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【步步高】2015届高中英语外研版(通用)【配套WORD文档】:语法专题十 介词和介词短语


专题十
◆介词和介词短语的考查要点

介词和介词短语

介词是虚词,不能单独作句子成分,必须与名词、代词(或相当于名词的其他词类、短 语或从句等)构成介词短语,在句中充当一个成分。介词分为:简单介词,如 at,in,for 等; 合成介词, 如 within, inside, onto, throughout 等; 短语介词, 如

according to, out of, because of,by means of,in spite of,instead of 等; 双重介词, 如 from behind/above/under,until after 等;分词介词,如 considering,including,judging (from/by) 等。 1.介词搭配 (1)“动词+介词”搭配:注意特定搭配与同一介词与多个动词搭配意义不同的情况。 ①rob sb.of sth./clear the road of snow(表示“夺去、除去”意义的动词与 of 连用) ②supply us with food/fill the glass with wine(表示“供给”意义的动词与 with 连用) ③make a desk of wood/make bread from flour/make the material into a coat(表示“制作、制 造”意义的动词与 of,from,into 连用) ④介词+the+部位与动词的关系(=动词+sb.’s+部位,可换用) strike him on the head(表示“击;拍;碰;摸”意义的动词与 on 连用) catch him by the arm(表示“抓;拉;拿;扯”意义的动词与 by 连用) hit the boy in the face(表示“肚;胸;眼;脸”等人体前部的器官名词与 in 连用) ⑤prevent(stop,keep)sb.from doing sth.(表示“阻止,禁止”意义的动词与 from 连用) ⑥persuade(advise,warn)sb.into doing sth.(表示“说服;建议;警告”意义的动词与 into 连用) ⑦buy(leave,get,win,gain,lose) sth.for sb.(表示“得失”意义的动词与 for 连用) ⑧tell(show,teach,sing,write,read) sth.to sb.(表示“告知”意义的动词与 to 连用) ⑨give(allow,promise,pass,hand) sth.to sb.(表示“授予”意义的动词与 to 连用) 注意:⑦⑧⑨可换成 buy sb.sth.,tell sb.sth.,give sb.sth.双宾结构。 ⑩say to sb.(suggest,explain,apologize,murmur,whisper 等与“对象”连用必须用 to) 不可说 suggest sb.sth.。 (2)同一介词与不同动词搭配,意义各异。 reply to the letter 回信,sing(dance) to the music 和??唱(跳),amount to 达到,加起来 有??,devote to 把??贡献给,drink to 为??干杯,object to 反对,look forward to 渴望, come to 苏醒,belong to 属于,search for 搜??,ask for 请求,use...for 用作,leave for 前往, take...for 误以为,call for 要求,wait for 等待,care for 喜欢, make up for 弥补损失, turn to 求助/救于, help oneself to 随意, agree to 同意, compare...to 把……比作,send for 派人去请/拿……,sail for 驶向,起航,set out for 动身去,go in for 爱

好…… (3)常见“形容词+介词”搭配。 worthy of 值得的,glad about sth.for sb.为某人某事高兴,far from 离??远,grateful to sb.for sth.为某事感激某人, free from 没有??/免除……, proud of/take pride in 自豪, satisfied with/by 满意,sure of/about 确信,fond of 喜欢,fit for 适合,busy with sth./in doing sth.忙着 干某事,full of 充满,ready for 准备,similar to 相似,wrong with 不对;有毛病?? (4)“名词+介词”习惯搭配和意义区分。 the absence of water缺水 ? ? ?the hope of success成功的希望 ? ?have a chance of/for entering college上大学的机会 take pride in them为他们感到骄傲 ? ?the key to the question问题的答案 ?a medicine for cough治咳嗽的药 ? ?the ticket for tomorrow明天的票

?in Beijing他去了北京 his absence ? ?from Beijing他不在北京
? ?to study学习方法 the way ? ?of studying maths学习数学的方法 ?

