 双写辅音字母加-ed stop—stopped,regret—regretted, pat—patted,nod—nodded ,drag—dragged 不规则变化(见附表) begin—began, 构成方式 加-ed 加-d 变y为i加-ed 例词 play—played, work—worked, look—looked live— lived,hope—hoped, arrive—arrived study—studied,cry—cried,reply—replied

注意:以t,d结尾的动词加-s 读作[ts],[dz],这两个辅音音素。而不是四个。例如: want—wants , need—needs 练习: 1. The father as well as children _____ every Sunday afternoon in winter. A. is going B. go C. goes D. are going

2. Send my regards to your lovely wife when you _______ home. A. wrote B. will write C. have written D. write Well, I’ m thinking about the salary.

3.Do you have any problems if you ______ this job? A. offer B. will offer C. are offered

D. will be offered

4. I think it is necessary for my 19-year-old son to have his own mobile phone, for I sometimes want to make sure if he _____ home for dinner. A. come B. comes C. has come D. will come

5. According to the time-table, the train for Shanghai _____ at 7 o’clock in the evening. A. leaves B. has left C. was left D. will leave

6. Look at the timetable. Hurry up! Flight 4026 ____ off at 18:20. A. takes B. took C. will be taken D. has taken

7. Galileo collected facts that proved the earth _____ around the sun. A. moved B. moves C. has moved D. had moved

8. Can I help you, sir? ——Yes, I bought this radio yesterday, but it ____. A. didn’t work B. won’t work C. can’t work D. Doesn’t work

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9. This machine _______. It hasn’t worked for years. A. didn’ t work B. wasn’ t working C. doesn’ t work D. isn’ t working

10. The house belongs to my aunt but she______ here any more. A. hasn't lived B. didn't live C. hadn't lived D. doesn't live

1-5 CDCDA 6-10 ABDCD 二、一般过去时 1) 在确定的过去时间里所发生的动作或存在的状态。 例如: 时间状语有: yesterday, last week, an hour ago, the other day, in 1982 等。例如: Where did you go just now? 刚才你上哪儿去了? 2)表示在过去一段时间内,经常性或习惯性的动作。例如: He was already in the habit of reading widely in his boyhood. 他童年时就养成了广泛阅读的习 惯。 We went swimming every day last summer. 去年夏天我们每天去游泳。 He often came to see me when I was in hospital. 在我住院期间,他经常来看我。 3)句型:It is time for sb. to do sth It is time for you to go to bed. "到……时间了" "该……了"。例如:

你该睡觉了。 "早该……了" ,例如

It is time that sb. did sth. "时间已迟了" It is time you went to bed.

你早该睡觉了。 表示' 宁愿某人做某事' 。例如:

would (had) rather sb. did sth.

I'd rather you came tomorrow. 还是明天来吧。 I would rather you didn't do anything for the time being. 我宁愿你暂时先不要采取什么措施。 4)wish, wonder, think, hope 等用过去时,作试探性的询问、请求、建议等,而一般过去时 表示的动作或状态都已成为过去,现已不复存在。例如: I thought you might have some. 我以为你想要一些。 比较:Christine was an invalid all her life. (含义:她已不在人间。 ) Christine has been an invalid all her life. (含义:她现在还活着) Mrs. Darby lived in Kentucky for seven years. (含义:达比太太已不再住在肯塔基州。 ) Mrs. Darby has lived in Kentucky for seven years. (含义:现在还住在肯塔基州,有可能指刚 离去) 注意: 用过去时表示现在,表示委婉语气。 1)动词 want, hope, wonder, think, intend 等。例如: Did you want anything else? 您还要些什么吗? I wondered if you could help me. 能不能帮我一下。
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2)情态动词 could, would。例如: Could you lend me your bike? 你的自行车,能借用一些吗? (3)在以as soon as ,when,before,until引起的时间状语从句以及 if条件的状语从句中,当 主句为一般过去将来时或祈使句时,从句通常要用一般过去时代替过去将来时。例如: We would not leave until the teacher came back. 老师回来我们才会离开。 She told me she would not go if it rained the next day. 她告诉我如果第二天下雨的话,她就不去 了。 练习: 1. I know a little bit about Italy as my wife and I _______there several years ago. [2007 全国卷I] A. are going B. had been C. went D. have been

2. —Did you tidy your room? [2007 上海卷] — No, I was going to tidy my room but I ______ visitors. A. had B. have C. have had D. will have

