Unit 5 Nelson Mandela —a modern hero
【单元导航】 Nelson Mandela Imagine growing up in a country where drinking out of the wrong water fountain might get you thrown into jail；where a man might
have the very same job as his neighbor，but because of the color of his skin，get paid less in a year than the other man made in a week；where the government told you that your ancestors and their ways of living were wrong and savage and not even human. Sounds like a futuristic (幻想未来的) film，doesn’t it? Well，for Nelson Mandela，this was not a movie. Growing up in South africa under the apartheid system of government meant these things， and worse，which were part of his daily life. But Nelson Mandela was a fighter.Instead of bowing down to this unjust system of government，he became a lifelong warrior in the battle to free South Africa. Today， thanks to the selfsacrifice of Nelson Mandela， apartheid has been outlawed.Everyone in South Africa now has an equal opportunity at home and at work to live comfortable，productive lives.Nelson Mandela is one of the world’s true freedom fighters.
Warming Up and Reading
1.What words will we use to describe a person? 2.Can you name some great people? 3.What are the qualities that great people have in common?
Ⅱ .速读课文，回答下面的问题 What did Mandela do?
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Ⅲ .精读课文，回答下列问题 1.True or False? (1)Elias met Nelson Mandela at school. (2)Nelson Mandela was a black lawyer. (3)Elias was unable to read or write because he was lazy. (4)Nelson Mandela helped him keep his job. (5)Elias was happy blowing up government buildings. (6)Nelson Mandela believed that black people were being treated as well as white people in South Africa. (7)Nelson Mandela thought violence was a good way to help black people. (8)The government were happy with Nelson Mandela and the ANC. 2.Work out the year and Elias’ age to fit the events in his life. Year (1) 1946 1948 ... 1952 ... 1963 Elias’ age born (2) (4) ... (7) ... (10) Events Elias was born. Elias (3) Elias (5) Elias got a job but was worried about (6) (8) He joined (9) He helped Mandela (11)_______some government buildings and helped to fight for their (12)______
3.根括每一部分的大意 Part Ⅰ (Paras.1～2)： Part Ⅱ (Paras.3～5 )： 4.回答下列问题 (1)Why did Elias support Nelson Mandela? (2)What problems did the black people like Elias have?
(3)Why did Elias support violence when he did not agree with it? Ⅳ .与同桌讨论、理解下列长难句并尝试翻译成汉语 1.The time when I first met Nelson Mandela was a very difficult period of my life. 句子结构分析：when I first met Nelson Mandela 修饰先行词______。 翻译：_____________________________________________________ 2.After trying hard, I got a job in a gold mine. 句子结构分析：after 在本句中的词性是介词，后接名词或动名词。
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翻译：__________________________________________________3.The last thirty years have seen the greatest number of laws stopping our rights and progress， until today we have reached a stage where we have almost no rights at all. 句子结构分析：本句的主语是 the last thirty years；where we have almost no rights at all 是 先行词 a stage 的定语从句。 翻译：______________________________________________________________________ 4....we were put into a position in which we had either to accept we were less important, or fight the government. 句子结构分析： in which 引导的定语从句， 其先行词是 a position； either...or...意为“要么…… 要么……”。 翻译：_____________________________________________________________________ 5....only then did we decide to answer violence with violence. 句子结构分析：本句中 only 修饰状语 then 放在了句首，所以用倒装结构。 翻译：________________________________________________ Ⅴ .小组讨论 1.Is it fair to treat others badly for things they cannot change，like the color of skin or eyes or the race one belongs to? Give your reasons. 2.What do we call it when some people are badly treated because of their race and others not？