题组训练 1 用适当的介词填空 1.Our opinions on language learning differ greatly from each other’s in that respect. 2.Our teacher often asks us to retell stories in our own words. 3.I’ve promised to keep it secret,so I can’t really tell you anything beyond what you know already. 4.With time passing by,they have grown into big boys and big girls. 5.What was the cause of the fire? 2.核心介词用法归纳与辨析 (1)表示时间的介词 in 的用法如下。 表示在某一较长时间内,如世纪、年、季、月、周等,一般用介词 in,如:in the 1990s, in the year,in January,in (the) winter/summer/fall/spring,in the first week of May。 还可以用时段名词组成固定短语或词组。如:in a while,in no time,in the daytime,in a short while,in time,in the morning(afternoon,evening)。 注意:①at night/at noon,in the day(在白天),in the night(在夜间)。 ②in five days(weeks,months,years)中 in 意思是“在??以后”。 (2)在具体的某一天或某天上午、晚上、前夕,常用 on。

on Sunday(s),on Tuesday morning on Christmas Day(但 at Christmas),on Christmas Eve,on Children’s Day on March 8,on the morning(afternoon,evening)of Oct.1 early on the morning of Oct.1(区别:in the late/early morning of Oct.1) on a rainy night,on warm winter days (3)表示某一时刻或某一点时间用 at,如小时、分钟等。 at breakfast(supper,lunch),at six at noon(sunrise,sunset,midday,night,midnight,dawn) at the age of 15,at the time of war(但 in time of danger/trouble) 注意:有些时间名词前不接介词。 next day,last Sunday,that morning,these years one, each, any, every, some, all 修饰时, 一般不用介词, 如 some day, one day, all afternoon。 (4)till,until 的用法。 till(until)与持续动词连用一般用于肯定句中,与短暂动词连用一般用在否定句中。 He waited for me till twelve o’clock. He didn’t get up till(until) 10 a.m.(不可用 to). 注意:在句首出现或强调句型中一般不用 till 而用 until。 Not until 9 a.m.did Mr.Smith come back to school. (5)in,later,after ①in+一段时间: 表示说话时为起点一段时间之后, 与一般将来时连用; 但表示“在?? 之内”时,用于各种时态。 ②一段时间+later(later 是副词):表示某一具体时间或某一方面具体时间算起的一段时 间后。 ③after+一段时间:表示“在??之后”,用于一般过去时;但时间为点时间时,只能 用 after,即 after+点时间,用于各种时态。 The doctor will be with us in six minutes. She graduated in 1981,and eight years later she became the manager of the factory. He received her letter after four weeks. 另外,in+一段时间+’s+time 与 within+一段时间的用法如下: in a week’s time=in a week They will arrive in three days’ time.(与将来时连用) My brother’s birthday is in two weeks’ time.(作表语) I’ll finish the book within two weeks.(within=in less than...用于各种时态,意为“不超 出,在??之内”)

(6)地点介词 at,on,in,to,off,across,through,over,above,under,below。 ①at 在较小的场所, in 在较大的场所, on 在??的平面上。 如 at the door, at the airport, at the station,at 55 Park Street,in China,in the north,in Asia,on the desk,on the wall 等。 ②on,at,in,off 还可以表示两地的相对位置。若 A 地属于 B 地,用 in;A 地位于 B 地的外面且有边缘衔接,用 on;无边缘的衔接,用 to;A 在 B 附近,用 off。 Japan lies to the east of China.(范围之外) Taiwan lies in the southeast of China.(范围之内) Hunan Province lies on the west of Hubei Province.(毗邻) The island lies off the coast of China.(相隔一定距离) ③across 在物体表面“穿过”;through 则表示在三维空间内部“穿过”。 They walked across the playground. I walked through the forest. ④over,above 译作“在??之上”;under,below 译作“在??的下面”,其区别在 于 over,under 表示一种直接的、垂直的上下关系;而 above,below 则表示一般的“高于” 或“低于”,不一定是垂直“在上”或“在下”。 A little boat is now under the bridge. There is a bridge over the river. The sun sinks below the horizon(地平线). The window is well above the tree. (7)表示方式、手段、工具的介词 ①by the year/hour/day 按年/小时/天。如:He rent a house by the year(day,hour).(按 by+the+单位名称,但 to the pound 按磅算,to the ton 按吨计)。 ②表泛指的方式、手段 by post/mail 邮寄, by telephone(radio)( 但 on the phone/on the radio/on TV), by electricity 用电,by machinery 用电器,by hard work,learn sth.by heart,through the satellite, through practice,through his own efforts,through experience,through the telescope 交通工具类 by bus/train/car/taxi by bike/bicycle,on horseback/foot by plane/jet/spaceship/air by ship/boat/lifeboat/sea/water 另外: by means of 用??方法, by way of 经由,取道于;用??方法, with the help(permission) of sb./with sb.’s help(permission)。 ③表方式、手段的其他用法