3. —When I called you this morning, nobody answered the phone. Where____. [2007 重庆] A. did you go B. have you gone C. were you D. had you been

4. The play had already been on for quite some time when we ____ at the New Theatre. [07 浙 ] A. have arrived B. arrived C. had arrived D. arrive

5. “I _____ his telephone number. ” “I have his number, but I ____ to bring my phone book. ” A. forget, forget B. forgot, forgot C. forget, forgot D. forgot, forget 6. I had hoped to see her off at the station, but I _____ too busy. A. was B. had been C. would be D. would have been 7. Dear me! Just _____ at the time! I _____ no idea it was so late. A. look, have B. looking, had C. look, had D.looking, have

8. “Your phone number again? I _____ quite catch it. ” “It’s 4331577” A. didn’t CAABB ACA 三、一般将来时 1) 一般将来时是由―will / shall + 动词原形‖构成的。shall 只限于第一人称,主要见于英 B . couldn’t C. don’t D. can’t

国英语,现在的趋势是第一、二、三人称的单复数形式均用 will 表示。在口语中,shall 和 will 常缩写成 ―'ll‖, 紧接在主语之后。 其否定式 shall not 和 will not 常简略为 shan't 和 won't。

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Which paragraph shall I read first ? 我先读哪一段呢? When will you know your exam results? 你什么时候能知道考试结果? I can see you're busy, so I won't stay long. 我看得出你很忙,所以我不会呆太久的。 注意:在 you and I 或 both of us 等短语后,只用 will,不用 shall。 You and I will arrive there next Monday. 我和你下周一都要到达那里。 Both of us will graduate from middle school next year. 我们俩明年中学毕业。 2) be going to +不定式,表示将来。

a. 表示经过事先考虑与打算、按计划或安排将要发生的动作。例如: I ' m going to finish the report this afternoon. 今天下午我将会写完这份报告。 ——What are you going to do when you grow up?长大以后你打算干什么? ——I ' m going to be a teacher. 我要当一名教师。 The play is going to be produced next month 。这出戏下月开播。 b. 表示根据某种迹象推测出即将发生的动作。例如: Look at the dark clouds in the sky. It ' s going to rain. 瞧那天上的乌云,天要下雨了。 Watch out!We are going to crash!当心!我们要撞车了! There is going to be a lot of difficulty in doing this. 做这件事会有许多困难。 3) be +不定式表将来,按计划或正式安排将发生的事。例如:

We are to discuss the report next Saturday. 我们下星期六讨论这份报告。 The new railway is to be opened to traffic on National Day. 这条新铁路将在国庆节通车。 We are to begin the experiment next month. 我们安排下个月开始这项试验。 4) be about to +不定式,意为马上做某事。例如:

We are about to leave, so there is no time to visit him now. 我们就要离开,所以现在没有时间 去看他。 He is about to leave for Beijing. 他马上要去北京。 注意:be about to do 不能与 tomorrow, next week 等表示明确将来时的时间状语连用。 be going to / will 用于条件句时,be going to 表将来,will 表意愿。例如: If you are going to make a journey, you'd better get ready for it as soon as possible. 如果你打算旅 行,你最好尽快作好准备。 Now if you will take off your clothes, we will fit the new clothes on you in front of the mirror. 既 然你愿意脱了你的衣服,我们在镜子前面试一试新衣服。