1. And what qualities does a great person have？一个伟人有什么样的品质？
I want some meat of the best quality. 我要一些质量最好的肉。 They spoke of his fine qualities as a modern painter. 他们(还)谈到了他作为一名当代画家的优秀品质。 One quality of this plastic is that it is almost unbreakable. 这种塑料有个特点是不易断裂。 quality，词性名词，意为“质量”时是不可数名词，意为“品质，性质”时是可数名词。 of great quality 意为“具有高质量的”，可作定语和表语。
(1)The goods are of poor A.quantity A.quality (2)Courage is one of the best
. B.qualities B.quantity C.quality of a good soldier. C.qualities D.feature D.quantities
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2. A great person is someone who devotes his/her life to helping others.伟人就是把自己的一 生 致力于帮助他人的人。
I don’t think we should devote any more time to this question. 我认为我们不应该在这个问题上花更多的时间。 He devoted his whole life to teaching. 他把毕生精力献给了教学。 devote，词性动词，意为“奉献，献身；投注……”，常与介词 to 搭配，构成 devote...to... 结构，to 是介词，后接名词或动名词。devote oneself to 意为“致力于，献身于”；devote one’s life to 意为“把某人的生命献给……”；devote one’s energy to 意为“把某人的精 力献给……”。 devotion n.(与 to 连用)献身；忠诚；热心；专心 devoted adj.热心的，忠诚的；恩爱的；献身的；专心于……的；专用于……的 He is devoted to his country. 他精忠报国。 They’re a devoted couple. 他们是一对恩爱夫妻。 This is a magazine devoted to children’s literature. 这是一本儿童文学刊物。
(1)他献身于帮助穷人。 He devoted himself to helping the poor. (2)四年来，他全力倾注于音乐。 For four years，he devoted himself to music. (3)她把精力都献给了和平事业。 She devoted her energies to the cause of peace. 3. The last thirty years have seen the greatest number of laws stopping our rights and progress，...过去 30 年来所出现的大量法律剥夺我们的权利，阻挡我们的进步，……
National Day saw people singing and dancing happily in the street. 国庆节那天人们在大街上载歌载舞。 The old house saw the changes in the big family. 这座老房子见证了这个大家庭的变迁。 本句的主语是 the last thirty years，不是表人的而是表时间的。在英语表达中，有时用表
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时间或地点的词作主语，可使语言显得生动形象，此时的谓语动词常用 see 或 find。
(1)随后几年，她在许多剧中扮演角色。 The following years saw her act in many plays. (2)第二天清晨人们发现这小女孩躺在街上，死了。 The next morning found the little girl lay on the street，dead. 4. ...until today we have reached a stage where we have almost no rights at all.……一直到今 天我们处于毫无权利可言的地步。
She left the stage at 60. 她 60 岁的时候离开了舞台。 Their firm is at the stage of development. 他们的公司处于发展阶段。 Her illness has developed to the stage where nobody can cure her. 她的病已发展到没人能治的阶段。 stage，词性名词，意为“舞台；阶段；时期”，其后接的定语从句常用 where 引导，相当 于 at which 或 in which。 point，situation，case(情形；案例)，occasion(场合)，position 等名词后接定语从句时，其 关系词常用 where。 ...we were put into a position in which we had either to accept we were less important，or fight the government. 我们被置于这样一个境地：要么我们被迫接受低人一等的现实，要么跟政府作斗争。 There is one point where I’d like your advice. 有时我也乐意听取你的建议。 Imagine that you are in a situation where no one believes in you. 设想你在一个没人信任你的环境中。
(1)We are in a position A.where A.for which C.with which B.which (2)You have come to the stage
we may lose a large sum of money. C.that B.at which D.about which D.when you can’t understand yourself well.
5. Black people couldn’t vote or choose their leaders.黑人们不能选举或选择自己的领导人。
They voted her their headmistress.