He beat the dog with a stick.(with+工具/机器) One smells with his nose.(with+人体器官,但 by hand 手工,用手) He stood up with pride.(with+情绪、情感、态度的名词) 注意:使用语言、材料、 文字等用 in。 如:in English(ink, pencil)。 另外如:in high(good, low)spirits,in anger,in joy,in comfort,in sorrow,in safety,in danger,in need,in debt, in love,in fun,in pain,in tears,in surprise,in good(poor) health,in good order,in flower, in a way,in a low voice,in silence,in(with) satisfaction,in a hurry,in(with) words,live/feed on food,kneel on one’s knee,take(catch) sb.by surprise(出其不意) (8)表示“除??之外”的常用词。 ①besides 除??以外(还有)。作副词时意思是“而且,更何况”。 Well all went to the cinema besides Shaw. It was too late to see a film,and besides,I was tired. ②except 除去,除??之外(不再有)。 We all went except John. 在否定句中,两词可以换用。 He has no other hats except/besides this one. ③except for 除了??(对句子主题进行细节校正或附加说明),后接名词、代词或 what 从句,此时与“except that+句子”意思相同。 He was very clever except for carelessness. ④except that...除了??一点以外。 He has not changed except that he is wearing dark glasses. ⑤but 与 except but 和 except 在表示“除了??以外”时可以通用,但应注意以下三点: (A)前面有不定代词、疑问代词在意义上对称时,多用 but。 All but one are here. Nobody but I likes making model ships. (B)后接不定式短语为排除对象时,多用 but。 He has nothing to do but wait.(前有 do,后省 to) (C)but 与一些固定结构连用。 have no choice but to do sth.只得做某事, can not but do sth.不得不, can not help but do sth. 不得不??,but for...若不是?? (9)between 与 among between 通常指两者之间,也可以用于三者或三者以上的每两者之间的相互关系。 Ann is between Tom and Bill.

Switzerland lies between France,Germany,Australia and Italy. They soon finished the work between themselves.(共同,合作) She was busy between cooking,washing,sewing and looking after the baby.(表示接连不断 地,一个接一个地忙这忙那) A horse can be seen between trees now. among 表示三者以上之间。 The story is said to have happened in a village among the hills. He was happy to be among friends again. We must agree among ourselves.(一起,共同) London is among the largest cities.(=one of 与最高级连用) (10)表原因的介词 for,because of,due to。 He didn’t come to the meeting because of his illness. The reason for his coming late is that he was ill. He was praised for his bravery and courage. The accident is due to your careless driving. (11)不定式复合结构中的 for,of。 这里所说的不定式复合结构形式指的是 for 或 of 加上人或事,作动词不定式逻辑主语 的结构。 It is clever of you to answer it like that. It is quite hard for me to explain why. 注意:两句中的 of 和 for 的使用,表语形容词能够说明不定式逻辑主语的性质、特征与 面貌时用 of,如果说明不定式行为本身的性质、状态等则用 for。 (12)兼作连词和副词的介词。 ①after,since,till/until,before 这些词既是介词,又是连词。 The children went home at once after school.(介词) They went to bed after they had finished the job.(连词) ②in,on,along,down,up,after,before,beyond 等介词可兼作副词。 He ran down the hill.(介词) Can you lift that box down from the shelf for me?(副词) ③有的介词可以兼作连词和副词。 All the students got to school before me.(介词) We do want to buy something now before prices go up.(连词) Haven’t I seen you before?(副词) (13)介词的省略。