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be to do 和 be going to 区别 be to do 表示客观安排或受人指示而做某事,be going to 表示主观的打算或计划。例如: I am to play football tomorrow afternoon. I'm going to play football tomorrow afternoon. 5)一般现在时表将来 (1) 下列动词 come, go, arrive, leave, start, begin, return 的一般现在时可以表示将来, 主要用 来表示在时间 上已定或安排好的事情。例如: The train leaves at six tomorrow morning. 火车明天上午六点开。 When does the bus star? It stars in ten minutes. 汽车什么时候开?十分钟后。 (2)以 here, there 等开始的倒装句,表示动作正在进行。例如: Here comes the bus. = The bus is coming. 车来了。 There goes the bell. = The bell is ringing. 铃响了。 (3)在时间或条件句中。例如: When Bill comes (不是 will come), ask him to wait for me. 比尔来后,让他等我。 I'll write to you as soon as I arrive there. 我到了那里,就写信给你。 (4)在动词 hope, take care that, make sure that 等的宾语从句中。例如: Don't worry about the exam. I'm sure you'll pass. 不要担心这次考试,我确信你会通过的。 I wonder what will happen. 我不知道将会发生什么事。 I don't think the test will be very difficult. 我想这次测验不会太难。 (5)用于―祈使句 + and /or + 陈述句‖中 Work hard and you will succeed. 如果你努力,就会成功的。 Go at once and you will see her. 马上去,你就会见到她了。 6)用现在进行时表示将来 表示最近按计划、安排即将发生的动作,它只限用于少数动词,如:play, have, sleep, wear 等, 或表示位移的动词 (短语) , 如: go, come, leave, start, begin, close, move, drive, fly(乘飞机) ,go off, get to, arrive, return, see off, stay, take(带走) ,take off(起飞)等,并常与表示将来时间的状语连用,如:tomorrow , next week, in a few days 等。例如: We are having an English evening tonight. 今晚我们要开一个英语晚会。 Jane and Betty are going on separate holidays in a few days’ time. 简和贝蒂准备几天后各自去 度假。 Where are you spending your holidays this summer ?今年夏天你将在哪里度假?
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明天下午我去踢球。 (客观安排) 明天下午我想去踢球。 (主观安排)

练习: 1. ─Your job _____ open for your return. ─Thanks. (2006 年高考北京卷) A. will be kept B. will keep C. had kept D. had been kept

2.Ladies and gentlemen, please fasten your seat belt. The plane _____. (2006 年高考福建卷) A. takes off B. is taking off C. has taken off D. took off

3.Look at the timetable. Hurry up! Flight 4026 _____ off at 18:20. (2006 年高考江苏卷) A. takes B. took C. will be taken D. has taken

4.In a room above the store, where a party _____, some workers were busily setting the table. (2006 年高考湖南卷) A. was to be held B. has been held C. will be held D. is being held 5. Because the shop ___ , all the T-shirts are sold at half price. A. has closed down B. closed down C. is closing down D. had closed down

6. Turn on the televis ion or open a magazine and you ________ advertisements showing happy families. (2004 年 湖南) A. will often see B. often see C. are often seeing D. have often seen

7.The man will have to wait all day _______ the doctor works faster. A. if B. unless C. whether D. that

8.He was about to tell me the secret __ someone patted him on the shoulder. A. as B. until C. while D. when ----I___, but I had an unexpected visitor.

9.----Alice, why didn’t you come yesterday? A. had B. would C. was going to D. did

10. I had no idea if he _____ the meeting. A. will attend B. attends C. will have attended D. would attend

11. I ____ to start off when it began to rain. A. was B. was able C. wanted D. was about

12. They wanted to know what ______next. A. would happen ABCCC B. has happened C. will happen D. is going to happen

ABDCD DA

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四、现在进行时 现在进行时的表示形式为be+动词的现在分词,而助动词be随着主语的单数的变化而变化 1、现在进行时描述现在时刻进行着的动作。具体地说,以发言者发言的时刻为标准,动作 在发言前不久开始,在发言时刻正在进行。从时间上看“现在时刻” ,着眼于描述动作。例 如: We are waiting for you. 我们正在等你。 2、现在进行时可用于目前和目前阶段正在进行的动作。但从说话时刻来看,该动作未必一 定正在发生(也许正在发生) 。例如: We are having a wonderful time. 我们(当时)玩得很痛快。 Mr. Green is writing another novel. 态。 ) 3、现在进行时可用来表示一个最近按计划或安排要进行的动作(这时多有一个表示将来的 时间状语) 用于这种情况的动词主要有: go , come, leave , start, arrive,lunch, return, dine, play,have,wear, get(to)等。例如: Bob is coming with me to the airport. 鲍勃将同我一道到机场来。 How long are you staying in Xi'an? 你将在西安呆多久? We're having a holiday next Monday. 我们将在下星期一放假。 2)be+ dying ,表示“病危” “即将死亡” 。例如: He is dying. 他快要死了。 3)现在进行时还可表示一个经常性动作或状态。这时,或是为了表示一种感情(如赞叹、 埋怨、厌烦、批评、不满等)或是为了强调情况的暂时性。这时,可以与always, often等副 词连用。例如: How are you feeling today? 你今天觉得怎么样? (这比How do you feel today?更显得亲切 些。 ) She is always thinking of helping others. 她总是想着帮助别人。 (表示“赞扬” ) He is always borrowing money. 他老是向别人借钱。 (表示“厌烦” ) 4)有些表状态的动词不 能用于进行时的动词。 这一类通常是表示感觉、感情、存在、从属、思维等的动词。如: (1)表示感觉的动词:see, hear,smell,taste,feel, notice, look, seem, appear。 例如:
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他在写另一部小说。 (说话时并未在写,只处于写作的状