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他们选她做校长。 He was voted the most promising new director. 他当选为最有前途的新导演。 Congress voted to increase foreign aid by 10%. 国会表决通过增加 10%的对外援助。 The committee voted that the game should be put off. 委员会投票决定比赛应延期。 Vote for the man you can trust. 选你能信赖的人。 People voted against Henry. 人们投票反对亨利。 As we are not unanimous for this matter，let’s vote on it. 因为我们在这件事上无法一致同意，我们投票表决吧。 (1)vote 用作及物动词时，后可接单宾语、双宾语、动词不定式或宾语从句。 vote sb./sth.投票支持(人或政党) vote＋双宾语选出或推举某人担任某职 vote to do sth.投票去做某事 vote＋that 从句投票去做某事 (2)vote 用作不及物动词时，常与以下介词连用： vote for/against sth.投票赞成/反对…… vote on sth.就……投票表决 vote 还可作名词，意为“选举；投票；表决”。 The matter will be decided by vote. 此事将投票表决。 In that country，people get the vote at the age of 18. 在那个国家，人们年满 18 岁获得选举权。
(1)Many people voted for (投票支持)Obama in the election of America. (2)Now we will vote on (投票)this project. (3)We Chinese women have the vote (选举权). 6... .Only then did we decide to answer violence with violence.……只有到那时，我们才决定 用 暴力对付暴力。
Only after the accident did he have his car inspected. 直到那件意外事件后，他才叫人检查他的车子。 Only by working hard can we succeed in doing everything.
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只有努力工作，我们做每一件事才能成功。 Only yesterday did his father tell him the truth，which was a big surprise. 昨天他父亲才把真相告诉他，这对他真是一个令人吃惊的消息。 上列句式都用了部分倒装。当 only 修饰状语置于句首时，主句经常使用倒装结构。其结 构 为：Only＋状语＋助动词(情态动词或 be)＋主语＋动词原形。 only 修饰主语时不用倒装语序。 Only fifty of the original one hundred men came back. 在原来的一百人当中，只有五十人回来了。
(1)It was announced that only when the fire was under control homes. A.the residents would be permitted C.would the residents be permitted (2)Only when I left my parents for Italy A.I realized C.had I realized (3)—Only when Dr.Yang arrives —Yes，only A.is he；can he C.is he；he can (4)Only then A.she realized C.had she realized save his life. B.was him；he can D.is him；can he how much damage had been caused. B.she had realized D.did she realize
to return to their
B.had the residents been permitted D.the residents had been permitted how much I loved them. B.I had realized D.did I realize able to be operated on?
7. As a matter of fact，I do not like violence...but in 1963 I helped him blow up some government buildings.事实上，我不喜欢暴力……但 1963 年我却帮着他炸毁了一些政府 的 建筑物。
As a matter of fact，I don’t know the truth. 说真的，我不知道事实真相。 Can you lend me a pump to blow up my bicycle tyres? 你能借给我个打气筒给自行车打打气吗？
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The bomb blew up.炸弹爆炸了。 They blew up the old bridge and then built a new one across the river. 他们炸毁了那座旧桥，然后在河上建了座新桥。 as a matter of fact 意为“事实上，实际上”，同义短语是 in fact。blow up 意为“使充气； 爆炸”。blow away 吹走
(1)I would like a job which pays more，but moment. A.in other words C.for one thing (2)The organization is going to A.blow away C.blow up 曼德 拉。
I enjoy the work I’m doing at the B.on the other hand D.as a matter of fact
the plane. B.hide away D.put up
8 Elias went to see Nelson Mandela when he was in trouble.伊莱亚斯身处困境时就去找
I happened to be there when you were in trouble.当你有困难时我碰巧在那儿。 He is ready to help those in trouble.他乐意帮助身处困境的人。 in trouble 意为“有困难”，在句中作表语或定语。trouble 前无冠词。 make trouble 惹是生非 get into trouble 遇到麻烦 ask for trouble 自找麻烦 have trouble/difficulty (in) doing sth.做某事有困难 have trouble with sth.对……有麻烦 take (the) trouble to do sth.不辞辛苦地做某事
(1)He was A.in danger (2)Do you know the A.troubles 让黑
with the police. B.in trouble B.difficulties C.in control C.trouble D.in need D.difficult I have had finding your house?