某些动词短语之后的介词可以省略。 Nothing can prevent me (from) doing the job. She spent nearly two hours (in) translating it. (14)某些名词与介词构成的固定搭配。 ①要求接 to 的名词有:key,answer,visit,entrance,apology,introduction,road 等。 The key to success is preparation. ②要求接 in 的名词有:interest,satisfaction,expert 等。 He is an expert in teaching small children. 题组训练 2 选词填空 on the contrary,for the benefit of,in time,out of place,in favour of 1.China has been pushing the reform of public hospitals for the benefit of all its citizens. 2.The furniture,with its modern style and bright colors,suits modern houses and their gardens, but looks out of place in the garden of a traditional home. 3.—Thank God you’re safe! —I stepped back,just in time to avoid the racing car. 4.Brown said he was by no means annoyed;on the contrary he was glad to be able to make himself clearly understood. 5.When asked about their opinions about the schoolmaster,many teachers would prefer to see him step aside in favour of younger men. ◆语法与写作 根据提示翻译下面的句子 1.结果,孩子们对父母变得如此依赖以致于他们没有独立的思想和创造性的观点。 (as a consequence) (2013· 福建· 书面表达)

As a consequence,children become so reliant on their parents that they have no independent thought or creative ideas. 2.相反,志愿者们迫不及待地想体验在那里的生活,因为他们已经厌倦了地球上的生活。 (on the contrary) (2013· 广东· 基础写作)

On the contrary,volunteers couldn’t wait to experience the life there,for they are tired of the life on the earth. 3.除了这些传统的活动外,我们有更宽范围的选择,例如旅游和走亲访友。(in addition to) (2013· 辽宁· 书面表达) In addition to these traditional activities,we have a wider range of choices such as travelling and visiting our relatives or friends.

4.以我的观点,人们需要学会接受现实并且要继续尝试。(in my opinion) (2013· 北京· 开放作文) In my opinion,people need to learn to accept the reality and keep on trying. 5. 总之, 能够在短时间内赢得他们的友谊是我一生当中最自豪的事。 (in a word)(2013· 浙 江· 书面表达) In a word,being able to win their friendship in a very short time is the thing that I am proud of most in my life. ◆语法填空 A I’m taking my family abroad this year.My wife,our two children and I are all going.My 1.older(old) brother has never been overseas and he has decided to go with us. We are going to go by train to New York, 2.and then take a ship to Europe.When we arrive in Europe, we’re going to rent a car and drive 3.wherever we want to go.Then we’ll return the car. 4.It took us a long time to decide where to go,but I think we have planned a very 5.interesting(interest) trip.At first we wanted to fly because it would be 6.faster(fast) and would give us more time for sightseeing,but my brother was very 7.anxious(anxiety) to take a boat trip.The children will enjoy that,too. We don’t know how many suitcases to take.We can take as many suitcases as we wish on the train and the ship.8.But when we travel by car and come home by plane,we will have a problem.We can only have fortyfour pounds for each person on the plane,and that isn’t very much.My wife will decide 9.what we should take with us,and she can pack things well.I do hope we can have 10.a good holiday. B Mrs. Wilson invited some friends to lunch.She was eager to try a new way of 1.cooking(cook) a fish dish,and she was very pleased 2.with herself when the dish was ready.She put it near the window to cool it for a few minutes 3.because the dish was hot.When she came back for it,she was 4.surprised(surprise) to find the neighbor’s cat by the dish.5.Fortunately(fortunate),she came in time to stop the cat.That afternoon was 6.a great success and they talked and laughed till four o’clock.7.At the end of the afternoon,when she was alone again,she felt tired but happy.She was sitting near the window 8.when she was frightened to see her neighbor carrying the cat,9.dead(die).What had happened to her friends?She at once called the family doctor.He told her to phone each of her visitors to meet him.Just as she sat down, the telephone rang.10.It was her neighbor,“My cat was killed by a car.”


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