The apples taste good. 这些苹果尝起来不错。 This flower smells nice. 这花闻上去很香。 Your suggestion sounds reasonable. 你的建议听上去有道理。 (2)表示感情的动词:hate, love, fear, like, want, wish, prefer, refuse, forgive; Your clothes need washing. 你的衣服需要洗了。 How I wish I were a bird!我多希望我是一只鸟啊! (3)表示存在状况:be, exist, remain,stay, obtain; She still continues in poor health. 她仍然身体很差。 Every day after finishing his homework, he goes on to do some reading. 他每天做完作业后,都 会继续看会儿书。 (4)表示占有与从属:have, possess , own, contain,belong, consist of ,form; This backpack belongs to me. 这背包是我的。 (5)表示思考、理解understand, know , believe, think, doubt, forget, remember I don't think he will come tomorrow. 我想他明天不会来。 I still remember the days when we studied together. 我还记得我们一起学习的那些日子。 注意 :有时这些动词的进行时态可表示心理状态的缓慢发展过程。 She's understanding you better now. 她越来越了解你了。 5)在由while引起的状语从句中,动词通常要用进行时(现在进行时、过去进行时等) 。例 如: While you are resting, I will read you today's news. 当你休息的时候,我看你今天的报纸。 While I was having my breakfast the morning post came. 当我正在吃早饭的时候, 早班邮件送来 了。 6)如果句中有look, listen等提示语,其后应考虑使用现在进行时。例如: Look! The children are flying kites over there. 看!孩子们正在那边放风筝。

Listen! Han Mei is singing an English song in the classroom. 听!韩梅正在教室里唱英语歌。 练习 1. --- I don’t suppose the police know who did it. --- Well, surprisingly they do. A man has been arrested and ________ now. A. has been questioned B. is being questioned C. is questioning D. has questioned 2 Although the causes of cancer ____, we do not yet have any practical way to prevent it. A. are being uncovered B. have been uncovering C. are uncovering D. have uncovered 3. Danny hard for long to realize his dream and now he is popular.
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A. works B. is working C. has worked D. worked 4. —I have got a headache. —No wonder. You in front of that computer too long. A. work B. are working C. have been working D. worked 5. Teenagers their health because they play computer games too much A. have damaged B. are damaging C. damaged D. will damage 6. —Have you got any job offers?—No. I ______. A. waited B. had been waiting C. have waited D. am waiting 7. – Do you think we should accept that offer? -- Yes, we should, for we ___such bad luck up till now, and time __ out. A. have had; is running B. had; is running C. have; has been run D. have had; has been run 8. –What’s that noise? –Oh, I forgot to tell you. The new machine ______. A. was tested BACCB DAC 五、过去进行时 过去进行时的构成:该时态由be 的过去式“was (用于第一、三人称单数)或were + 现在 分词” 。 过去进行时的用法: 1)概念:表示过去某时正在进行的状态或动作。 2)过去进行时的主要用法是描述一件事发生的背景;一个长动作延续的时候,另一个短动 作发生。 3) 常用的时间状语有 this morning, the whole morning, all day yesterday, from nine to ten last evening, when, while 等。例如: My brother fell while he was riding his bicycle and hurt himself. 了伤。 It was raining when they left the station. 他们离开车站时,正下着雨。 When I got to the top of the mountain, the sun was shining. 我到达山顶时,阳光灿烂 我兄弟骑车时摔了下来,受 B. will be tested C. is being tested D. has been tested