9. Why did Nelson Mandela turn to violence to make black and white people equal？为 人与白人平等，曼德拉为什么会求助于暴力？
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Turn to him for help if (it is) necessary.如果有必要可求助于他。 She often turns to music for comfort when she is sad. 她悲伤时常听音乐寻求安慰。 There was no one in the street to whom I could turn for help at that time. 那时大街上没有我能求助的人。 turn to 意为“转向；求助于；致力于……”，其中 to 是介词，后接名词或动名词。
(1)She’s having a lot of trouble with the new computer，but she doesn’t know whom to for help. A.turn to C.deal with it used to be. A.turned into B.turned off C.turned in some day. C.turn up D.turn over D.turned out (3)—Do you know where my blue coat is? —Don’t bother to look for it.I’m sure it will A.turn out B.turn on B.look for D.talk about much better than
(2)Through the economic reform，the economic situation of China
伊莱亚斯的故事 我的名字叫伊莱亚斯。我是南非的一个穷苦的黑人工人。第一次见到纳尔逊· 曼德拉的 时候，是我一生中非常艰难的时期。(当时)我才 12 岁，那是在 1952 年，曼德拉是我寻求帮 助的一位黑人律师。他为那些穷苦黑人提供法律指导。他十分慷慨地给予我时间，我为此非 常感激。 由于我所受的教育很少，所以我需要他的帮助。我六岁开始上学。我仅仅在那里读了两 年的学校有三公里远。我不得不辍学，因为我的家庭无法继续支付学费和交通费。我既不太 会读，也不怎么会写。几经周折，我才在一家金矿找到一份工作。然而在那个时候，你要想 住在约翰内斯堡就非得要有身份证不可。 糟糕的是我没有这个证件， 因为我不是在那里出生 的， 我很担心我是不是会失业。
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纳尔逊· 曼德拉给予我帮助的那一天是我一生中最高兴的日子。他告诉我要想在约翰内 斯堡立住脚，应当如何获取所需证件。我对自己的未来又充满了希望。我永远也忘不了他对 我的恩情。当他组织了非国大青年联盟时，我马上就参加了这个组织。他说：“过去 30 年来 所出现的大量法律剥夺我们的权利，阻挡我们的进步，一直到今天，我们还处在几乎什么权 利都没有的阶段。” 他说的是真话。当时黑人没有选举权，他们无权选择他们的领导人。他们不能做自己想 要做的工作。 他们所能住的城区都是由白人决定的。 他们被打发去住的城外地区是南非最贫 穷的地区。在那儿，没有人能够种庄稼。事实上，就像纳尔逊· 曼德拉所说的： “……我们被置于这样一个境地：要么我们被迫接受低人一等的现实，要么跟政府作斗 争。我们选择向法律进攻。首先我们用和平的方式来破坏法律，而当这种方式也得不到允许 时，……只有到这个时候，我们才决定用暴力反抗暴力。” 事实上，我并不喜欢暴力……但是在 1963 年的时候，我帮助他炸毁了一些政府大楼。 那是很危险的事情，因为如果我被抓住了，可能就会被关进监狱。但是，我乐于帮忙，因为 我知道，这是为了实现我们的黑人和白人平等的梦想。
1.What is the name of the town where we stayed last night? 2.Oct.1,1949 was the day when the Peple’s Republic of China was founded. 3.I don’t know the reason why she looks unhappy today. 4.The school in which he once studied is very famous. 5.We’ll go to hear the famous singer about whom we have often talked. 由以上 1～4 例句可以看出，若定语从句所修饰的先行词在定语从句中作地点、时间、原因 状语时，常用关系副词或“介词＋which”引导定语从句，并在定语从句中作状语；另外，当 关系代词在定语从句中作介词宾语时，从句常由“介词＋which/whom”引导，如例 5。
1.where 表示地点，只能跟在表地点或场合的名词后，在定语从句中只能作地点状语。注意： where 不在从句中作主语或宾语。 It’s one of the few countries where people drive on the left.