3、过去进行时可以描绘事情发生的背景,即:过去某时 A 动作正在进行,B 动作在 A 动作进行的过程中发生了,A 动作就是 B 动作发生的背景。例如: 主句谓语 一般现在时 从句谓语常用 A、现在进行时,一般现在时 B、will,can,may+动词 C、一般过去时 D、现在完成时 I was having tea with a friend on the fifth floor. Suddenly a lot of people ran through the tea room.
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我正和一个朋友在五楼喝茶,突然许多人跑过茶室。 4、过去进行时还可用来表示“两个过去的动作同时进行着” ;这时可用连词when或while来 引起。 When (I was) visiting London, I like to travel by bus. 在访问伦敦时,我喜欢乘公共汽车游览。 They arrived while we were having dinner. 他们到时,我们正在吃饭。 练习: 1 I was giving a talk to a large group of people, the same talk I ______to half a dozen other groups. A. was giving B. am giving C. had given D. have given 2 —You look very tired _______at all last night? —No, not really. I’m tired out now. A. Do you sleep B. Were you sleepin g C. Did you sleep D. Had you slept 3. —Is there anything wrong, Bob? You look sad. —Oh, nothing much. In fact, I ____ of my friends back home. A. have just thought B. was just thinking C. would just think D. will just be thinking 4. —It was really very kind of you to give me a lift home. —Oh, don’t mention it. I _____past your house anyway. A. was coming B. will come C. had come D. have come 5 —I saw Jane and her boyfriend in the park at eight yesterday evening. —Impossible. She TV with me in my home then. A. watched B. had watched C. would watch D. was watching 6. —Ouch! You hurt me! —I am sorry. But I any harm. I to drive a rat out. A. didn’t mean; tried B. don’t mean; am trying C. haven’t meant; tried D. didn’t mean; was tryin g 7. —Did you see a man in black pass by just now? —No, sir. I ________ a newspaper. A. read B. was reading C. would read D. am reading 8 -----Did you watch the basketball match yesterday? -----Yes, I did. You know, my brother _____ in the match. A. is playing B. was playing C. has played D. had played 9.I called Hnnah many times yesterday evening, but I couldn’t get through. Her brother _____ on the phone all the time! A. was talking B. has been talking C. has talked D. talked 10 The telephone _______, but by the time I got indoors, it stopped. A. had rung B. was ringing C. rings D. has rung CBBAD DBBAB 六、将来进行时 将来进行时是由“shall(will)+be +现在分词” 表示要在某个时间开始,并继续下去的动 作,也可表示在将来某段时间正在进行的动作。 它跟一般将来时的区别在于:一般将来时由于助动词will与shall的影响,可带有一种意图、 意愿或者请求等情态色彩,而将来进行时却表示“纯粹”的将来。现在英语中还常用将来进
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行时表示一种有礼貌的询问和请求等。例如: Don't phone me between 8:00 and 10:00. We'll be having classes then.8 点到 10 点之间不要给我 打电话,我们那时正在上课。 Will you be using your bicycle this evening? 今晚你用自行车吗? 1. 在口语中代替 will/shall do I hope you will be coming on time. 我希望你按时来。 I'll be seeing Mr. Smith tomorrow. 我明天将见到史密斯先生。 The minister will be giving a speech on international affairs. 部长将就国际事务发表演讲。 2. 表示原因、结果或猜测 Please come tomorrow afternoon. Tomorrow morning I'll be having a meeting. 请你明天下午来 吧。我明天上午有个会。 (表原因) Stop the child or he will be falling over. 抓住那个孩子,要不他会掉下去的。 (表结果) You will be making a mistake. 你会出错的。 (表推测) 3. 用在问句中,表示委婉礼貌 Will you be reading anything else? 你还要看点儿什么吗? When shall we be meeting again? 我们什么时候再见面? 4. 表示稍后一点儿的安排 The students are studying Unit 3 this week, and next week we'll be studying Unit 4. 这星期我们学 第三单元,下周我们将学第四单元。 My duties will end in July and I will be returning to Shanghai. 我的任务在 7 月结束, 之后我会回 上海。 练习: 1. The Blacks A. will stay 2. The plane A. would go with us for the time being. B. would stay C. have been staying D. will be staying

at the present speed until it crosses the mountain at about ten tonight. B. went C. will be going D. goes

3. Mr. Smith will not be able to attend the meeting tonight because ______ then. A. he must have a class C. he teaches a class B. he will be teaching a class D. he will have been teaching a class homework at that time.

4. I won’t be able to watch the concert on TV tonight because I
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A. shall have done

B. shall be doing

C. shall do

D. have been doing

5. I _______ my boss at three this afternoon. A. shall be picking up B. shall be picked C. shall have been picking up D. shall have picked 6. You can’t miss Frank. He______ a dark green suit and a yellow tie waiting for you. A. is wearing B. will wear C. wears D. will be wearing

7. ----Could you give these books to Mr. Black? ----Absolutely, _______him at five o’clock this afternoon. A. I will have a talk B. I have a talk with C.I can have a talk with D.I will be having a talk with 8. I’m afraid I won’t be available then. I _____ a friend off at three this afternoon. A. see B. am seeing C. will see D. will be seeing

9. Next Friday I will go to another concert .They ____some thing by Mozart at that time. A. play DCBBA B. will be playing C. are going to play DDDB D. are to play.