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Think of a place where we can go for dinner. 2.when 表示时间，只能跟在表时间的名词后，在定语从句中只能作时间状语。 Oct.1,1949 was the day when the People’s Republic of China was founded. Do you remember the day on which you joined our club? 3.why 表示原因，通常跟在 reason 后引导定语从句，在定语从句中只能作原因状语。 I don’t know the reason why she looks unhappy today. This is the reason why(＝ for which) he cried. 4.介词＋which/whom 结构 (1)当关系代词在定语从句中作介词宾语时，从句常由“介词＋which/whom”引导；关系副 词有时也可以被此结构代替。 Tomorrow I will bring here the magazine (that/which) you asked for. ＝Tomorrow I will bring here the magazine for which you asked. (2)关系词 whose 常用“the＋名词＋of which”或“of which＋the＋名词”结构来代替。 The classroom whose door is broken will soon be repaired. The classroom the door of which is broken will soon be repaired. The classroom of which the door is broken will soon be repaired. (3)“介词＋which/whom”前可有 some，any，none，both，all，neither，most，each，few 等代词或者数词，表示部分与整体的关系。 He loved his parents deeply，both of whom are very kind to him. In the basket there are quite many apples，some of which have gone bad. There are forty students in our class in all，most of whom are from big cities. 【注意】1.含有介词的动词短语一般不拆开使用，如：look for，look after，take care of 等。 This is the watch which/that I am looking for.(√) This is the watch for which I am looking.(× ) 2.若介词放在关系代词前，关系代词指人时用 whom，不可用 who 或者 that；指物时用 which，不能用 that。 The man with whom you talked is my friend.(√) The man with that you talked is my friend.(× ) 【支招】 如何判断关系代词与关系副词 用关系代词还是关系副词完全取决于关系词在从句中所作的句子成分， 若关系词在从句中 作状语，就必须要求用关系副词或者是介词加关系代词；若作宾语、主语或表语，则要求 用关系代词。 (1)I’ll never forget the days (2)I’ll never forget the days I worked together with you. I spent in the countryside.
在句(1)中，要填的关系词在定语从句中作时间状语，所以填 when；在句(2)中，要填的关 系词在定语从句中作 spent 的宾语，所以应填 that 或 which。 Ⅰ .用 where，which，when，why，whose 填空
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1.Dorothy always spoke highly of her role in the play _______ made the others unhappy. 2.I shall never forget the days _______ I lived in the country with my parents. 3.The factory _______ his brother works lies in the south of the city. 4.They took care of the old man _______ son lost his life in the fire. 5.The reason _______ he refused the invitation is not clear. 6.We visited a factory _______ makes toys for children. 7.We visited a factory _______toys are made for children. 8.Summer is the season _______ I like to travel. Ⅱ .将下列句子合并成带有定语从句的复合句 1.What’s the name of the girl?Her grandapa took part in the Long March.→ 2.The bus was the wrong one.Xiao Li was running after it.→ 3.The wallet has been found.Mr. Hopkins was looking for it.→ 4.The factory has been sold.He worked there ten years ago.→ 5.The day was enjoyable.We played on the beach on that day.→ 6.Why is he so upset?The reason is unknown.→
Ⅰ .速读课文，回答下列问题 (1)What did Elias do when he was in prison?
(2) Finally，what did Elias take as his job？Did he enjoy it? Ⅱ .精读课文，完成下列问题 1.Elias was unhappy in the prison because A.he was kept with the criminals B.the prison guards studied with him C.he had to study D.he could not study for a degree 2.Nelson Mandela showed how good a leader he was because A.he fought the guards in prison B.he refused to let the guards study in his school C.he let the guards study in his school but not take the exams . .