七、现在完成时 该时态由“have+过去分词”构成。第三人称单数作主语用“has+过去分词”的形式。 1) 现在完成时表示在说话之前已经完成或刚完成的动作。 I have bought a ten-speed bicycle. 我买了一辆时速自行车。 They have cleaned the classroom. 他们已经打扫了教室。 2) 现在完成时表示动作从过去开始持续到现在,或者还有可能持续下去的动作或状态。 现在完 成时常与for 和 since 引导的短语或从句连用。 We have lived here since 1995. 自从1995我就住在这儿。 They have waited for more than two hours. 他们等了两个多小时。 3)一般过去时与现在完成时区别 (1)一般过去时表示过去某时发生的动作或单纯叙述过去的事情,强调动作;现在完成时 为过去发生的,强调过去的事情对现在的影响,强调的是影响。 (2)一般过去时常与具体的时间状语连用,而现在完成时通常与模糊的时间状语连用,或 无时间状语。 一般过去时的时间状语:yesterday, last week,…ago, in1980, in October, just now 等,皆为具 体的时间状语。 现在完成时的时间状语: for, since, so far, ever, never, just, yet, till/until, up to now, in past years,
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always 等,皆不确定的时间状语。 共同的时间状语:this morning, tonight, this April, now, already, recently, lately 等。 (3) 现在完成时可表示持续到现在的动作或状态, 动词一般是延续性的, 如 live, teach, learn, work, study, know. 。 一般过去时常用的非持续性动词有 come, go, leave, start, die, finish, become, get married 等。 例如: I saw this film yesterday. (强调看的动作发生过了) I have seen this film. (强调对现在的影响,电影的内容已经知道了) Why did you get up so early? (强调起床的动作已发生过了) Who hasn't handed in his paper? (强调有卷子未交,疑为不公平竞争) He has been in the League for three years. (在团内的状态可延续) He has been a League member for three years. (是团员的状态可持续) 句子中如有过去时的时间副词(如 yesterday, last, week, in 1960)时,不能使用现在完成时, 要用过去时。 4)用于现在完成时的句型 1)It is the first / second time.... that… 结构中的从句部分,用现在完成时。例如: It is the first time that I have visited the city. 这是我第一次访问这城市。 This is the first time (that) I've heard him sing. 这是我第一次听他唱歌。

注意:It was the third time that the boy had been late. 2)This is +形容词最高级+that…结构,that 从句要用现在完成时。例如: This is the best film that I've (ever) seen. 这是我看过的最好的电影。 5)since 和 for 区别 Since 用来说明动作起始时间,for用来说明动作延续时间长度。例如: I have lived here for more than twenty years. 我住在这儿二十多年了。 I have lived here since I was born. 我从出生起就住在这儿了。 注意:并非有for 作为时间状语的句子都用现在完成时。 I worked here for more than twenty years. (我现在已不在这里工作。 ) I have worked here for many years. (现在我仍在这里工作。 ) 6) 某些瞬间意义动词leave, go, become, come, stop, buy, join, die, get up, fall asleep, fall ill, ....... 等,不能用它们的现在(或过去)完成时态+ for+时间累计数来表示行为持续长度。 若要表示这方面的意思时,可采用如下方法: a. 将瞬间动词改为“be+ 形容词或副词”的结构,然后用这一结构的现在完成时态+ for+ 具

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体时间累计数。常见的这类结构: get up→be up,become→be,stop→be over, die→be dead, join→be in, leave→be away(out), go →be out, come →be back, fall asleep→be asleep,fall ill→be ill....... b. 瞬间动词的一般过去时+ 时间累计数 + ago ; c. 使用It is + 时间累计数 + since + 主语 + 谓语 (用瞬间动词的一般过去时表示) 。 因此 “雨