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D.he let the guards study even though th e prisoners could not take the exams 3.Life for Elias was not too bad in prison because A.he had to study B.he could study with the guards C.he wanted to study D.he could study and get a degree 4.As the leader of South Africa， Nelson Mandela helped prisoners of Robben Island by A.giving them an education B.giving them money C.putting the guards in prison D.giving them a job . .
1. It was a prison from which no one escaped.这是一个谁也不能逃掉的监狱。
She managed to escape from the burning car. 她终于从燃烧的汽车里逃了出来。 Her name escaped me. 我记不起她的名字了。 Luckily she escaped being killed in the accident. 幸运的是她在事故中躲过一劫。 escape，动词，意为“躲避，逃避”；escape from 意为“从……中逃跑”。escape doing sth./ sth.避免做某事。 escape 也可用作名词。 make one’s escape 逃跑 have a narrow/near escape 九死一生 a fire escape 消防通道
Though he broke the rules，he escaped A.to punish B.punishing C.punish
. D.being punished
2. I did not work again for twenty years until Mr.Mandela and the ANC came to power in 1994.在曼德拉与非国大于 1994 年上台前，我有 20 年没工作。
When did the party come to power? 这个政党是何时上台的？ The party has been in power for four years.这个政党已执政 4 年了。
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Don’t promise anything out of your power. 不要允诺任何力所不及的事。 come to power 意为上台，执政，表动作，其同义短语是 get into power，表状态时用 be in power。out of one’s power 意为力所不及，其反义短语是 in/within one’s power。
(1)How long C.has；been in power A.out
？ B.has；get into power D.has；been in his power his power. D.of C.in
A.has；come to power
(2)It is wise of you to let your child do something B.out of
3. I felt bad the first ti me I talked to a group.第一次对旅行团讲解时，我很不高兴。
The first time I climbed onto the roof I felt nervous. 我第一次爬到房顶上时，感到紧张不安。 I recognized her the moment I saw her. 我一见到她就认出她来了。 本句中的名词短语 the first time 引导的是时间状语从句。 类似的短语还有 every time 每次， the moment/minute 一……就……，last time 最后一次等。
(1)—When did he leave the classroom? —He left A.the minute C.until (2)I thought her nice and honest A.first time C.the first time —Yes.I gave it to her A.while C.suddenly you turned back to write on the blackboard. B.the time D.before I met her. B.for the first time D.by the first time I saw her. B.the moment D.once
(3)—Did you remember to give Mary the money you owed her?
4. They said that the job and the pay from the new South African government were my reward after...他们说从南非政府得到的这份工作和薪水是给我的报酬……
By rights，half the reward should be mine.按理说，有一半奖赏应该是我的。 He will sooner or later be rewarded with punishment for his bad conduct.