已经停了三小时了” 这句话可分别译作: It rain has been over for three hours. The rain stopped three hours ago. It is three hours since the rain stopped. It is five years since she became(瞬间意义动词) my wife. 她和我结婚已五年了。 练习: 1 Although medical science _____ control over several dangerous diseases, what worries us is that some of them are returning. A. achieved B. has achieved C. will achieve D. had achieved 2 In a room above the store, where a party __________,some workers were busily setting the table. A. was to be held B. has been held C. will be held D. is being held 3. I have to go to work by taxi because my car ________ at the garage. A. will be repaired B. is repaired C. is being repaired D. has been repaired 4. I ______ in London for many years ,but I,we never regretted my final decis ion to move back to China. A. lived B. was living C. have lived D. had livedt 5 I won't tell the student the answer to the math problem until he ____on it for more than an hour. A. has been working B. will have worked C. will have been working D. had worked 6 The construction of the two new railway lines __________by now. A. has completed B. have completed C. have been completed D. has been completed 7 My friend, who ______ on the International Olympic Committee all his life, is retiring next month. A. Served B. is serving C. had served D. has served 8 -Did Linda see the traffic accident? -No, no sooner __________ impossible now does seem possible. A. had she gone B. she had gone C. has she gone D. she has gone 9 We ___ our new neighbors yet, so we don't know their names. A. don't meet B. won't meet C. haven't met D. hadn't met 10. With the help of high technology, more and more new substances ______ in the past years. A. discovered B. have discovered C. had been discovered D. have been discovered 11 I got caught in the rain and my suit____. A. has ruined B. had ruined C. has been ruined D. had been ruined
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12. As the years passed, many occasions —birthdays, awards, graduations —________ with Dad’s flowers. A. are marked B. were marked C. have marked D. had marked 13 —______ you ______ him around the museum yet? —Yes. We had a great time there. A. Have … shown B. Do … show C. Had … shown D. Did … Show BADAA ADACD CCA 八、过去完成时 1.该时态由“had +过去分词”构成。 过去完成时主要表示在过去某时前或某一动作发生之前,已发生的动作或已经存在的状态。 它强调“过去的过去”的动作。它也用来表示在过去的时间内,两个动作的一先一后。先完 成的那个动作要用过去完成时,后一个动作要用一般过去时。 2.过去完成时主要用于以下几种情况: 1)在 told, said, knew, heard, thought 等动词后的宾语从句。例如: She said (that)she had never been to Paris. 她告诉我她曾去过巴黎。 Soon I realized I had made a serious mistake. 我很快就意识到我犯了一个严重的错误。 2)状语从句 在过去不同时间发生的两个动作中,发生在先,用过去完成时;发生在后,用一般过去时。 例如: When the police arrived, the thieves had run away. 警察到达时,小偷们早就跑了。 3)表示意向的动词,如 hope, wish, expect, think, intend, mean, suppose 等,用过去完成时表 示"原本…,未能…"。例如: We had hoped that you would come, but you didn't. 那时我们希望你能来,但是你没有来。 3.过去完成时的时间状语 before, by, until , when, after, once, as soon as 。例如: By 5:00 yesterday morning we had done that work. 到昨天早上 5 点钟时,我们已经做完了那件 工作。 He had just finished sweeping the classroom when the teacher returned from the office. 老师从办 公室回来时,他刚把教室打扫完。 They came earlier than we had expected. 他们到得比我们预料的要早。 I had learnt 5000 words before I entered the university. 我在进大学之前就已学了 5000 个单词。 4、 过去完成时还可用在hardly......when...... , no sooner...... than...... , it was the first (second, ...... etc ) time (that)...... 等固定句型中。例如: Hardly had he begun to speak when the audience interrupted him. 他刚开始演讲,听众就打断了 他。

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No sooner had he arrived than he went away again. 他刚到又走了。 It was the third time that he had been out of work that year. 这是他那一年第三次失业了。 5.用一般过去时代替过去完成时 1) 两个动作如按顺序发生,又不强调先后,或用 then,and,but 等连词时,多用一般过

去时。例如: When she saw the mouse,she screamed. 她看到老鼠,就叫了起来。 My aunt gave me a hat and I lost it. 姑妈给了我一顶帽子,我把它丢了。 2) 两个动作相继发生, 可用一般过去时; 如第一个动作需要若干时间完成, 用过去完成时。 例如: When I heard the news, I was very excited. 当我听到这个消息,我非常兴奋。 3)叙述历史事实,可不用过去完成时,而只用一般过去时。例如: Our teacher told us that Columbus discovered America in 1492. 我们老师告诉我们哥伦布在 1492 年发现美洲。 练习 1 .John, a friend of mine, who got married only last week, spent $3,000 more than he _______ for the wedding. A. will plan B. has planned C. would plan D. had planned 2. The young girl sitting next to me on the plane was very nervous. She before.

A. hasn't flown B. didn't fly C. hadn't flown D. wasn't flying 3 —Did Peter fix the computer himself? —He ________, because he doesn't know much about computers. A. has it fixed B. had fixed it C. had it fixed D. fixed it 4. They became friends again that day. Until then, they _____ to each other for nearly two years. A. didn't speak B. hadn't spoken C. haven' t spoken D. haven' t been speaking 5. At the end of the meeting, it was announced that an agreement ______. A. has been reached B. had been reached C. has reached D. had reached 6 John had to have his car repaired in a garage because it seriously. A.Damaged B.was being damaged C.had damaged D.had been damaged 7. —Did Alan enjoy seeing his old friends yesterday? —Yes, he did. He ________ his old friends for a long time. A. didn’t see B. wouldn’t see C. hasn’t seen D. hadn’t seen 8、The hotel wasn’t particularly good. But I ____ in many worse hotels. A .was staying B. stayed C. would stay D. had stayed 9、We first met on a train in 2000. We both felt immediately that we ____ each other for years. A. knew B. have known 10、The moment I got home, I found I A. had left DCCBB DDDCA B. left C. had known D. know my jacket on the playground. C. have left

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九、 过去将来时 1.该时态由“should或would +动词原形”构成,第一人称用should,其它人称用would(在 美国英语中第一人称也常用would) 。 一般过去将来时主要表示从过去某时看将要发生的事或存在的状态。时间的出发点是过去。 该时态常用于宾语从句或间接引语中。而主句的谓语动词常常是过去时间或有过去完成时。 例如: My brother told me that he would be back on Saturday. 我哥哥告诉我他星期天回来。 He said that the meeting would begin at half past nine this morning. 他说会议将在今天早晨九点 半开始。 No one knew which country would hold the next Olympic Games. 没有人知道哪个国家将举行 下次奥林匹克运动会。 练习: 1. I ____ along the street looking for a place to park when the accident . A.went; was occurring B.went; occurred C.was going; occurred D.was going; had occurred 2 —Tom, you didn’t come to the party last night? —I ____, but I suddenly remembered I had homework to do. A. had to B. didn’t C. was going to D. wouldn’t 3 John promised his doctor he _____ not smoke, and he has smoked ever since. A. might B. should C. could D. would. CCD

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动词的语态 (Voice) 语态有两种:主动语态和被动语态。 主语是动作的发出者为主动语态;主语是动作的接受者为被动语态。 1.被动语态 1) 被动语态最基本的句型结构是: be +及物动词过去分词 2) 被动语态中的谓语动词一定要是及物动词 因为被动句中的主语是动作的承受者,某些短语动词如look after, think of, take care of, work out, laugh at等,也可用于被动语态。 The children were taken good care of by her. 孩子们得到了她的细心照顾。 【注意】短语动词中的介词或副词变成被动语态时不可遗漏。 3) 主动语态变为被动语态要加“to”的情况 若宾语补足语是不带 to 的不定式,变为被动语态时,该不定式前要加 "to"。此类动词为感 官动词,如:feel, hear, help, listen to, look at, make, observe, see, notice, watch 等。例如: The teacher made me go out of the classroom. 老师叫我到教师外面。 I was made to go out of the classroom (by the teacher). 我被老师叫到教师外面。 4) 主动形式表示被动意义 a. 如wash, clean, look, cut, sell, read, wear, feel, draw, write, sell等动词虽然用做主动形式却表 示被动的意义。例如: The food tastes good. 这食物味道很好。 The book sells well. 这书很畅销。 b. 表示“发生,进行”之类不及物动词如:happen,last,take place, break out,go on, go by, move on 等,以主动式表示被动含义。例如: You'd better wait and see what happens to him. 你最好等着瞧他会发生什么事。 Will the weather last long? 这种天气会持续很久吗? c.be + 副词或介词短语, 如 be on, be on show , be on sale, be in (out of) sight, be under discussion 等,这类副词或介词短语往往具有动词含义,相当于被动语态表达的意义。例如: Summer wear is on sale. (=Summer wear is being sold. )夏季衣服正在出售。 The film had been on for five minutes when I got to the cinema. (=The film had been show when I got to the cinema. )我到电影院时电影已放映了五分钟。

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