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他的恶行迟早会得到报应。 It is unfair that he gets very little in reward for his hard work. 他工作很辛苦，报酬却很少，这不公平。 reward，名词或动词，意为“酬劳，报酬”；reward sb.with sth.for sth.意为“为……以…… 报答某人”；in reward for...作为对……的回报。
He always believes that the company will A.offer；for C.offer；of 5. sentenced to fives years...被判处五年徒刑……
him B.reward；of D.reward；for
He was sentenced to 3 years. 他被判处 3 年徒刑。 The man was sentenced to death. 这人被判处死刑。 sentence，词性动词，意为“判刑”；“判某人……刑”用 sentence sb.to...，其中 to 是介 词，后接名词。
It is reported that the murderer was sentenced A.to die B.for death
. C.for dying D.to death
伊莱亚斯的故事续篇 你无法想象罗本岛这个名字听起来多么令我们恐惧。那是一座任何人也逃不出去的监 狱。在那里我度过了我一生中最艰难的岁月。但是我到那里时，纳尔逊· 曼德拉也在那儿， 他又帮助了我。 曼德拉先生为我们那些几乎没有上过学的人开办学校。 他用午餐后的休息时 间以及晚上本来该睡觉的时间教我们学习。 我们躲在毯子下面读书， 我们用可以找到的任何 东西作蜡烛来看书。 我成了一名好学生， 想要为我的学位而学习， 但是别人不允许我这样做。 后来， 曼德拉先生让狱卒和我们一起学习。 他说他们不应该被剥夺通过学习获得学位的权利。 他们并不比我更聪明，却通过了考试。因此我就知道我也能够拿到学位。这让我觉得自己还 不错。 在监狱里呆完四年之后，我去找工作。因为我受过比较好的教育，我得到了一份坐办公 室的工作。可是警察局发现了，告诉了我的老板，说我因为炸政府大楼而坐过牢。于是我失 业了。在曼德拉和非国大于 1994 年掌权之前，我有 20 年没有工作。在此期间，我的妻儿只 得从亲戚朋友处讨饭吃，并乞求帮助。幸亏曼德拉先生还记得我，给了我一份工作，叫我带 着旅行团去参观罗本岛上我住过的那座旧监狱。 第一次给旅行团作讲解时， 我的心情很不好。
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我回忆起那时所有的恐怖和令人畏惧的情景。 我记起了狱卒的鞕打和暴行， 我想到了我那些 死去的朋友。我觉得我做不了这样的(导游的)工作，但是我的家人却鼓励我。他们说，从南 非新政府得到的这份工作和薪饷， 是我毕生为争取黑人的平等权利而斗争所得到的回报。 现 在，我能给参观者介绍有关监狱的情况，对此我感到非常骄傲，因为我曾经为黑人在自己的 国土上争取自由而出过力。
Ⅰ .重点单词 1.active adj.积极的；活跃的→actively adv. 2.selfish adj.自私的→self n.自我；自身→selfless adj.无私的；忘我的 3.devote vt.献身；专心于→devoted adj.忠实的；深爱的 4.peace n.和平→peaceful adj. 5.equal adj.相等的；平等的→equality n. 6.unfair adj.不公正的；不公平的→fair adj.(反义词) 7.educate vt.教育；训练→educated adj.受过教育的 8.beg vi.请求；乞求→beggar n.乞丐 9.reward n.报酬；奖金；vt.酬劳；奖赏→award n.奖；授予；vt.授予奖励；判给 10.quality n.质量；品质；性质 11.generous adj.慷慨的；大方的 12.stage n.舞台；阶段；时期 13.vote vt.& vi.投票；选举；n.投票；选票；表决 14.attack vt.进攻；攻击；抨击 15.escape vi.逃脱；逃走；泄露 16.blanket n.毛毯；毯子 17.relative n.亲戚；亲属 18.president n.总统；会长；校长；行长；主席 19.opinion n.意见；看法；主张 Ⅱ .重点短语 1.lose heart 丧失信心 2.come to power 当权；上台 3.be sentenced to...被判处……(徒刑) 4.in one’s opinion 在某人看来 5.as a matter of fact 事实上 6.blow up 充气；爆炸 7.in trouble 在困境中 8.set up 设立
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9.turn to 求助于；致力于 10.devote...to...献身；专心于 11.out of work 失业 Ⅲ .重点句型 1.He died for his ideas but his work is still used in the official Bible today. 2.Mandela was the black lawyer to whom I went for advice. 3.The last thirty years have seen the greatest number of laws stopping our rights and progress， until today we have reached a stage where we have almost no rights at all. 4....we were put into a position in which we had either to accept we were less important，or fight the government. 5....only then did we decide to answer violence with violence. 6.I felt bad the first time I talked to a group. Ⅳ .重点语法 若定语从句所修饰的先行词在定语从句中作地点、时间、原因状语时，常用关系副词或 “介词＋which”引导定语从句，并在定语从句中作状语；另外，当关系代词在定语从句中作 介词宾语时，从句常由介词＋which/whom 引导。
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